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obedient in Christ. And understand well, that obedience is perfect, when that a man doth gladly and hastily, with good heart entirely, all that he should do. Obedience generally, is to perform hastily the doctrine of God, and of his sovereign, to which him ought to be obeisant in all righteousness.

Remedium Ira. The remedy against Ire, is a virtue that cleped is mansue. tude, that is Debonairtee: and eke another virtue, that men clepen Patience or sufferance.

Debonairtee withdraweth and refraineth the stirrings and movings of man's courage in his heart, in such manner, that they ne skip not out by anger ne Ire. Sufferance suffereth sweetly all the annoyance and the wrong that is done to man outward. Saint Jerome saith this of debonairtee, That it doth no harm to no wight, ne saith : ne for no harm that men do ne say, he ne chufeth not against reason. This virtue sometime cometh of nature, for, as saith the Philosopher, a man is a quick thing, by nature debonaire, and tretable to goodness : but when debonairtee is inforced of grace than it is the more worth.

Patience is another remedy against Ire, and is a virtue that suffereth sweetly every man's goodness, and is not wroth for none harm that is done to him. The philosopher saith, that patience is the virtue that suffereth debonairly all the outrage of adversity, and every wicked word. This virtue maketh a man like to God, and maketh him God's own child: as saith Christ. This virtue discomfiteth thine enemies. And therefore saith the wise man: if thou wilt vanquish thine enemy, see thou be patient. And thou shalt understand, that a man suffereth four manner of grievances in outward things, against the which four he must have four manner of patiences.

The first grievance is of wicked words. This grievance suffered Jesu Christ, without grudging, full patiently, when the Jews despised him and reproved him full oft. Suffer thou therefore patiently, for the wise man saith: if thou strive with a fool, though the fool be wroth, or though he laugh, algate thou shalt have no rest. That other grievance outward is to have damage of thy chattel. Thereagainst suffered Christ full patiently, when he was despoiled of all that he had in this life, and that nas but his clothes. The third grievance is a man to have harm in his body. That suffered Christ full patiently in all his passion. The fourth grievance is in outrageous labour in works: wherefore I say that folk that make their servants to travail too grievously, or out of time, as in holy days, soothly they do great sin. Hereagainst suffered Christ full patiently, and taught us patience, when he bare upon his blessed shoulders the cross upon which he should suffer despitous ? death. Here may men learn to be patient; for certes, not only Christian men be patient for love of Jesu Christ, and for guerdon of the blissful life that is perdurable, but certes the old Pagans, that never were christened, commended and used the virtue of patience.

A philosopher upon a time, that would have beaten his disciple for his great trespass, for which he was greatly moved, brought a yerde 3 to beat the child; and when this child saw the yerde, he said to his master, “ What think ye to do?” “I will beat thee," said the master, “for thy correction.” “ Forsooth," said the child, “ye ought first correct yourself, that have lost all your patience for the offence of a child." “ Forsooth," said the master all weeping, “thou sayest sooth : have thou the yerde, my dear son, and correct me for mine impatience."

Of patience cometh obedience, through which a man is obedient to Christ, and to all them to which he ought to be

Another religious work of the fourteenth century is a series of three poems in West-Midland dialect, perhaps of Lancashire, and written, like the “Vision of Piers Plowman," in alliterative verse. They are the work of a poet who had true feeling, and probably were all suggested to him by the grief which is the theme of the first poem in the series—the death of an innocent child, his own two-year-old daughter, his darling Pearl. Out of his home affliction and out of his Bible study he drew always the one lesson, that we owe to God pure lives in patient resignation to His will."

The unknown author of these poems begins the first of them, which Dr. Morris, its editor, has fitly named “ The Pearl," with a father's outpouring of love over the grave of his lost little one, his precious pearl without a spot. Never, the mourner says, was song so sweet as that which steals to him in the stillness there; sweet flowers cover her earthdwelling. And there, when the August reapers put the sickle in the corn, he sleeps in heaviness of grief as he laments the loss of her whom he tenderly calls again and again “My precious Pearl, withouten spot."

