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ble. The ordinary burden is a load and a half per acre; and after seven years you may break it up, and sow it with corn, without manuring, till it be out of heart, and then sow it with the same seed as formerly; for it doth very much fatten the ground, and inrich it, and will thrive extraordinary well upon dry land, where nothing else will grow; and, when the grass and plants are destroyed with the parching heat of the sun, this flourisheth very much; and after seven years, if not with corn, you may sow the land again with the same seed, and all with little charge. The truth is, it will last ten or fifteen years. Sir Richard Weston saith, it will be cut seven or eight times in a summer; but then the rich and fat grounds are best, and those that are high and dry.
Another seed to be sown, without manuring, upon good land, but somewhat loose and light, not very dry, nor over moist, one bushel to six corn will serve; it is to be cut twice a year, and affords excellent winter-pasture till March; and it is exceeding good for all kinds of cattle, as well young as old, and exceedingly fatteneth all sorts of cattle, and lean beasts especially; and horses will grow fat therewith in eight or ten days, and to milch khie it procureth exceeding great store of milk; after once sowing it will last near fifteen years, and the hay will continue good three years.
To discover a grass growing here in England in its natural soil, that, being orderly husbanded, will transcend clover-grass, St. Foyne, Lucerne, or any other outlandish grasses whatsoever.
Item, A root ordinarily to be had, which will increase wonderfully with little charge.or trouble; it will feed all kinds of cattle, horses and swine especially, very fat, as those formerly, without either grass or corn; and will feed poultry likewise, as before; it will make very good bread, cakes, paste, pyes, and both crust without, and food within; and will hardly be destroyed, once planted, but will constantly increase of themselves; they will likewise grow, being cut in slices and so put into the earth.
Item, A seed, which may likewise be disposed of, without plowing, upon very poor ground, deemed uncapable of any fertility at all; which will advantage the ground very much, and afford at least thirty pounds an acie per annum, or perform what was professed before for all sorts of cattle, poultry, &c.
Item, Another seed, the fruit whereof, upon the same sort of ground, though very mean, will feed all kinds of cattle, especially milch-kine, increasing their milk exceedingly, as before, and will afford two crops a year.
Item, Another seed, that, being tilled but once, will last, without any further labour, trouble, or charge, four years; and will mightily inrich, improve, and fatten the ground for goodly corn four years after, without manuring; and is excellent for horses, hunting-dogs, poultry, and swine: and may be very well rated at an hundred pounds per annum, and upwards, the benefit and great increase thereof truly considered.
Item, Another great experiment inordinary grounds without muck; which by a new invention, five acres thereof have this last year afforded above two-hundred pounds benefit in one acre, rent and all charge* defrayed; and, being still ordered according to directions, will continue no less advantageous, and inrich the ground very much.
Item, Trees to be had herein England but in one place, which being rightly planted, though in ordinary grounds, one tree will in a short time afford out of the root thirty plants, and every one of those thirty will in a short time afford thirty more; and these trees are at their full growth in twenty years; and after seven years every tree improveth. yearly worth one shilling a tree, until its time be up. For pleasantness and use, this tree hardly hath its parallel; they need be planted but ten feet distant, and they much advantage the grass. Besides, there is another seed to be sown amongst them, that will, in some places, far exceed the benefit of the grass, the trees being very tall and strait, useful for timber, carts, trays, bowls, &c. being very white and tough. By thirty pounds, deposited in a way concerning these trees, may be returned, at twenty years end, ten-thousand pounds benefit.
Item, To raise wood more in twenty years, by new ways lately discovered, than in forty years naturally. (
Item, Experienced ways lately in practice by divers gentlemen, and a long time continued by some of them, to preserve and feed horses, for labour and travel, in the best condition, without hay or corn, several ways, and neither of them instanced before.
There is a knight in the country that hath advanced his estate above a thousand pounds per annum, by planting of one ordinary commodity in the country, on the coarsest sort of ground, which may be performed in some places by others.
A gentleman, by planting an acre and half of ground, received lately near two-hundred pounds profit in one year, without tillage. These two not hinted before, and to be practised by others, and the last with an additional benefit.
