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words, nor menaces, I could draw into the defection of the rest, I beheaded to compleat my sacrilege. Behold, therefore, if, or not, it were fatal and most agreeable to the heavenly justice, that this head of the church, so adventitious, should have been cut off before the doors of the bishop? To give promotion to the affairs of my primacy, I made me a vicar of one Cromwell of those times, a man of very mean extraction, unto whom (and he of lay condition) both the bishops and archbishops were as underlings. Now another of that name, and like descent, rules as absolute overall thy nobles, and guides the minutes of thy life and death. The very same, I made my principal instrument of keeping from their means the church's children, and of bringing on the bane ofthat religion, so long practised in the times of my ancestors, which I would call, 'The reformation of the church.' I entered to this kingdom (from my father) when it was blemishlrss, intire, and truly regal; nor in any thing unto any one obnoxious, only, as fitting in things that were spiritual, payingsubmission to the vicar of Christ. Thou receivedst it, when strengthless and wounded, rent, and torn from the yoke of St. Peter, so just, so sweet,and so amiable; and, wholly inslaved unto the vicars of the people, chose to govern by the votes of the multitude.
Car. Too true, by the loss of my head, have I found those very things, which thou hast said to me, and now lately, unless, by others allowance, that I had nothing either of life or kingdoms, which was not wholly in the hands of the parliament, since puffed up with fond pride and contumacy, by thy example, I have swerved from the church; yet feared I not the publick hatchet would have struck me by the hands of rebels, with such pomp and seared impudence at my death, but much more dreaded secret counsels and impoisonings.
Hen. But of that thou shouldest the least have been afraid; for the punishment would not have answered the offence. Publick sins must have publick expiations, nor sought I corners in which to perpetrate my wickednesses but sinned boldly after once i had begun, only I drew indeed the mask of justice upon the face of my iniquities. The supremacy, as though my due, of the church, unto myself I arrogated, calling a parliament, by a decree whereof, I quite abolished the Roman see's authority. I repudiated (by pretence of right) the woman that was my lawful wife; the possessions, likewise, wholly of the clergy, under the same colour, I occasioned to be confiscated; whosoever was averse to my supremacy, as though guilty of high treason, I put to death. Wherefore, when our sins for which we worthily are punished, are covered over with the veil of justice, no wonder, if the self-same vizard likewise veil us, when ourselves, at last we come to suffer.
Car. But these audacities, from their subjects unto Kings, are the effects of most unheard of wickedness.
Hen. I confess it, but with how much greater wickedness are those insolencies by ourselves deserved ? .Such sin only against a mortal prince, but we princes against an eternal Deity. But you, Sir, unless a marked out sacrifice, God so willing, for yoursins enormities, could you not have mocked that arrest of popular judgment, by your prerogative in dissolving of the parliament r
VOL. VI. K k
Car. I did what I could to dissolve it, but I pray hear what followed after my so doing. The Scotchmen, my natural subjects, in hostile sort, invaded England with their armies, whom opposing in their march at York, an humble book came to my hands by Kymbolton, underwritten by certain noblemen of my kingdom.
Hen. King Henry hearing Kymbolton named, after fetching first a very deep sigh: Oh, Catharine, says he, the wife of Kymbolton, that woman of all other most dear to me, as excelling all her sex in virtue, whom I banished, heaven forgive me, from my bed, to make place therein for that strumpet Anne of Bullen, afterwards publickly beheaded for adultery, hath exchanged this so hated life! This divorce, against both heaven's and human laws, to the end that I might make it firm, made me usurp unto me the authority of the church, when (unless with so horrid a sacrilege) I could not uphold the impiety of that villainy. Hence broke upon ourselves, and both our kingdoms, the inundation of all these pressing miseries.
Car. When, holding forth Kymbolton's book, from this, says he, as hy one wave of a deluge, hath also flowed the total sea of my disasters; for unadvisedly, O my grief, I condescended, they so craving, to a treaty with the Scots, in which I bound myself firmly to make good what, in my name, should by my delegates be agreed upon. These deputed, O impudent drones, or rather indeed perfidious traytors, gave concessions to the insidiating Scots to take strong holds into their hands within my kingdom, till such time, as, by my kingly authority, the parliament, then dissolved, should be revoked. Writs, therefore, I accordingly issued forth; the Scots are most liberally gratified, nor do they suffer them sooner to leave England, than that first I had engaged my princely faith, by a writing under my hand and seal; this Hamilton also unhappily counselled me, that unfortunate kinsman of mine, not to annull the said new sessions of parliament, till such time as they should all thereto assent.
