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hope which we have, that all his goodness shall be fulfilled both in them, and us, when the Messiah shall return in his glory. The apostle saith, that 'charity edifieth'; and it is a truth approved by daily experience, that, without charity, no ground can belaid of mutual commerce, or increase of good things, mutually communicable. Therefore I would ,suggest humbly this, that, to open a door in their hard hearts, for doing good unto them, the charity of the state, in the act of their admission, should be ratified towards them, and they made fully sensible, that it is not for any profit, which they can bring to the state, that they are admitted; but fora desire in us, for doing them good, for the good, which, through their misery, is befallen to us Gentiles, viz. that we have the oracles of God, by their means, preserved and conveyed to us, and the knowledge, and the accomplishment of the benefit of all the promises, whereof we desire, that they may be made partakers again with us. And this being made professedly the ground of their admission, viz. our thankfulness to God, to shew that mercy to them, which he hath shewed to us: all other duties of good-will, and lawful communion, tending to the accomplishment of this end, may be wisely and kindly built thereupon, so as, without prejudice, they will be glad to receive the same, and entertain the motions which we may make to that effect; and, amongst other effects of our love, they may receive, by the same act of their admission, an assurance, that, in all treaties with the nations which persecute and oppress them, a care shall be had of them, and their interests, as with Spain and Portugal, and the Grand Signior, and others, if any be, who seek to destroy them. That in publick transactions their liberty of living with them shall be procured so far, as in the power of our state shall lie by God's permission.
III. To avoid offences between them and us, in admitting of them, it will be expedient that they live by themselves, and that their worship be performed in their own tongue; that the insolencies, which the common sort of both sides may use one towards another, be prevented by laws and special orders, to keep them from incroaching upon others, beyond their bounds; for they are naturally more high-minded than other nations, and make less conscience of oppressing thu G"ntiies, than others do; because they find they are oppressed by them, and imagine themselves the only noble people in the world ; and therefore aspire to have, not only liberty to live by themselves, but riches and power over others, wherever they can get it; which inclinations of theirs, being the chief causes of offences, must be prevented, not as here in Germany, by making them base and vile; but by other more friendly ways, which prudence and equity will suggest.
IV. To avoid the temporal inconveniencies which may arise from their covetous practices and biting usury, and other subtleties in trade, by which we of the nation may be prejudged in our liberty, and brought, in some respect or other, under their power. The wisdom of the state will look to it, nor is it in my way to take it into consideration: Therefore I shall leave this hist rule of expediency unto their vigilancy, and draw to a conclusion of these suggestions, wherein I have no more to say but this; that if they desire admittance, and will re-. ceive it in a way, wherein these rules can be observed; then they should be admitted, and that it will be a sin in those, who will not admit them upon these terms; or who will not propose such terms as these, unto them, when they desire admittance; or who. having an opportunity to invite them in their distress, do not mind these principles in admitting of them, to give them entertainment in their commonwealth. As for other considerations of future hopes, although I believe as much of them, as most men do; yet I can draw no argument from thence for any particular admittance of them, at this time, because I know that the times and seasons of their deliverance are in God's hand alone, and that we are very much inclined to mistake in conjectures of that nature. But the universal rules, which are grounded upon the main ends and duties of Christianity, must be observed by those that will trust unto God, for a blessing upon their endeavours. And when they have (towards such ends, and according to such duties) done that which they think, is acceptable to God; then they ought to acquiesce, and leave the issue to Providence, which I am persuaded will be favourable to the state. And, in this assurance, I rest ever,
Sir, Your most affectionate and
faithful Servant in Christ,
John Dury. Cassell, in Haste, Jan. 8, 1656.
Concerning the Jews, if I can, I will send you the abstract of the laws, by which they are received here. Our state doth wisely to go warily, and by degrees, in the business of receiving them. Menasseh Ben Israel's demands are great, and the use, which they make of great privileges, is not much to their commendation here, and elsewhere. They have ways, beyond all other men, to undermine a state, and to insinuate into those that are in offices, and prejudicate the trade of others; and therefore, if they be not wisely restrained, they will, in a short time, be oppressive, if they be such as are here in Germany. To call in the Caraits would fright away these, for they are irreconcileable enemies. Time must ripen these designs, and prudence may lead them an.
OF THE LATE
PROCEEDINGS AT WHITEHALL,
CONCERNING THE JEWS:
Who had desired by Rabbi Manasses, an agent for them, that they might return into England, and worship the God of their fathers here in the synagogues, \c. Published for satisfaction to many in several parts of England, that are desirous and inquisitive to hear the truth thereof.
London, printed for L. Chapman, at the Crown in PopeVhead Alky, 1656. Quarto, containing sixteen pages.
To the Header.
Because many good people in divers parts of this nation, who have often prayed heartily for the Jews convi rsion, have heard a rumour of a late debate at Whitehall, about the Jews having a liberty to return into England, and are very desirous to know the truth of things in those proceedings, and what is the issue of those debates; and hence, from several parts, letters have been written up to their friends in London, desiring more fully to be certified herein: For their satisfaction, and for help to otheis that would send the narrative to their christian friends, this collection thereof, by one that was present at all the debates, is yielded to be published. «,
BY letters from Oliver, the lord protector, several doctors, and other preachers, godly men, and some merchants and lawyers convened with him, and others of the council, [the fourth of December last, J655, and so on two or three days weekly, to the eighteenth] to consider of proposals in behalf of the Jews, by Rabbi Manasses Ben Israel, an agent come to London in behalf of many of them, to live and trade here, and desiring to have free use of their synagogues, &c.
The things be ing spoken unto pro and contra, at several meetings, some more private, and some more publick, at Whitehall, and elsewhere.
