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But omitting the farther discussing and opening of these schools or colleges (whereby I might farther evince by demonstrative arguments the necessity of learning and learned men < as so many pillars, to sustain the vast fabrick of a church, kingdom, or state, from crumbling into dust, and mouldering into ruin)I shall only subjoin what now follows, by way of a concluding parenesis, or exhortation to men of vulgar conceits, and misled fancies.

Let them run back in their thoughts, and look upon the story of our church in former ages. Who were they that gave the Pope, and his factors, their deadly wounds, stabbing them at the heart with the sharp weapons of their acute arguments? Who did this glorious work, but first a Jewel*, a bishop? Who was the first, that, in a sermon at Paul's Cross, made a publick challenge to all the papists in the world, to produce but oneclear and evident testimony out of scripture, or any father, or other famous writer, within six-hundred years after Chiist, for any one of the many articles which the Romanists, at this day, maintain against us; and upon good proof, of any one such good allegation, he promised to yield them the bucklers, and reconcile himself to Rome. And although Hardingf, and some others, undertook him and entered into the lists with him, about the twenty-seven controverted articles, yet they came off poorly, and Jewel on the contrary, with triumphant victory, having so amazed and confounded them with a cloud of witnesses in every point, that, as Bishop Godwin J reports of him, ' Dici non potest quantum haec res pontificiorum apud nos vires fregerit, existimationem minuerit, ac prssertim postquam Hardingi frigida responsione errorum ab i 1 lis recensitorum novitas potuerit.'i. e. It cannot be said how this thing broke the hearts, and weakened the force of the Pontificians || with the loss of their esteem and credit in these parts, especially, when, after the frigid or cold answer of Harding, the novelty of their opinions was plainly discovered.

This glorious champion of truth for his rare and admirable parts and gifts, both natural and supernatural, did every way correspond to his gracious and precious name; he was a rich Jewel consisting of many gems, shining as well in his life, as his incomparable writings. Lord, adorn and inrich thy church continually with such Jewels, deck her cheeks with rows of such rubies, her neck with such glorious chains, &c. He was born in Devonshire, bred up at Oxford §, and, if it lay at at my mercy, to save or destroy it**, I should spare it, because it bred such a pillar of truth, and the scourge of Rome, as the conqueror spared Syracusa, because he found in it an Archimedes.

With him we may parallel our famousWhitgift, who was contemporary with him; for the former died anno 1571;.this latter was installed bishop of Worcester, anno 1577, and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 15S3. He was born in Lincolnshire, bred here at Cambridge, first in Pembroke Hall, afterwards fellow of Pttcr-house, and not long after,he being of rare and eminent parts,was made president ofPembroke Hall, next master of Trinity College, in which time he was first the Margaret, then the King's professor of divinity. This matchless pattern of prudence and patience did stand as stoutly, as the former, in the defence of the truth, against our home-bred innovators, who (as our learned Cambden says in his annals) trampled on all government, and making fancy, the mistress of their judgment, pride and a zealous ignorance being their guides, they inveighed against the queen's 'authority, and herein spake the language of Ashdod; acted highly for the Jesuits, denied uniformity in divine worship, although established by the authority of Parliament, severed the administration of the sacraments from the preaching of the wordf. Novos rkus pro arbitrio in privatis wdibus iisurpab'unt, &c.J. They neglected and despised the sacraments (forgetting that God will not save us without the use of means.) They refused to go to church, thus making a dangerous schism, and rending the seamless coat of Christ, Pontijiciis plaiidentibus, multosqiie in suas parte trahentibus, quasi nulla essct in ccdetid Anghcana vriitas; i.e. Hereby they made oiur adversaries to rejoice and triumph over us, and were the cause of many weak ones turning Papists, upon this ground, that there was no unity in our church. (I fear our separatists || have now caused the like, if not worse, mischief, in the revolt of many thousands from us.) Those chains, men of hot and fiery spirits, who inveighed against their fathers, and uncovered their mother's nakedness; those scindentes (as § Irenaeus well calls them) to which he joins elali et superbi; those proud, high-minded, daring schismaticks, that reverend, learned, and most patient Whitgift quelled, and suppressed in a short time by his discreet meekness, and gentle exhortations to peace; first stopping, by arguments, the mouths of their Antesignani, their leaders (as Cartwright and others;) this he did by disputes and mild persuasions to peace, and at last having, by a patient courage, overcome many strong oppositions from the nobles and their adherents, abettors in that schism, by God's blessing he restored the church to unity and concord both in doctrine and discipline. Who, but a man of great learning and grace, could have done this, and been the instrument of settling in a distracted kingdom an universal peace.

• Bishop Jewel. Godwin in vita ejus, p. 409. t A Uoroisb priest, t Paje 410.

t Or Papists. $ First in Mertnn, afterwards in Corpus Christi college. , •• Alluding

'fo the danger in which Oxford was then, for refusing to submit to the Kimiy visitors.

