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Political stagnation resisted by clerical intercourse, espe-

cially that produced by Councils. . . . 102, 103

The Eastern world almost unchanged from the former

period, and therefore worthy of less attention. . 103

CHAPTER IV.

From the fall of the Western Empire to the accession of

Charlemagne.

A. D. 476—771. . . 104—177

Church organization under the Roman empire chiefly of

value prospectively. .... 104, 105

After its fall the clergy had altogether new materials to

deal with. ..... 105

They become sole dispensers of all kinds of knowledge. 106

Consequent temptations and corruptions (prostration of

barbarian sovereigns before them). . . 106, 107

Unchanging strength of the Church. . . . 107

The clergy representatives of Roman institutions in the

midst of barbarian customs. . . . 108, 109

Important social influence of clergy during the transition

from imperialism to feudalism. . . . 109

Moral influence in this period difficult to trace from the

meagre information of chronicles and statutes. . 109, no

Conversion of the barbarians more truly effected by resi- dentclergyon the conquered soil than by missionaries. 110—112

Reform of their lawless and reckless manners due solely

to the clergy: ..... 112—114

its nature shewn by comparing either their own habits

in their native wilds with their statutes after under-

going the operation of Christianity, . . 112,113

or the latter with the habits of the later Saxon, Scla-

vonic, or Norse tribes. . . . 113, 114

In spite of abuses, the Church alone had a living prin-

ciple of action. . . . . . 114

The German principle of national law a source of privi-

leges to the clergy individually as subjects of the

Roman law, ..... 115, 116
Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence being an exception. . 117

Bonds of union with the old Roman citizens. . . 117—120

Sanctity, and sometimes zeal, a protection against armed

violence. ...... 117—119

No direct allusions to clerical influence in the early bar-

barian codes, . . . . . 120

but many indirect traces of its exercise; . . 120—118

the primitive reverence for sacred persons and things

being transferred from heathen to Christian objects. 122, 123

Clerical interposition in manumission of slaves. 123, 124

Eight of sanctuary;—its uses as well as abuses. 125, 126

Religious phraseology in documents. . . 127, 128

Double relation of the clergy to the old citizens and to

the barbarians the chief instrument of amalgamation. 129, 130

The clergy strengthened through the tonsured laity. . 131—133

Their connexion with the old citizens did not alienate

them from the conquerors, as is shewn by their occa-

sional voluntary submission to barbarian codes. . 133,134

Their influence as disseminators of Roman traditions. 134

Period after the settlement of the barbarians. . 134—138

Improvements in penal jurisprudence, . . 135, 136

proportional to the influence of the clergy (contrast of

Burgundians and Visigoths with Anglo-Saxons): 136, 137

evidence of the Frankish Capitularies. . . 138

Monastic Orders. ..... 139—159

Corruption and decay. . . . 139

Reforms of Benedict of Monte Cassino. . 140—142

Greatness of the Benedictines: . . 140—156

Gregory the Great, . . . 140

Augustine of Canterbury, . . 140, 141

Boniface, &c. .... 141, 142

Monasticism most beneficial under the early Me-

rovingian dynasty in France and the Visigoths

in Spain. ..... 142

Its practical nature in the West, . . 143

preserving literature, agriculture, and other arts; 143—147

while the seculars maintained sound principles of

action (learning of seculars, 146 a). . . 145—147
Education. .....
Their peculiarly healthy action in England from their

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