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"that the clergy were infinitely superior to their neigh"hours; and that, if they had not possessed the power "they did, it would have been in far worse hands." Those who knew Henry Mackenzie will recognize these last few words as altogether characteristic of his mind: they well convey his hatred of all special pleading, most of all in defence of the Faith which was so dear to him, along with that trust in history as a guide to truth, which is happily taking possession of the more thoughtful men of England, France, and Germany. Indeed the pervading spirit of this his only literary legacy cannot be better expressed than in the words of St. Augustine, whose Confessions were his favourite companion, along with his Greek Testament, during the latter months of his illness: "Narratione autem historica quum praeterita "etiam hominum instituta narrantur, non inter humana "instituta ipsa historia numeranda est; quia jam quae "transierunt, nec infecta fieri possunt, in ordine tem"porum habenda sunt, quorum est conditor et admi"nistrator Deus."

FENTON J. A. HORT.

Trinity College, Cambridge,
October, 1855.

PAOBS

Minute supervision enjoined by St Paul on Titus carried

out at first, afterwards relaxed; . . . 14

but care for temporal wants of the people conspicuous in all ages (testimony of Julian and Lucian, i6n, iSn). 15—-22

Instances of Cyprian in North Africa, . . 19 Dionysius at Alexandria (and laterparabolani, 21 m), 20,21

and Cornelius at Rome. .... 21, 22

Moral superiority to the surrounding world. . . 22—31

Struggle of the clergy with the depravity of the

age. ...... 24 Denunciations of theatrical exhibitions. . . 2$

Discipline against lanisloz. . . . 26,27

Zeal against science, literature, and commerce. . 27 Severity against the lapsed. . . . 27—29 Peculiar strictness of discipline over the clergy. . 29, 30

Their righteous controul over the temporal con-

cerns of their people. .... 3°, 31

The progress of the Church due less to its teaching than

its organization, . . . . . 31

which was then building up for the use of later ages. . 31,32

Regarded in this light, the early germs of future abuses

not to be condemned. .... 32 Influence of the clergy legitimately strengthened by the consent of the people in episcopal appointments. . 32—34

Effects of theology on literature and philosophy. . 34—37

Value of early Christian literature in itself, . 35, 36

and early theology in keeping alive the study of

Greek philosophy, and preserving the works of Plato. . . . . 36, 37

Substitution of ethics and politics for physics. . 37

II. Political influence of the clergy less during this period than

subsequently, . . . . 37, 38

though the first victims of persecution; 38

but they are not therefore to be blamed: . .38, 39

the fact partly due to the discipline which forbad them to

hold civil offices. ..... 39

Their attempts to humanize the treatment of slaves. . 40,41

PAGSS

They laboured not to subvert the empire, but to sow their own seed. . . . . . . 41

The heathen impressed by their uprightness and fearless-
ness of death. ..... 42

Clerical influence was fostered early, but its real work was after the Roman empire had fallen. ... 43

CHAPTER III.

From the final accession ofConstantine to the fall of the

Western Empire.

A. D. 344—476. . . . 44—103

Introduction of new duties and temptations for the clergy through the change in their position. . . . 44, 45

I. Difficulty of distinguishing their moral from their political

influence in this period, as acting partly through the

emperor. ...... 45

Moral regulations of earlier bishops confirmed by the Councils. ...... 46

Excommunication of murderers of slaves. . 46, 47 Condemnation of suicide. . . . 47, 48

Testimony of the Theodosian code. ... 48

Manumission transferred from the praetor to the

clergy- 48,49

Law de alimentis for prevention of infanticide. . 50

The Teutonic nations as well as Romans and provincials

affected by Christian improvements of Roman law. . 51 Reciprocal corruption of the clergy by the world; . 51 and growth of theological bitterness into persecution. . 51—-53

Distinction of clerical and lay morality; . . 53) 54

(exclusion of slaves and followers of degrading trades from holy orders,) . . . . 54, 55 and its corruptions. ..... 55

Not good legislation only, but high principle, established by the clergy. ..... 55

Early clerical discipline a valuable preparation for future troubles. ...... 56

PAGB3

Mischievous modern prejudice of regarding the germs of

errours solely with reference to their later evil results: 56, 57 their true value as parts of one great design. . . 57, 58

Increase of clerical power a preservative against the time of barbarian invasions. .... 58

Freedom of inheritance. ... 59

Appropriation of heathen and heretic possessions. 59

Tithes. ...... 60 Elevation of bishops above clergy. . . . 60—62

Distribution of revenues. . . . . 60, 61

Bishops authorized as judges. . . . 61,62 Evils of excessive clerical sway. . . .62, 63 Church pomp impressive to the barbarians. . . 63, 64

Intellectual influence of the Fathers. . . . 65—78 Pulpit eloquence, .... 65—69

peculiar to Christianity: . . . 65—67

its rude force, .... 68

and use in keeping alive a taste for speculation. 69

Christian seats of learning. . . 70, 71

Mental activity of the age chiefly theological. . 71,72

Different Eastern and Western estimates of litera-

ture. . . . . . 72, 73

Gallic dilettantism (Sidonius Apollinaris). . 73—76

^Esthetic influence of the clergy. . . .76, 77

Genuine Gallic love of truth. . . 77, 78

Beginnings of Monasticism. .... 78—85

Violent fanaticism of the East a reaction from its

excessive speculativeness: . . 79, 80

The more practical theology of the West resulting

in a similar form of monasticism. . 80, 81

Western monasticism encouraged by the disor-

ganized state of society. . . . 81,82

Western contempt of hermits. . . . 82, 83 Judicious counsels of Ambrose, Augustine, &c. . 83, 84

Separation of contemplation from action useful for

that age. ..... 84, 85 Monasticism not as yet clerical. . . 85 II. Political influence of the clergy. . . . 86—103

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