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little noise, and crabs stirring in the woods, possessed them with such eminent fear, that, leaving their weapons behind, they ran over clifts into the sea. But at length this bold army was grown so politick, that they would no more adventure into the woods amongst these cow-killers (whose sable deformities had often struck as great a terror in their hearts, as Pluto and all his infernal rout could do, had they been there present to have tortured them) exercising their valour only on horses, asses, necoes, and such like, making a slaughter of all they met, greedily devouring skin, intrails and all, to satiate their hungers; and thus were all their troop-horses belonging to the army by them eaten, the general's own hardly escaping. This behaviour and diet they continued for some days. •
What number of men had been lost in small parties, and by straggling (besides at the total rout) was not known, until, by a general muster, was found, that, of nine-thousand seven-hundred men first landed, there remained then only eight-thousand (the sea-regiment included.) Many of these were sick and wounded, and most of them faint-hearted, not fit for service. To have adventured a third time with such, in the face of the enemy, were an act of no less rashness than madness; for, had the commanders been ever so valiant, able, and worthy (except it had pleased God miraculously to perform the work by them alone, which could be as little expected as deserved,) these sheeplike soldiers (I mean in courage, not innocence) would questionless have left them in the lurch. Experience had already shewn it, and too true they should have found it; and again, to have shipped this wretched rabble, not well knowing whither to go, or how to dispose1 of them, would also have been the.destruction and loss of the whole fleet, having provisions but for a short time, for so great a multitude. Of these two evils, it pleased Providence, that the least was chosen, and a place was now thought on, absolutely fit indeed for such an army, where they might have food without fighting, and a land to inhabit without opposition, and that within some few days sail. This being resolved upon, care was taken to ship the men, the mortar-piece, two small drakes, and two iron guns (which wese placed in a small fortification by them, made at the mouth of the river, for the better securing of the watering-place). Before the performance of these things, I should have declared how adjutant-general Jackson (that great man of little courage) was cashiered for a coward, and the ceremony performed, of breaking his sword over his head, for example to others; but my opinion is, that, if all of like nature had been so dealt with, there would not have been many whole swords left in the army.
The third of May, all were shipped, except the bodies of sevenfeenhundred men, most of whose arms, seven field colours, with all their honours, if any they had, were left behind. It is also observable, that as, at their landing, they had no opposition, so neither, at their shipping off; the Spaniards, with their small numbers, rather shewed themselves defensive, than offensive, resting content with what they had already done, strongly fortifying for the future; whereas, if they had taken but this last opportunity (by the disabilty, weakness, and cowardice of the army) to have charged in with two or three hundred able resolute men, within few days before, or at their going off, certainly they had destroyed and spoiled the most part of them all; who were more willing and ready to run into the sea, and there perish, than to oppose or look upon their enemies.
All the benefit or good the army had found, in this place, was only, at the first,some few cattle, and a good quantity of sugar, part whereof they made use of, casting the rest into the river, to dulcify that (such was their ignorance and folly) but this sweet diet had sowre sauce.
The fleet also recruited with fresh water out of this fair and goodly river (whose golden sands had a bloody price) and, the soldiers being all on board, as aforesaid, they set sail that day before the wind, and before they had/performed the least part of their intent or desires.
Having now briefly, but truly, related their manner of proceedings and success on this unfortunate island, it will not be altogether impertinent to describe the situation of the town and forts adjacent, with the nature and quality of the country; which take as follows.
The town of Sancta Domingo (metropolis of Hispaniola, and residence of the Spanish viceroy) is situate on the south-side of the island, distant from the eastermost cape or Land's-end, twenty-eight leagues, having north latitude, 18 degrees, 22 minutes. It is well watered, and, in some sort,strengthened, by a great river, which passeth near the northeast part thereof. At the mouth of this river is a harbour, which, although of no great magnitude, yet is capable of entertaining ships of good burthen. The entrance to the harbour is through a bay of reasonable latitude, where there is good anchorage, and a road for ships; on the larboard side going in, is a fort strengthened with twelve, or more, good guns, which commandeth the harbour and south-west side of the town; the other parts whereof, on the land-side, have, for their defence, an old ruinated wall, encompassed thick with lime-trees, which is, now lately, well repaired, and strongly fortified. Within one mile's circumference of the town, is open ground, and plain fields, or Savinars, as they there call them, being made by industry and art, as are all their ways and passages through the woods and fields, for sugar-canes, with other open places for husbandry; the whole land being naturally overgrown and covered over with trees, amongst which, of lemon, orange, cocoa, cabbage, palmetto, cedar, mastick, and lignum-vitce trees, there are good plenty.