Let me add to these one, though of a lower rank in the church, yet not muph inferior in gifts of nature, and grace, the renowned Whitaker, first scholar, and after fellow of Trinity College, famous for his admirable skill in the arts and tongues; as for his excellency in the knowleg* of divinity, his famous works now extant, his confutation of Campian, Sanders, Dura:us, Raynolds, Stapleton, nay of Bellarmine himself, with whom, then living, this our champion encountered. He confounded the former, provingthe Pope to be Antichrist, and maintaining the authority of the scriptures above the church; and at last singling out the ""Cardinal himself, the Goliah of Rome, he stunned him so, with the strength of prevailing truth and reason, in his controversies concerning the church, scriptures, and councils, &c. that the cardinal (it seems, first convinced by his argumentations) having him in high estimation, procured his picture, and hung it in his study among the portraitures of other noted men, and was heard to say, 'That, though he was an he* Elisabeth. i SacramentOrum adminlstrfclionem fcverbf divini prftdicatione sejungebaat. retick, yet he was a learned one.' Never any saying had more of falsity and truth in it. When he confessed him to be learned, it was all one, as if he had acknowledged that he was by him confuted. What firmer testimony than that, which falls from the lips of a professed enemy?

Cambd. i They usr-d new lights in private houses, &c. n The confused number of

sectaries, which sprang up in the time of the civil wars. ) Aug. t. de civit. Dei, 1(5. c.C, comparatCbamo haeretico*, 1. 4. c. 43. •' Bellarmiue.

To these forenamed worthies, I might add the late right reverend Davenant, Bishop of Salisbury; the now living and most knowing prelates Armagh * and Morton, true nursing fathers of the church, fed with their doctrine, and defended by their pens, which they have with great success dipped in the ink of confutation, against Jesuits and hereticks. The Lord hath done great things by these Benaiahsf, and wrought great victories by means of their painful works against our adversaries.

Could these famous, useful, and church-preserving acts, with many hundred more which have been effected by men of parts, could these mighty things have been done without learning? could this have been attained without the help and furtherance of publick schools and universities? I suppose no man is so wanting to truth and modesty as to say it. This made Alphonsus, King of Arragon, bear an open book in his escutcheon,! to testify thereby to the world his high esteem of learning, as being the prop of religion, and the pillar of a state and kingdom. And therefore Charles the Great, wheresoever he erected a church, there he ever annexed a school of learning to it. Oh then let not the undermining and crafty Jesuits (who now swarm amongst us) blow any longer this poison into your ears; believe not the voice of these || hyaena's, who may speak like men, nay, like angels, but within are ravening wolves and savage beasts. Their common trade and work now is to cry down learning, and the fountains of it, the universities. They know that their cause cannot thrive so long as learning does flourish. These § Solit'uga? hate that confounding light. These frogs love to croak in the black night of ignorance, they ever dig their mines in darkness. The traitor Vaux,** and his dark lanthorn, was the true emblem of a Jesuit, who has some light within which makes him sin against his ^conscience; yet that light wrapped up and obscured by malice, which forces him to act in defence of the catholick cause, and contrive any bloody wickedness.

And now is his harvest, who loves to fish in troubled waters; hehath put forth the sickle of his undermining policy to cut down the clergy and the universities, witness the late petitions against tithes, and that other from some mistaken ones in the county of Bedford, who little dream that they are now plowing with the Jesuits ff heifer, who have closely contrived those petitions, and incensed the countrymen against churchmen and scholars. For shame, work not any longer in this bloody field; be not days-men to these men of darkness); what they have covertly contrived, do not thou attempt openly and in publick. Believe it, if the pipes be cut from the two fountains, if the revenues and means which flow from the springs of benefactors for learning's main"Archbishop Usher. t 2 Sam. xxviii. 12. 20. t Middledorp. 1. de Academ. 1. p. tenance, if they be taken away (which God I hope will prevent by his merciful and over-ruling providence) then (1 trust this then will never be) then we shall see (1 hope we shall never see it) these * wild boars coming out of Rome's wood and wilderness; these foxes+, deceitful workers, ministers of Satan J, wolves in sheeps cloathing (|; they will, when they meet with no opposition, when the walls and watchmen are gone, break with violence into the vineyard, destroy its pleasant branches, devour its grapes, and (like those wolves in the fable, when the dogs at their persuasion were sent away) they will prey upon the poor sheep, tear their fleece from their backs, devour their flesh. In a word, when they want their guard and watch, i. e. orthodox pastors and sound doctors or teachers, the one to instruct the churches, the other to train up students in the schools: Then will the people be left as a prey to hereticks, whose doctrine will eat like a gangrene,^ i. e, speedily, incurably, mortally. They will infect their souls with poisonous opinions,and (as they have begun) with damnable heresies** (to speak in St. Peter's language) which St. Paul reckons amongst the fruits of the flesh ft, and exclude men from the heavenly inheritance. Of this opinion was Ignatius, a scholar of the apostles, who {+ assures us, that both seducing and seduced hereticks shall perish for ever, and that with as good reason as thieves among men are put to death. Hereticks rob men's souls of God and the truth, they shut men out of heaven, and drive them into hell, To prevent all these fatal mischiefs, drain not (but rather increase with augmentations) the fountains of learning and religion; if these be once dried up, a drowth of truth will follow, and a deluge of miseries, when barbarism and atheism, with other horrid impieties, shall abound in this land, and overthrow the church ; |||| whase welfare is contained (together with the common-wealth's) in the preservation of learning, arts, and sciences, which I could prove more at large, did I not fear to load the press, and tire the reader's patience. I shall conclude this first query with an open confession, that, in these tumultuous, disordered times, some dirt has gotten into our fountaius§§, and mingled itself with our pure streams; but what was ever in all ages, we hope, will not with aggravations be charged upon us, as the only fault of ours. And I trust that those Bedfordians (who clamour against the universities) will be laid asleep, and silenced by higher powers; neither doubt we, but that those, who have made such loud cries and protestations for truth, will not now at length (after spilling so much blood in the defence of the gospel, as was pretended) give themselves the stab of a lye, by doing that which will overthrow and lay truth in the dust, and setting up falshood with a painted face, coloured with shews of piety, and pretences of godliness. Quod aver7-uncetDeus. As for my part, I shall ever beg of God (and it is a piece of my daily devotions) that he would open the eyes, and mollify the hearts of the seduced, and obdurate seducers in this age, that, being reduced to the saving knowledge of the truth, they may have good wills joined with their great power to preserve the keriotsepher, the universi• Psal. viii. 14. + Cant. ii. 15. t t Cor. x. 13. IS. II Mat. vii. IS.