Hen. O stupidity, or rather extremest madness! Didst thou not see, when to thy stiff-necked people thou grantedst this, that thou puttedst a final period to the sway of thy kingly authority? This was one and the selfsame thing, as if thou hadst given into the hands of the parliament thy scepter and thy princely diadem, on condition not to have them again, until such time, as they should please to restore them thee; but much otherwise should 1 have handled mine. Though now it is as clear as noon-day, that the measure of my sins hath been made up in thee, by thy unhappy participation of my schisms; and that, by blinding the eyes of thy mind, in propitiation of the offended Deity, God's just vengeance hath brought on thee destruction: 'Whom God will destroy, he taketh away their right understanding.' But, when once it was coma to that pass, thou shouldest have gained at least, the parliament's votes unto thee, by giving honours to them, and other vast largitions.
Car. Even that, in what I could, I attempted. But much otherwise, God heknows.it came about; for my catholick nobility and bishops, whose votes I most relied on, in parliament, were ejected by the adverse faction. They were both indeed very passionate for my good; the catholicks, as hoping I would mitigate th.e asperity 9/ tha laws, in force against them, by Queen Elisabeth's and my father's constitutions. The prelates also as probably expecting a conservation of their means and benefices, then threatened in another way, from this head of theirs, O God, how ridiculous! Having lost thus in the House of Lords, for the lower was of little consideration to me, more than twenty and upwards of suffrages, who remained more indulgent and firm to me, were intimidated, thereto books being cast abroad, by the tumultuousness of the ap* prentices and tradesmen, which seditions the adverse party of the parliament, with all the eagerness that they could, fomented. At Westminster also, scandalous books were written against me, at the pleasure of those parliamentary rebels, which, their emissaries far and near dispersing them, by some provincials, thereto courted, were subscribed, and exhibited, suddenly after, to the parliament; as though, nothing on their part suggested, the whole matter had, by the people, been exacted.' /'
Hen. The very self-same fraud and collusion did I practise to thft church's ruin. For first of all, by writs and declamations, who were re* fraetory of the clergy I indulged; in doing whereof, I pretended reformation, and not ruin, which was really my design, like your rebels, who in the beginning of their defection, even by oath and publick faith, obliged themselves, not to attempt against your person, realms, or church, but to defend them with their utmost power, though however of some defects in church and state, by removing from you certain evil counsellors, they seemed to pretend a reformation. And, lest any thing should have the face of oppression, which I did, I procured certain books to fly abroad, with whose sense I was very well pleased, which the monks in their own names should write to me, near according to this following tenor:
'Since the goodness of God (with your highness's concurrence) hath so wrought, that in these latter days (the darkness of times past dispersed) a new and true light hath appeared unto us; we heartily and humbly make request, that you will free us from this cloistered slavery (the very path unto most certain perdition) and restore us to our spiritual liberty; for which doing (to express our gratitude) we (freely and not anyways forced, whom not fear nor yet collusion draws thereto,) give you all our houses, goods, and lands, nay jurisdiction, to be your own for ever.*
These books I dispersed through all the monasteries, and commanded that every one should subscribe them, who would not to be forthwith hanged. But especially all the abbots and superiors,that the rest might by their suffering be intimidated; so that divers through the fear of death (as though really from their proper motives,) were induced to underwrite these papers.
Car. 1 have signed alsomany things constrainedly, and (what is worse) been forced to swear I did so willingly. But so far was this my easiness from availing me (especially about the city of London) that (aftWr all, whatsoever they asked me I had given them with a full compliance) they still more and more increased their tumults; and observing all my castles, strengths, and navy taken from me (with the total militia) it was then (when no means else were left me) that I betook myself first unto arms, whereby to guard my life, my crown, and my dignity; wherefore, setting up my kingly standard, the most faithful of my subjects fly tome, whose numbers in short time so increased, that I waged seven years war with the parliament. During which time it was remarkable to see how, more than others, the Roman Catholicks flocked to me, and, for my good, exposed their lives and fortunes. Those, to wit, who were formerly traduced (by the obloquies of most slanderous calumniators) as suspected to both King and kingdoms, for refusing of the oath of allegiance, in which point they never yet were found defective, though falsly therefore called recusants, but which also exacted from their consciences an abjuration of the pope's authority, and an acknowledgment of my spiritual supremacy; these very men, 1 say,though they took not that oath, yet, unsworn, they never stuck at any thing in the which they might be loyal to me and faithful. But the covenanters, call them protestants or puritans, what did they (though against their oaths, and highly abjuring any such kind of practice) but even tooth and nail bend all their forces to deprive their King of life and dignity. Nor wanted these their plots at last success; for money falling short to pay the soldiers, whom I therefore was constrained to dismiss, beingmyself ofall things destitute to extremity, I was glad, as to my very last refuge, to betake myself wholly to the Scots. But (oh unheard of and most shameful perfidiousness!) those sold me to who would give most for me, by which means thus tossed from prison to prison, these miseries as you see have overwhelmed me.