Item, By two sorts of creatures ordinarily to be had, may be gained, de claro, above five-hundred pounds per annum; and by another there hath been, and may be got, above five-hundred pounds per annum; and either of them with very little trouble, and the charges of all three not considerable, and all to be acted within doors.
A gentleman in Norfolk made lately ten-thousand pounds of a piece of ground, not forty yards square, and yet neither mineral nor metal; and as beneficial places may be discovered elsewhere in England.
To advance ground from five shillings an acre to fifty pounds an acre per annum, by ways apparently maintainable, and not by tillage.
Item, After seven years to make twenty pounds an acre per annum constantly, without tillage, as the other, with very little charge, and with the ordinary sort of ground not limited before.
Item, A ground in Kent, of thirty acres, did lately produce, in one year, a thousand pounds benefit, without tillage.
To make grapes grow upon oaks, more plentifully, as pleasantly, and as full of juice as any other grapes whatsoever.
Item, To make grapes ripe as soon as cherries.
Item, Perfect directions for a vineyard, there having been many
planted here in England, till most abusively put down, for the benefit of custom; the increase of a vineyard being by computation four tons per acre, an old vine lately in Kent producing near a hogshead of pure wine.
Item, There is a root ordinarily to be had, that will grow as plentifully as carrots, that hath been formerly sold for one shilling the pound, and will now sell for at least seven-pence the pound, not instanced before, being a staple commodity.
Item, Seven several sorts of seeds, that will yield either of them constantly above twenty pounds an acre, per annum, not hinted before.
Item, Another seed that will afford twenty pounds, and upwards, an acre, per annum, nothing thereunto belonging being edible, or applicable for health.
Item, Fifty pounds an acre offered this year, in Gloucestershire, and so for many acres, these nine being neither of the five sorts following, viz. oade, osiers, rape seed, fennel seed, or saffron.
Divers excellent and new discovered experiments, to avoid the smuttiness of corn, and mildews.
Out of land worn out of heart, and naturally poor, to have a crop of oats, and a full crop of excellent fruitful hay after it, the same year, and to advantage the ground for crops of grass afterwards exceedingly. Item, To inrich meadows in a very high nature without muck, or any course of watering, and to make them yield five times more grass than formerly.
Item, To make rushy ground to bear very good grass, and to destroy rushes, fearn, &c.
Item, Another way to make an acre of meadow, every year, as good as two acres, only by casting a seed amongst it, which may be ordinarily provided for other meadows.
Item, A seed that affordeth, being sown in Yorkshire, out of two pecks and a half, as much as was sold for near forty pounds, which may be performed elsewhere.
Item, By laying out five shillings per acre, to reap it in the pounds. Item, When lands are tilled till they will bear no corn, and mowed till they yield no grass, to restore them both to good heart and strength, and to far greater fruitfulness than ever they yielded before, without laying so much as a load of muck thereon, or without any considerable charge or trouble. And, by a way likewise newly experimented, to make a barren field quite out of heart, or, being the last year of a lease, to yield an extraordinary good crop of corn, without muck, and with no charge, and but little trouble.
Item, A late experiment, no way repugnant to the dictates of common reason, to cause lands, by God's permission, they being capable of improvement, to return twenty, haply-one-hundred for one, either in wheat or barley; and to make it most apparent by luculent demonstrations, that there hath, and may be made a greater return by far of either.
Item, After a man hath tilled and sowed a parcel of ground, at the full height and charge, according to his uttermost skill and experience
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in husbandry, (o Undertake to dispose of the one half part of the samt parcel, so that, with the blessing of God, it may happily quadruple the benefit of the other part; and to make the same advantage of any other field of corn, and much more, if I may have the total disposal thereof.
Item, Directions concerning the great variety of compost for the several conditions and capacities of grounds, with divers new discoveries relating thereunto. The true understanding and practice thereof will, under God, inrich any industrious man whatsoever.
Item, A clear demonstration (by ways consonant to reason, and not formerly known or thought on, to make exceeding rich muck in abundance, a thousand loads and upwards, if you please, for all sorts of grounds, according to the capacities they lie under, several ways, with little charge; wherewith any man may be sufficiently furnished, and so good, that the world cannot afford better, without the use of sheep.
