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§ LXXXIV. In the former style, the sound of one tone is sustained until the next is struck; thus blending them together. In the latter, the time of the notes is not completed, but an interval of silence follows them, which must equal in duration the full time of the note itself.

NOTE.-Sacred music should more generally partake of the Staccato than the Legato style; it gives greater distinctness to the articulation of words, and affords opportunity for keeping more steady and correct time. The habit of singing in a drawling and monotonous manner which is sometimes common in choirs, can be prevented more effectually by adopting to a reasonable extent, the Staccato style of performance than by any other means.

EXAMPLES. Legato.

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EXAMPLES.

Written.

Do Re Mi

Fa Sol La

Si. Do Do Si La Sol Staccato.

Written.

Performed.

Performed.

CHAPTER XV.

ORNAMENTAL NOTES.

LXXXV. Those notes in music which are not essential to the formation of a regular Melody, or which are not included in the Harmony of a piece, are called Passing, or Ornamental Notes.

§. LXXXVI. Appoggiature. When a note is preceded by a passing note, the latter is called an Appoggiature. It borrows its time from the principal note which follows, of which it usually takes half its value; but when it occurs in the form of a Cadence, its duration becomes more lengthened. The Appoggiature is expressed by a diminutive note, and is always on the accented part of the measure.

§ LXXXVIII. Shake. The Shake (tr) is produced by the alternate repetition of two conjoint sounds; the principal note and the next above. § LXXXIX. A Shake, to be correct and effective; must combine rapidity and brilliancy of execution. The place where they are most commonly introduced, is on the note preceding the final one in a cadence. § XC. The Shake is not in character with the simplicity of Church music, but the practice of it is highly important to give flexibility to the voice, and render it controllable.

§ XCI. There are several kinds of shakes; but two however are much used; the transient, and continued shake, the latter of which is most

common.

§ XCII. The transient shake is generally used 'where the melody descends in conjoint intervals.

Written.

fr tr tr tr

EXAMPLE. Performed,

EXAMPLE.

Written.

Performed.

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NOTE.

For example of the transient shake, see Haydn's "Creation," Solo; "On mighty pens;" at the passage" Calls the tender Dove his mate," &c.

§ XCIII. The continued shake has the same duration as that of the note upon which it is made, and ends with a Turn.

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XCVII. Portamento Di Voce, or Portamento, (Ital.) signifies a carrying of the voice from one tone to another in a close and connected manner, so as to blend the sound.

§ XCVIII. The Portamento, when executed by a skillful performer, is one of the most delicate and beautiful ornaments in music; but is extremely difficult of proper execution.

XCIX. The term Portamento Di Voce, like Staccato, or Legato, belongs to the class of Styles of performance. There are but few tunes which will admit of its application; although it is quite common to hear it attempted to music in general, without regard to its character.

C. Ornaments of no kind should be attempted 'in music even when they are found to occur, unless they can be executed in a manner to give proper effect. And while few of them should have a place in Church. music, the practice of them is highly essential in other respects to give style and elegance of performance.

CHAPTER XVI.

GENERAL REMARKS UPON SINGING.

§ CI. Expression, is of no less importance in singing than Elocution is to reading or speaking.

SCII. To sing with expression, requires a knowledge and observation of those principles in music and language, upon which a correct taste is founded-The proper use and control of the voice, a distinct articulation of words, and strict attention to the rules of accent and emphasis, together with a thorough acquaintance with the science of music, constitute the chief requisites to good singing.

SCIII. The Voice. The necessary qualities of the Musical Voice are fulness, flexibility and purity. To acquire these, it is important to practice the Swell and Explosive tone. In the former, great care is necessary to avoid changing the quality of tone. To prevent this, the organs

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