Then comes the dream. His body lies upon the grave, his “ghost is gone in Godes grace" to a strange land of light and beauty, where the cliffs are clear as crystal, the leaves upon the trees as burnished silver, the small stones of the ground as orient pearl. There in a glorious wood he followed the sweet music of a stream in which pebbles glittered as the stars that shine through winter night over the sleepers. Earthly heart cannot contain such gladness as this gave; and Paradise, he thought, must be upon the other bank.

“But the water was deep, I durst not wade,

And ever me longéd a more and more.

“More and more, and yet well more,

Me lests to see the brook beyond; For if it was fair there I con fare,

Well lovelokeri was the fyrres lond."

. These poems are in the same MS. of the Cotton collection Nemo A. X.), which also contains, in the same handwriting and dialect, the metrical romance of “Sir Gawayu and the Green Knight," first edited by Sir Frederic Madden. Dr. Richard Morris edited them m 154 for the Early English Text Society, as "Early English Alliterative Poems in the West-Midlaud Dialect of the Fourteenth Century. Copied and Edited from a Unique Manuscript in the Library of the British Museum, Cotton, Nero A. X., with an Introduction, Nota and Glossarial Index." Students of literature have to thank Dr. Morris not only for his careful editing, but for making known to them a work of so much intrinsic value.

5 Me lest, I desired. First-English “me lyste," it pleases me, I wish ; "lystan,” to wish, being used generally with a dative or such sative impersonally.

6 There I con fare, where I could go.
7 Loveloker, lovelier. First-English “luflice," lovely.

8 Fyrre, farther. First-English "fyr," far; “fyrre," fartberi “fyrrest," farthest.

Nas, was not. “Eom," I am, had its negative "neom," I am not; as " willan" had its negative “nyllan," &c.

* Despitous, malicious. * Yerde, stick, rod. First-English "gyrd,"

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obedient in Christ. And understand well, that obedience is – Remedium Iræ.

perfect, when that a man doth gladly and hastily, with good i The remedy against Ire, is a virtue that cleped is mansue.

heart entirely, all that he should do. Obedience generally, : tude, that is Debonairtee: and eke another virtue, that men is to perform hastily the doctrine of God, and of his sovereign, clepen Patience or sufferance.

to which him ought to be obeisant in all righteousness. Debonairtee withdraweth and refraineth the stirrings and movings of man's courage in his heart, in such manner, that they ne skip not out by anger ne Ire. Sufferance suffereth | Another religious work of the fourteenth century :: sweetly all the annoyance and the wrong that is done to man is a series of three poems in West-Midland dialect 2 outward. Saint Jerome saith this of debonairtee, That it perhaps of Lancashire, and written, like the “Visio doth no harm to no wight, ne saith : ne for no harm that men of Piers Plowman,” in alliterative verse. They ar? do ne say, he ne chafeth not against reason. This virtue the work of a poet who had true feeling, and pr sometime cometh of nature, for, as saith the Philosopher, a bably were all suggested to him by the grief whic man is a quick thing, by nature debonaire, and tretable to is the theme of the first poem in the series—the dea goodness: but when debonairtee is inforced of grace than it of an innocent child, his own two-year-old daught='. is the more worth.

his darling Pearl. Out of his home affliction and Patience is another remedy against Ire, and is a virtue of his Bible study he drew always the one lesse that suffereth sweetly every man's goodness, and is not wroth

that we owe to God pure lives in patient resignat for none harm that is done to him. The philosopher saith,

to His will. that patience is the virtue that suffereth debonairly all the

The unknown author of these poems begins : outrage of adversity, and every wicked word. This virtue

first of them, which Dr. Morris, its editor, has t o maketh a man like to God, and maketh him God's own child:

named “ The Pearl," with a father's outpourin as saith Christ. This virtuo discomfiteth thine enemies.