Item, A very late, buta most certain and infallible experiment, to be confirmed by principles of sound reason, visible to any dubious and unbelieving mind whatsoever, to draw forth the earth to her uttermost fruitfulness, and to moisten, fatten, and fertilise sandy, dry, and hilly grounds, and to water them sufficiently in times of drought, and to make them capable of vast advantages both for grass and corn, and to continue them in the highest condition, without carrying a load of muck thereunto; which way may be enjoyed in a plentiful manner, the charge not considerable. This will likewise produce much fertility to all manner of quicksets, all sorts of plants, all kinds of trees, and to gardens likewise, being seasonably applied; which may be made out clear, easy, and no ways obstructive to ordinary apprehensions. And these two last may be performed accordingly throughout England.
Item, To make the tenth part of seed-corn to serve with far greater advantage than with the usual proportion.
Itan, A late rare invention, to make five loads of dung more effectual than twenty loads of the usual compost, and one acre of ground generally to extend as far, and to be as beneficial for corn as three acres, and to last so constantly.
Item, Whereas there hath been a very great destruction of beans and pease these late years, by worms and other creeping things, men being ignorant of any remedy therefor, to discover a rational and an experimented easy way, generally to destroy them, both in corn-fields, gardens, and at the roots of trees, and very much to advantage and fertilise the grounds and trees thereby.
To make grounds free from rotting of cattle, and to prescribe remedies to cure the rot, if not too far gone, and to prevent thesame.
Item, An excellent experiment to make trees bear much and exceeding good fruit.
That I know where there is now to be had five-hundred acres of ground intire, at eight shillings the acre, within fifteen miles of London, whereby there may be justifiably raised eight-thousand pounds per mumm, and so proportionably with less parcels, which may be performed in other places accordingly.
Item, To make cattle, swine, and poultry fat with water only, mingled with earth. Item, Several excellent experiments to help maturation. Item, A sort of ducks now to be had, that will lay two eggs a day constantly.
Item, A sort of rabbits to be now had (not mingled, which have been in request formerly) but such as their skins are, now are worth two shillings and three shillings the skin, which begin nearly to come in estimation equal to beaver. And another breed thereof, that are as big again as the ordinary rabbits.
Itcvi, Directions how a cart may be made to draw with one horse as much as five horses. This King James beheld with his full approbation, and for the putting the same in practice throughout England, I had a patent from him in my disposal.
To make day burn like other fire, and to be equally useful upon all occasions.
Item, A way to conveigh water under the ground up a steep hill to the uppermost part of a very high house, and to be useful at all times,in all offices about the house, and near the house, &c.
Item, To empty and cleanse rivers and moats of all mud, without going into the water, use of boats, diverting the stream, or letting out the water by ditches, sluices, &c. and with great facility and little charge.
Item, To make perfect iron with sea-coal,,or pit-coal, and to charcoal pit-coal to dry malt, and for divers other necessary conveniencics, to make charcoal last long.
Item, To keep cabbage, artichokes, and all sorts of roots in the house all the winter.
Item, Most certain directions to discover salt springs, with the degrees of the brine, and how to order the liquor, and to divide it from the fresh springs according to experience.
An approved way to make old cattle fat in a very short time, and to make their flesh eat as tender as the youngest.
Item, To make heifers larger, fairer, and more proportionable than their ordinary breed. ,'
Item, To make starch without the use and abuse of corn. Item, To make a composition without charge, which will perform all things equal to soap. To make flax like silk.
To bring all the fishes in a pond together, &c. and to increase store, and preserve fish-ponds several excellent ways.
To store a pigeon-house, and to cause them to stay, aud not to stray to other houses, and to make them breed most part, if not all the year; the charge of food not considerable.
To take red or fallow deer, especially the best and fattest in a forest, park, or straggling abroad, as easily as you may take fish with a bait; or, to make them fall down as if they were dead, and yet no harm, so that you may approach and dispose of them at pleasure.
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