Hen. I wonder not (by the parliament's authority and insinuations) that some of thine have left thee; but how cometh it, that thy country-men the Scots have taken arms against thee, joining with the enemies?
Car. This threefold defection, by the Scots, was indeed my utter ruin and overthrow; for if only I had contested with the English, by the aid of other faithful of my subjects (more in number very many than therebels) as well in England as also in Ireland, I should easily have made good my prerogative. But the Scots, on this occasion, fell from me. I fancying,forsooth, as head of the church, that it belonged most peculiarly unto me, that not only the same tenor of faith, through the extent of my whole dominions, but the same service also, rites and likewise ceremonies, should be uniformly in the same observed (the archbishop thereto most ofall exhorting me, whom I reverenced as though indeed some patriarch) I commanded the book of common prayer, a form of thy son Edward's first composing, and the surplice to be used by the Scots, who had not either publick form of worship, or other decency of ornaments in thuir church,but,as now it is the fashion atGeneva,every one babbled as he pleases his own impertinencies; strictly threatening with exemplary punishment who thereto should not yield due obedience; which the people of Scotland observing, and that already it was put in practice, cried out Popery is now violently forced upon us. Then tumults day by day increased, which the Calvinist ministers fomented, who consulting the puritans of England, especially Hambden the chief.of that faction, jointly brought in the Scots upon this nation, then in peace, who with their armies invaded it. This incursion, so rebellious, of those traitors (like a river when its banks are broken down) overflowed my total realms with sedition.
Hen. Is itnotas clear then, tell me Charles, as noon-day, that our inauspicatiously affecting church supremacy hath confounded us in thie sort which now thou seest?
Car. Very true, it is not void of reason for so being; yet do I not reach how all those evils rather seized not thee, the first invader of the English primacy, who (conveningall the states of thy kingdom to be confirmed upon thyself and thy successors) than poor me, who have but kept, and that too peaceably, what my ancestors by their wills had left to me.
Hen. Oh Charles, how art thou grosly deceived if thou thinkest I do not share in ihy misfortunes? No sinyet ever escaped unpunished, nor was impunity ever allowed to wicked persons. And, to pass by what now at present I suffer, what tortures did not then distort me, when my executioners were those three man-spillers, avarice, cruelty, and lust? And as for avarice, so unsatiably it reigned in me, that having subverted three-hundred and seventy-six religious houses, and snatched away their lands and goods, by an edict to that purpose which I made; scarcely one year had yet been fully gone about, before I vexed with such high taxes all my subjects as had never been before from them exacted, by which morsel now made keen and fleshed, as it were, not long after, oh how rich and opulent! I confiscated what remained of the church revenues. In the interim I gave hopes unto the laity that those goods of the church would go so far with me, as to free them for ever from exactions; a hearing so grateful to the people, that they impensly for it favoured my abreptions. But so fooled they were in these their expectations, that I alone a little after more oppressed them, than in fifty years before my predecessors. After I had spoiled and razed a thousand churches, taken all unto my use that belonged unto them ; all their coin, and sacred vessels, robbed them of; brass, lead, shards, seelings, nay, even the very rubbish set to sale, with all else vendible; besides two chests from out of the church of Canterbury, so massy scarce four men could carry one of them, so well crammed they were with gold and precious stones: After all, I say, these things had been thus robbed by me, I was reduced into such very great indigence, that, whereas I mixed at first but two of brass only with ten ounces (by my edict) of good silver, I afterwards with two of current silver mixed ten ounces of adulterate brass; thus tortured, as you see, with endless avarice, nor less roughly by my cruelties handled.—For full twenty years at least together, whilst I lived in the communion of the church, no one ever of the Kings shed less blood, in all which time two only suffered of my nobility. But afterwards, when I fell from the church (not more thirsty of gold than of blood)ofaIl conditions, all ages, and all sexes, I exhibited a most fearful massacre; and that upon no other demerit, but that only they withstoodmy volup-, tuousness. Four queens, with either steel or imprisonments, I took away, which were the consorts of my bed; two young princesses, and