love over the grave of his lost little one, his prece And therefore saith the wise man: if thou wilt vanquish

pearl without a spot. Never, the mourner .. thine enemy, see thou be patient. And thou shalt under

was song so sweet as that which steals to his stand, that a man suffereth four manner of grievances in

the stillness there; sweet flowers cover her e outward things, against the which four he must have four

dwelling. And there, when the Augustre manner of patiences. The first grievance is of wicked words. This grievance

put the sickle in the corn, he sleeps in hear m ." suffered Jesu Christ, without grudging, full patiently, when

of grief as he laments the loss of her whom he . * the Jews despised him and reproved him full oft. Suffer derly calls again and again “My precious thou therefore patiently, for the wise man saith: if thou

withouten spot." strive with a fool, though the fool be wroth, or though he

Then comes the dream. His body lies up laugh, algate thou shalt have no rest. That other grievance grave, his “ghost is gone in Godes grace' outward is to have damage of thy chattel. Thereagainst strange land of light and beauty, where the cl suffered Christ full patiently, when he was despoiled of all clear as crystal, the leaves upon the trees as bu that he had in this life, and that nas but his clothes. The silver, the small stones of the ground as third grievance is a man to have harm in his body. That pearl. There in a glorious wood he follow suffered Christ full patiently in all his passion. The fourth sweet music of a stream in which pebbles g grievance is in outrageous labour in works: wherefore I say | as the stars that shine through winter nig that folk that make their servants to travail too grievously, | the sleepers. Earthly heart cannot conta or out of time, as in holy days, soothly they do great sin. gladness as this gave; and Paradise, he 1 Hereagainst suffered Christ full patiently, and taught us

must be upon the other bank. patience, when he bare upon his blessed shoulders the cross upon which he should suffer despitous ? death. Here may

“But the water was deep, I durst not wa men learn to be patient; for certes, not only Christian

And ever me longéd a more and more men be patient for love of Jesu Christ, and for guerdon of the blissful life that is perdurable, but certes the old Pagans,

“More and more, and yet well more, that never were christened, commended and used the virtue

Me lest to see the brook beyond; of patience.

For if it was fair there I con fare, A philosopher upon a time, that would have beaten his

Well lovelokerwas the fyrres lond disciple for his great trespass, for which he was greatly moved, brought a yerde3 to beat the child; and when this child saw the yerde, he said to his master, “What think ye

• These poems are in the same MS. of the Cotton col

A. X.), which also contains, in the same handwriting an to do?” “I will beat thee," said the master, “ for thy cor

metrical romance of “Sir Gawayn and the Green Knight

by Sir Frederic Madden, Dr. Richard Morris edited yourself, that have lost all your patience for the offence of a | for the Early English Text Society, as “Early Englis child." “Forsooth," said the master all weeping, “thou

Poems in the West-Midland Dialect of the Fourter

Copied and Edited from a Unique Manuscript in the sayest sooth: have thou the yerde, my dear son, and correct

British Museum, Cotton, Nero A. x., with an Introd me for mine impatience."

and Glossarial Index." Students of literature have Of patience cometh obedience, through which a man is Morris not only for his careful editing, but for ma

them a work of so much intrinsic value, obedient to Christ, and to all them to which he ought to be

5 Me lest, I desired. First-English “me lyste," it wish ; "lystan," to wish, being used generally with

sative impersonally. I Nas, was not. “Eom," I am, had its negative "neom," I am not; 6 There I con fare, where I could go. as " willin" had its negative "nyllan," &c.

7 Loveloker, lovelier. First-English "luflice," lovel 2 Despitous, malicious.

8 Fyrre, farther. First-English "fyr," far; *** * Yerde, stick, rod. First-Euglish "gyrd."

"fyrrest," farthest.

ect

In vain he sought to find a ford, and presently he gentle rebuke, and asks her of the life she is now saw new marvel. A crystal cliff poured out many leading. He may know her bliss, for now his meeka royal ray, and at its foot there sat a child, a gentleness, she says, is dear to hermaiden, shining white. “I knew her well, I had seen her ere.” And long he looked towards her. 666 My Lord, the Lamb, loves aye such cheer, “ The longer, I knew her more and more." He

That is the ground of all my bliss. would call, and feared to call to her in that strange place. She lifted up her face, white as pure ivory;

A blissful life thou says I lead, that went to his heart, “And ever the longer, more

Thou wouldest know thereof the stage,

Thou wost well when thy Pearl con schede and more"

I was full young and tender of age; “ More than me list my dread arose,

But my Lord, the Lamb, through His God-hede,
I stood full still and durst not call;

He took myself to his marriage,
With eyen open and mouth full close

Corouned me Queen in bliss to brede, 7
I stood as hend as hawk in hall.”

