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few school-houses in the State are so thoroughly ventilated as to render it entirely safe for young children to occupy their rooms six hours a day for months together.
In one of the reports referred to, the Superintendent says: “Ventilation becomes easy as soon as it is known that it is embraced in these two essential operations, viz.: first, to supply fresh air; second, to expel foul air. It is evident that fresh air cannot be introduced into a room, unless the foul air is permitted to pass freely out; and certainly the foul air will not go out unless fresh air comes in to fill its place. It is useless to open ventilating flues, as I have seen in some school-houses, for the egress of bad air, while there is no provision for draw ing in a supply of fresh air. If the flues worked at all it would be simply to empty the room of all air-an impossibility.
But where a building is warmed by furnaces which throw in constant streams of hot air, all that is needed for ventilation is foul air flues, opening near the floor, to carry off the cold and foul air which will be pressed downward by the hot air, which rises at once to the top of the room.
When stoves are used, a special provision needs to be made for a supply of fresh air; for without such provision, the stove will only slowly warm the air already in the room, as it chances to come in contact; and the heated air escaping by crevices, will be replaced by cold air through other crevices, and the room will necessarily be poorly warmed or badly ventilated. A large supply of fresh pure air may be brought from outside of the foundation wall by means of a large box tube running under the floor, and opening beneath the stove. It is recommended that the fresh air thus introduced, be confined for & little near the stove, by a sheet iron screen, fastened tightly to the floor around the stove and opening over the top, or that the air be passed through a hollow drum on the top of the stove. But better still, where it can be afforded, will be found Chilson's Portable Furnaces, or Ruton's Air Warmers. These are provided with flues to carry the cold air throngh the stove, and send it out well heated.
A supply of fresh warm air being provided for, ventilating fues are provided to take the cold and bad air from near the floor, and carry it off above the roof. In most of the plans, the ventilating flues are built in the chimneys, to give the benefit of the draft which will be created by the heat of the chimney."
When the whole process of warming and ventilating a school yoom is so simple, it would seem that there could be no excuse for not having all school rooms constantly supplied with pure air. With a system of ventilation such as is here referred to, the school rooms can be heated with
than by the present method, for now all the air of the room has to be heated by direct contact with the stove, or with currents of hot air, which is a long and wasteful process, so far as heat is concerned. By the method here suggested, all this cold air is taken from the room in its cold state, and gives place to warm air which has been heated by direct contact with some hot surface. The present temperature of this air it is not necessary to maintain, but before its temperature is materially diminished, it is removed to give place to another volume of air from out of door, pure, and warmed ready for use.
If it required great expense to secure all these advantages to our schools, we perhaps could not expect that all would feel able to meet it; but since it would be actual saving of expense to every school district, there can be no reason for neglecting to introduce this system of ventilation into every school-room.
The value of the township libraries has not been enhanced by being distributed among the several districts of the townships. Some claim that the division of the libraries was their destruction. But those which remain undivided are in but little, if any, better condition. The great cause of the failure of these libraries seems to be the want of funds to replenish them, and keep in good condition those already in the library.
When the law was passed permitting the townships to di- • vide their library among the several districts, the appropria
tion which had been made annually, for the benefit of the libraries, was withdrawn, and all the aid left them was the meagre pittance arising from fines.
In the cities and large towns the fines furnish a large fund for the libraries. Some of the schools of these cities have fine libraries, numbering several hundred volumes. But in the larger part of the State, the fines amount to the merest trifle, and although the law expressly forbids the use of these fines in any way except for library purposes, yet seldom does a dollar of these fines reach the library fund.
The want of care of the books belonging to the libraries, and the lack of means to replenish them, have resulted in the entire loss of the libraries in many places. The Insp ors' reports show that in a few instances, the libraries are cared for, and are largely useful. But the libraries in most of the townships have been so long extinct that the Inspectors do not even think to mention them in their reports, and those that do, present a picture not desirable to look upon, as will be seen by the following random selections taken from these reports. Says one, “the library, we are pained to report, is of no consequence whatever.
From about five hundred volumes of township library, we do not know of but few districts that have any left. We have no fine money in this township." Again, another says: " There are in one or two districts a small remnant of the old township library." Another: "The condition of the township library is very bad; the town having failed to make any appropriation. No money having been received from the County Treasurer from fines, consequently there has been no addition to our library for years.” Another says: “The fine moneys are generally paid for teacher's wages. “Libraries don't amount to anything," says another. * The district libraries seem to be very much scattered. There have been no funds from fines given to the districts in this county for years. We have several times applied for them, but have been told that they were applied to othe purposes."
Officers ought to understand that they are liable for every dollar thus misapplied.
There is little hope that these libraries will become of any value unless some regular appropriation is made, sufficiently large to preserve in good condition the books already accumulated, and to constantly add to the library from year to year.
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. The customary spring and autumn series of Teachers' Institates were held during the past year. The number of teachers in attendance varied from sixty to more than a hundred. Severe storms of rain prevailed during the entire week of some of the Institutes, preventing numbers from attending who had designed to do so. It was gratifying to know that in several · instances the School Boards permitted the schools to be ad
journed, that the teachers might enjoy the advantages of the Institute. This was true of several Union Schools, the entire corps of teachers being present the entire week.
The interest manifested by the teachers in attending the Institutes is increased rather than diminished. Those who have had the opportunity of attending several Institutes during years past express themselves as being more interested and profited each succeeding year by the lectures, than the year before. The Institutes are doing well the work (they are designed to accomplish.
The spring series were held as follows: At Grass Lake, beginning March 26th; at Fentonville, April 2d; at Flushing, April 9th; at Northville, April 16th; at Medina, April 23d.
The following is the order of holding the fall series: At Lansing, beginning August 27th; at Lyons, September 3d; at Hastinge, September 10th; at Burr Oak, September 17th; at Port Huron, October 1st; at Flint, October 8th.
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. The report of the State Agricultural College represents its condition as very prosperous. All the students that could be accommodated have been in attendance during the past year.
Every year adds to the facilities for giving instruction in the various branches taught in the College, and for doing the work which it is especially designed to accomplish.
The number of Instructors, 7. The number of students-Seniors,
51 Select Course,
The educational funds of the State have come to be very respectable in amount; the total invested funds being nowe $2,780,292 73. Of this, only the interest can be used. All moneys paid by purchasers of school lands are made a perm&nent loan to the State; and the amounts now held by it, are: as follows: Primary School Fund, 7 per cent., ...
$1,268,330 63 Primary School Fund, 5 per cent, .
138,630 71 University Fund, 7 per cent,
379,565 22 Normal School Fund, 6 per cent.,
The remaining $1,051,889 14, is in the hands of purchasers, upon which they pay 7 per cent., interest; the principal payable only at their pleasure.
The security for these funds, is all that could be desired. On the part of the State, the faith of the State is pledged, and in regard to the purchases, the debt is a lien upon the lands; which, if in any case forfeited for non-payment of the interest, will always sell for as much as the debt; usually for much