About two miles to the westward of the town, and near the bay-side, is placed another fort, the description whereof, as also the damage it did the army in their march towards the town, I have already declared.
Four miles farther to the west from thence, is that river and bay formerly spoken of, where the army incamped, and the fleet took in fresh water; which place the Spaniards had not then fortified; but, it is to be supposed, that, in the strengthening of that, and all places else of consequence, in the West-Indies, they have not since been negligent.
The commodities these rivers afford, besides the goodness of their waters, consist in the divers sorts of dainty fish therein abounding, as also pieces of gold minerals, washed from forth their banks at certain times, together with sand-gold, a small quantity whereof was found by some English soldiers. The discommodities these streams ingender are allegators, which, farther up in the country, are in too great plenty.
The whole land (except some hills of great ascc nt, is certainly very fruitful, which although it produce not such fruits and corn as England doth, and other more temperate climates (the scorching heat of the sun depriving it of that happiness) yet of sugar-canes, oranges, lemons, bonanoes, bonuist, plantanes, pine-apples, potatoe and cassadra roots (whereof they make their bread), with divers other roots and fruits, there is no scarcity.
It is also replenished with store of oxen and cows of good magnitude, as well wild as tame. Sheep there are some, not many, and abundance of hogs, and fair horses, which last aie there of little use and service in war, by reason of the exceeding thick woods. But, beyond all, the inestimable mines of rich gold and silver, hid within the bowels of that land, make amends for all olher defects. The north and west parts of the island are scarcely at all inhabited, except by some few cow-killers, rogues that have been thither banished formurther, or some other *illainy, who make it their labour to kill and destroy many cattle, and that only for their tallow and hides, which are sent in to the Spaniards. As for the towns and villages in, the habitable parts, they are neither fair nor many, the chiefest whereof I have already mentioned; which, doubtless, at the time of the English army's being there, was very rich; for, the neighbouring villages and plantations being alarmed by their landing, they had the leisure to convey themselves, with much treasure, plate, and jewels, thither, as to a place of their best strength and refuge.
And thus much of Hispaniola. The island of Jamaica must now be the subject of my following discourse, whither the fleet approached, The seventh of May was observed as another day of humiliation, for all such, whom hunger, thirst, and the sword of the enemy had notyet given a feeling sense of their presumptuous wickedness, and disobedience towards God. And, considering the great cowardice that had lately possessed them, it was also proclaimed to the whole army, that whosoever should be found to turn his back to the enemy, and run away, the next officer, that brought up the rear of that division, should immediately run him through, which, if he failed to perform, himself was to suffer death without mercy. Which strict order might have wrought better effect at Hispaniola, there being little probability of engaging with an enemy in this place.
The ninth of May, they drew nigh the island, and, having sailed about sixteeh leagues within the south-side thereof, the day following came to an anchor in a spacious harbour, called also Jamaica, where there was good ground, and deep water; and, manning all their small vessels and boats with soldiers, soon landed the army in a bay, that lay yet farther within the harbour, and that without the loss of one man; for the Spaniards, having only three or four small and slight breastworks, with some few guns, and seeing so numerous an army with readiness to land, made not many shot, but fled in haste to the town of Oristano, which was altogether unfortified, and distant from thence six English miles, from whence they conveyed away all things of value and
Vol, vi. ib
concernment, together with their families, and departed farther into the country; for such was their weakness, and disability for resistance, that their number (on that part of the island) exceeded not five-hundred men, besides some negroe slaves; but, what they could not act by force of arms, they did by policy; as too soon will appear.
The English army, being possessed of the breast works, and guns that commanded the landing-place; the forlorn-hope was drawn forth, and sent towards the town, who, that night, would not adventure to enter therein, until the morrow following; at which time they found it destitute of inhabitants, or any thing else necessary for their entertainment, or accommodation, except bare walls, bedsteads, chairs, and cow-hides. Soon after, the general, with the whole army, consisting of about seventhousand men, marched up thither; where there then came in divers Spaniards, which seemed to be of quality, to treat, bringing with them, as presents for the general, wine, poultry, divers sorts of fruits, and other rarities that the country yielded, promising also to send in beeves, sufficient for the maintenance of the army, with other large overtures, and high compliments.