104.' II De his vid. Franzii. histor. S. p.l. c. 20. 8 De his vid.Solinum. "*Guy

Faux, who was found with a dark lanthorn ready in the cellar under the parliament-house, tp set fire to the gun-powder, intended to blow up the King, Lords, arid Commons, &:c

tr Judg. xiv. 18.

VOL. VI, U

i S Tim. ii. 17. •• g pet. ti. ,. tt Gal. v. 40. « Ignat. Ep. ad EpnM.

pi OLKoyBSf01 BwiMiat 8e5 a xXupovo^uno-tfa-i, &c. (Ill Vid. Middendorp, de academiis, I.

i• c.4.& 8. 5} Universities.

ties, and other schools, that from thence may come knowing men of • sound opinions, and incorrupt lives, whereby they may outshine hereticks, and be able to refute and stop the mouths of heresies. Men well learned, of good lives, and lawfully ordained ministers, have a special call to so great a work, they have a blessing promised t on their labours; and may such be ever blessed who are lovers of peace, and truth's defenders.

, The Second Query.

, Who is an heretick, and what is an heresy?

Amongst many convincing arguments to prove the greatness of the evil and danger of hereticks, some have been drawn from the great pains, and cost, which the primitive church employed, and spent to extinguish the flame or fire of heresies, wheresoever and whensoever it was unhappily kindled. This is attested by the learned Chamierus in an epistle to ArmandusJ. Thus from the great care and sollicitude of the physician, from the price and cost of the physick, or remedies, we may judge of the grievousness and danger of the disease.

Again, another argument, to prove the greatness of this evil, may be reduced from the raging anger, and impatient wrath, which ever appeared, and broke forth in these ancient Christians, who were patterns of humility, and rare examples of meekness; yet, being falsly accused of heresies, and branded with the name of heretick, could not with any patience hear and endure it. We read in the || lives of the fathers, of one Agatho, whose name speaks him, as he was, a good man, and most devout, that, having held his peace, in imitation of his meek Saviour, at the proposal of many crimes falsly objected and maliciously laid to his charge, yet at the name of heresy, (being called heretick) he was very much moved, and most wrathfully displeased.

This made Ruffinus (as he is cited by § Bishop Jewel) say, Nov est Christianus, qui notam Hcereseos dissimulat, i. e. He is no Christian, that can endure to be called heretick. To this purpose is that of St. Jerom,** Nolo in suspicione Hcereseos quemquam esse patientem. It becomes every one with the greatest care and industry to avoid the very suspicion of heresy.

Thus a mere imagination, and false apprehension of being reputed and named hereticks, exasperated of late the spirits of some well-meaning Christians, and moved them to break through all bounds of modesty, by a publick demand of me, before the congregation-ft, (in Swacy near Cambridge) to deliver my thoughts concerning heresy and hereticks. To whom (after a short preface to our ensuing conference) I thus replied with great affection to their souls, and (in obedience to the apostle's command JJ) with as much meekness as I could, lest that, in the flame

* o fii®. (rvf*>poim To~; tcyftttri K, Tj HypcRa. Bite, Chrys. + Mat. xxviii. 20. I am with you. % Scimus quantis olim sudbribus episcop iCathalici haereticos redurguerint, et quantis sumptibus orthodoxi imperalorc> eos represserint. Epist. 3. ad ArmanO. Jesuit.

II Part 2. do patient, et humilit. { Part l. c. 6. Defens. Anglic. Eccl. •• Ep. 6 ad

Pammach. a Octob. 3d. 1652. tt Oal. vi. J. Y« whiih are spiritual, restore, &c

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