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less important than corruption of the clergy through

the state. . . . . . .

Indefiniteness of their position more beneficial than other-
wise, as counteracting civil arbitrariness.

Subordination of civil functionaries, . .
more formally recognized later. . .
During the decay of popular independence, the

rule of the clergy that of fixed principles and
disciplined minds. . . . .

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The clergy a new and beneficial element,
supporting the lower class, and exercising an uninvidious

authority over the upper. .

Class difficulties avoided by the unsystematic provision for

the clergy. . . . . . . 93,

Episcopal power adapted to concentration in towns.

Popular election of bishops.

. . 95, 96

Consolidating power of the clergy over the dissolving mu-

nicipalities. . . . . . . 90–98

The very greatness of their authority a cause of liberty

not oppression. . . . . . 98, 99

Their unity and intercourse the sole effectual obstacle to

returning barbarism.

· 99, 100

The only ideas then active those of religion. . 100, 101

Quickening effect of controversies. .
Contrast of secular and religious life at this period, and

combining power of the latter.

Commanding influence of the leading Fathers. . . 102

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Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence being an exception. . 117

Bonds of union with the old Roman citizens.. . 117–120

Sanctity, and sometimes zeal, a protection against armed

violence. . . . . . . 117-119

No direct allusions to clerical influence in the early bar-

barian codes,

but many indirect traces of its exercise ; . . 120—128

the primitive reverence for sacred persons and things

being transferred from heathen to Christian objects. 122, 123

Clerical interposition in manumission of slaves. 123, 124

Right of sanctuary ;-its uses as well as abuses. 125, 126

Religious phraseology in documents. . . 127, 128

Double relation of the clergy to the old citizens and to

the barbarians the chief instrument of amalgamation. 129, 130

The clergy strengthened through the tonsured laity. . 131-133

Their connexion with the old citizens did not alienate

them from the conquerors, as is shewn by their occa-

sional voluntary submission to barbarian codes. . 133, 134

Their influence as disseminators of Roman traditions.

134

Period after the settlement of the barbarians. . 134-138

Improvements in penal jurisprudence, . . 135, 136

proportional to the influence of the clergy (contrast of

Burgundians and Visigoths with Anglo-Saxons): 136, 137

evidence of the Frankish Capitularies. . . 138

Monastic Orders. . .

. 139—159

Corruption and decay.

• 139

Reforms of Benedict of Monte Cassino. · 140— 142

Greatness of the Benedictines :

140—156

Gregory the Great,

140

Augustine of Canterbury, .

140, 141

Boniface, &c. .

· 141, 142

Monasticism most beneficial under the early Me-

rovingian dynasty in France and the Visigoths

in Spain. .

142

Its practical nature in the West, .

143

preserving literature, agriculture, and other arts ; 143—147

while the seculars maintained sound principles of

action (learning of seculars, 146 n). . . 145-147

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Education.

. 147, 148

Benedictine missionaries.

. 148

State of Britain after the Saxon invasion. 149–151

Augustine of Canterbury, and the revival of

monasticism. . . .

151

Intellectual fruits of Anglo-Saxon Benedictine

efforts. . . . . . 152—157

(7th cent.) Biscop, founder of Bishopwear-

mouth; . . . . · 153

whence came Bede, himself the center of a

learned society.

. . 153-155

(8th cent.) Alcuin and the schools of York. 155, 156

Aldhelm at Malmesbury. . . . 150

Ascendancy of regulars throughout Europe, and

their cordial support of the seculars. . . 157-159

II. Political influence of the clergy.

159—177

Mimicry of Roman dignity by barbarian chiefs.

159, 160

Their imperial desire to use the services of the clergy. 160, 161

Political progress due to the clergy. . . .

Ecclesiastical nature of the early Merovingian

Capitularies.

. . . . 162

Working of the clergy on Teutonic states best seen

among the Visigoths in Spain. . . .

Prominence of clerical intervention in the Forum

Judicum.

. 163,

Prosperity of Spain, and consequent strength of

the clergy at the head of the old citizens. .
In spite of Gothic resistance, . .
they ultimately mastered the kings. .
Councils at Toledo chiefly ecclesiastical.
Clerical influence in judicial matters now ex-

changed for recognized authority. . .
This authority really the safeguard of the old

population against the Gothic kings. ..
The clergy therefore both jurists and administra-

tors of justice.
Generally throughout Europe, before Hildebrand, the

clergy the upholders of national liberties against
arbitrary sovereigns.

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Their peculiarly healthy action in England from their
defined and moderate position. . . . 169-174

Their place in the Witenagemote, . , 170, 171
and connexion with the king and nobility. . 171, 172
Differences from the position of the continental
· clergy arising chiefly from the population being
one nation. . .

·
.

· · 172, 173
Mediation in internal strifes. .

, 173, 174
The political benefits of the clergy in this period give

signs of approaching corruption. · · · 175177

CHAPTER V.

From the accession of Charlemagne to the close of the

tenth century.

A. D. 771—1000. · · 178—240
Clerical power less genuine, though apparently greater,
during this period.

178
The Church at Charlemagne's accession sinking into faction

and corruption like the Empire three centuries before. 178, 179
Evil reaction on the laity. . . . . : 179
Carlovingian clerical reforms, missions of Boniface, and in-

crease of Papal sway in the W., owing to the final sepa-

ration of the E. · · · · · 179, 180
I. Moral influence of the clergy. .

. 180—235
Social and political state of Europe before Charles the
Bald's death. .

. . 180—183
Convulsion caused by the extension of Frankish

sway under Charlemagne ; . .
but many changes ascribed to him the natural

developments of earlier movements. , 181–183
Offices changed from elective to hereditary

tenure : . . . . . . 181–183
consequent decay of central civil, and inverse

growth of ecclesiastical power. . .
This movement expanded by means of Charle-

magne’s empire. . . . . 182, 183

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