This treaty being continued for certain days, the enemy had fre£ egress and regress as well into the town, and English quarters, as elsewhere, continuing their welcomed presents, bringing cattle for the use of the army, and behaving themselves with such civil and kind, although feigned, deportment, that they invited divers soldiers of the army to visit them in their quarters, where they had wine given them, and were much made of; by which means they gained knowledge, by some overcome with liquor, that they had been at Hispaniola, and how they were there dealt withal, as also the extremities and wants they were driven to in their marches, for want of water and other necessaries, in those hot countries, whereby they were much disabled. The Spaniards understanding this, and viewing the present weak condition of the army (by which they guessed at the future, if their wants were not supplied from time to time) were now animated to put in practice their uttermost endeavours for preservation of their goods and estates, and not to stand to any articles of agreement, to depart the island, with some few cloaths only to their backs, as was expected; notwithstanding, they fairly dissembled the matter, and, to avoid all suspicion, sent their governor, as they pretended, an old decrepid seignior, full of the French-disease, and brought in betwixt two in a hammock, to sign the articles of agreement, which he, with some others, accordingly did.
In the mean season, these subtle and sly Spaniards had conveyed far away in the woods all their riches and best goods, which, in some days after the army was possessed of the town, remained in the Spanish quarters near at hand, and might have been soon intercepted; they also gathered up all the ablest and best horses,during the treaty,as well in theEnglish quarters, as their own; and, the time limited for their departure from the island, according to the articles signed, being near expired, they drove away most of all the cattle near the town, and, following after their goods, wives, children, and servants, which were gone before at least three days journey, swept and cleared the country, as they went, of all vital provisions, leaving their old pocky governor as a hostage for their return.
And thus were they overcome by the subtlety and deceit of the Spaniards at Jamaica, as well as they had been lately vanquished by their lances at Hispaniola; and all the redress, that could be now thought on, was to send a party in pursuit of them. Colonel Bullard, with two-thousand men, was employed on the business, part of which number were shipped in small vessels and shallops, and so conveyed by water unto a bay, seventeen leagues to the eastward of that where the fleet lay, where the fleet lay, where they came in conjunction with the rest that had marched thither on foot. The politick intent of this grand design was to surprise the Spaniards and their luggage, betwixt both parties, as they were shipping off for the main, which was supposed would be at that place; but in that they deceived themselves, for the enemy had no such intent, but rather directed their passage through by-ways, thick woods, and over high hills and large mountains, of which there are plenty, having scouts and sentinels abroad, in each passable way and path, to discover the approach of any; it being almost an impossible thing for an army, except well acquainted with the country, to follow or find them out; and again, the excessive heat of the sun, the want of water in many places, with other defects and impediments, naturally incident to the place, and disagreeing to English constitutions, did more weaken and disable them in ten miles march there, than forty in their own country. But I shall now leave this puisuing party, to wander in the woods a while, and there kill cattle, if any they find, to preserve life, rather than hazard it at so great disadvantages against the Spaniards, and shew in what posture and condition those in the town were in, who, after the departure of the Spanish cators, were in so great want, that dogs and cats were the best part of their diet, with such sort of food as they had formerly tasted at Hispaniola, as horses, assnecoes, and such like; there being a strict order, that, on pain of death, none should presume to kill any cows or oxen; and, if at any time there went forth, by especial order, some small party that brought in beeves, they were distributed among the superior officers of the army, the inferior men having only inferior meat; the often use whereof made them somewhat participate of the nature of the beasts, sometimes living the life of dogs, and, at other times, bearing the burthen of asses; and what other encouragement or comfort could they have, than to ponder in their minds thus, Solatnen miteris socios habaisse doloris.
Jamaica harbour, May the twenty fourth, it was resolved, at a council of war, that the general of the navy, and rear-admiral, in the ships Swift-sure and Paragon, with most ot the Flemish ships, should return for England, orders being given for their speedy fitting, and recruit with fresh water and other necessaries.
May the twenty-fifth, there happened an ill accident in the fleet. The ship called the Discovery, of the States, a vessel of good force and burthen, was unhappily fired by filling brandy-wine in the steward-room; the flame of the candle, taking hold of that combustible liquor, so vehemently increased the fury of the fire, that there was no prevention. Wherefore, to avoid further danger, most of the ships boats, that could be had in readiness, towed her off on a bank of sand, some distance from the fleet, where, after she had consumed about four hours, her ma