The most did fear, that if they should come, many would be seduced and cheated by them, and little good would be unto them. Hence divers of the preachers judged, that though never such cautions to prevent those evils were prescribed, yet they would not be observed; and therefore they could not consent to their coming,
2. The major part judged that there might be such pledges or sureties, &c. to keep due cautions [viz. against.their blaspheming Christ, and the christian religion, and against seducing, and cheating, &c] as they may be observed, and then they may come.
3. Some judged, that due cautions warranted by holy scriptures being observed, it is a duty to yield to their request of coming hither; considering,
1. It is God's will there be dealing courteously with strangers, and persons in affliction, Exod. xxiii. 8.
2. Especially respect is to be had to the Jews, Isa. xiv. 3, 4.
1st. Because, their debtors we are, Rom. xv. 27. as the Gentiles, Macedonians, and other Gentiles, were in the apostles days (which was not, because those believing Jews at Jerusalem administered spiritual things to those believing Gentiles, which they did not) but because we partake of the Messias, and promises, and salvation, that was to the Jews, as natural branches of the olive-tree, Rom. ix. 4, 5. Eph. iii.8. Rom. xi. 1-7, 24.
2dly, Because their brethren we are; of the same father Abraham; they naturally after the flesh, we believers after the spirit.
3dly, Because we believe those natural branches shall return; and it shall be great riches and glory to the Gentiles, especially to such where they are, and who deal kindly with them, Rom. xi. 12, 18, 25, 26. and we hope the time is near.
Because many Jews are now in very great streights in many places; multitudes in Poland, Lithuania, and Prussia, by the late wars by the Swedes, Cossacks, and others, being driven away from thence: Hence their yearly alms to the poor Jews, of the German synagogue, at Jerusalem hath ceased; and of seven hundred widows, and poor Jews there, about four-hundred have been famished, as a letter from Jerusalem to their friends relates.
Also, the Jews in France, Spain, Portugal, and in the Indies, under the Spanish, &c. if they are professed Jews, must wear a badge of it, and are exposed to many violences, mocks, and cruelties; which, to avoid, many dissemble themselves to be Roman Catholicks; and then, if in any thing they appear Jewish, they forfeit goods, if not life also. Now some of these intreated Rabbi Manasses to be their agent, to intreatthis favour for their coming to England, to live and trade here, &c.
And it seems to some, that it would be very acceptable to the Lord, if favour be shewed them, so far as is lawful herein. As it was very displeasing to the Lord, when for their sin he cast them out of Canaan, that others added to, or heaped on their affliction, Zach. i. 15, 16.
And that Edom looked on, and was as one of their enemies, Obad. ver. 12, 14. and did not hide, and entertain his outcasts, as he charged Moab to do, Isaiah xvi. 3, 4. Now England hath as much cause r.s any nation, if not more, to favour and relieve the Jews in this their suit; considering,
l.The Jews that dwelled in England under Richard the First, and King John, Henry the Third, and Edward the First, suffered very great injuries, cruelties, and murders, by kings, by the barons, by Londoners, Yorkers, people of Norwich, Stamford, &c. as our own chronicles shew, especially Stow's Survey of London, and Annals.
And if, alter Saul's dea'h, the Lord plagued Israel year after year, till some satisfaction was given to the surviving Gibeonites, for Saul's slaying many Gibeoniies in Ins zeal for God; it is feared, it may offend the Lord, if we yield not to the Jews this courtesy which they desire; and it may be accounted some kind of satislaction to them.
2. In no nation, there have been more faithful, frequent, and fervent prayers for the Jews, than in England.
3. None are more likely to convince them by Scripture, and by holy life, than many in England: And Gentiles, being called a foolish nation, mu>t provoke Jews to jealousy, or emulation; and happy is England, if it be instrumental in so blessed a work.
The person, that spoke to that effect, had written thus: Many of the Jews in Jerusalem being now very cruelly dealt withal, and persecuted by the Turks (as their letters thence, desiring relief from other Jews in Germany, Holland, &c. sent thither by the hand of rabbi Nathan Stcphira, their messenger, do manifest:) Other Jews in several nations pi rsecuttd by papists, unless tin y will turn papists: Many of these desiring by their letters to rabbi Manasses Ben Israel, as he said he had shewed to the lord protector, that he would intreat favour of our state,
1. That Jews might have leave to come into England, to live and trade here: And,
2. That here they might have their synagogues, &c.
provided that due care be had in respect of these, as much as is, or ought to be, in respect of our own, and other nations, to prevent Blaspheming the Lord Jesus Christ; Adoring the law; seducing others; All unrighteousness, &c. Some of us do thus believe upon Scripture grounds:
1. That it is not sinful or unlawful to suffer their coming hither, their living and trading here, and worshiping the true God here, and hearing his holy law, and his prophets read unto them every week, publickly.
Fust reason, because this is against no law, neither of the land [as the lawyers here affirmed], nor of God, as not being forbidden in the Old or New Testament.
And, therefore, it is no sin nor transgression: For where there is no law, there is no transgression, Bom. iv. 15.
Second, That it is so far from being a sin, that it is a duty, in such case, to receive and harbour them.
This may appear thus:
First reason. It is a duty commanded, and commended of God, in general, to be kind to strangers,harbouring them, &c. Exod. xxii. 2 Land xxiii. 8. Levit. xix. 34. Deut. x. 19- Gen. xviii. 1, 2, 3. xix. 1, 2, 3. 1 Tim. v. 10. Heb. xiii. 2. Such favour we permit and grant toother strangers.
Second. The Lord requires this duty, as well, or more, towards Jews, even when for their sins the Lord had cast them out, as to any other