In length of days that e'er shall wage,$

And seised in all His heritage He feared lest he should lose her if he broke the

His liefois, I am wholly His. silence. Then fresh as a lily she came down the

His praise, his price, 10 and his paragell

Is root and ground of all my bliss.'" bank towards him; and he dwells upon her purity of beauty, and her bright array; a wondrous pearl, without a spot, in midst her breast was set so sure.

But says the Father, “Art thou the Queen to whom

She advanced to him, bent low to him in woman's wise ;

all this world shall do honour? Can any take the

crown from Mary?” Then the child vision kneels with a faint sound she greeted him from beyond the

in worship to the Virgin before telling of the many stream. “O Pearl, adorned with pearls,” he said, “art thou

mansions in Heaven, and of the crowns of glory my Pearl that I have plained'? What fate hath

that make kings and queens of all who enter, each brought my jewel hither, and caused me this grief?

delighting in the honour of the other. Still the

Father asks to be taught. She lived but two years for since we two were parted I have been a joyless jeweller.” Then comes to him the voice of consola

upon earth, was too young to have learned Pater or tion. The Pearl is not lost, but is in that gracious

Creed—and Queen made on the first day! The garden where no sin comes near her—is become

child-angel answers. indeed a pearl of price.

“ . There is no date of God's goodness,'

Then said to me that worthy wight,
666 And thou has called thy wyrdo a thief

For all is truth that He con dress. ??
That aught of naught has made thee clear,

And He may do no thing but right.'”
Thou blames the bote of thy mischief 3
Thou art no kindé Jewelere.'

She tells him our Lord's parable of the vineyard.

She too was in the vineyard but a little while, and A Jewel to me then was this geste And jewels wern her gentle saws,

“ was paid anon of all and some.” The dialogue I wis, quoth I, my blissful best,

then dwells upon God's taking to himself the little My great distress thou all to-draws." 4

ones, who have been baptized to Him, and have not

lived till they could sin. They who live longer are Henceforth, says the glad father, I will live in

tempted more, but let them pray and strive to keep

their innocence—to be as the children whom Christ joy

blessed and would have come to him, for of such is “And love my Lord and all His laws

the kingdom of Heaven. Forsake the mad ways of That has me brought this blissé near; Now were I at you beyond these wawes 5'

the world, and seek the kingdom that is like a pearl I were a joyful Jewelere.”

without a spot.

"maskelless 13 Pearl, in pearlés pure, But his Pearl teaches him that he errs in thinking

That bears,' quoth I, 'the pearl of price, that she is with him because his eyes behold her;

Who forméd thee thy fair figúre? that he errs in thinking he can be with her; that he

That wrought thy weed he was full wise.'" errs in thinking he can freely pass this water that flows between. He must abide God's time; and he / She is adorned, she answers, by the Lamb, whose can cross only through death. Then rises again the bride she is ; the Lamb without spot who patiently note of despair for the child's loss. She replies with suffered, and whose brides are the souls of the innothe lesson of Christian Patience. He must not strive cent and patient. She recalls the Vision of John. against Goul. He answers sadly and humbly to her “I, John, saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming

--- - ----

1 Plained, bewailed, lamented. From Latin "plango.”
2 Wyrd, fate.
3 The bote of thy mischief, the remedy of thy misfortune.
4 Thou all 10-draus, thou completely drawest from me.
5 Waves, waves.

6 When thy Pearl con schede, at the time of thy Pearl's departure.
7 Brede, broaden, increase.

& Wage, endure. 9 His lief, his dear one, his bride.

10 Price, worth. 11 Parage, kindred, exalted nature.

14 Drexe, direct, or ler. 13 Maskelless, spotless.

down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband." Can there be castles enough in Jerusalem for many brides? the Father asks. In the Old Jerusalem, he is told, men sinned and the Saviour suffered; but in the New Jerusalem is peace only. There the Lamb gathers his own, there we seek home after our flesh is laid in earth. Then the Father begs of his spotless maid so meek and

her. By the vain struggle his dream is broken, and he awakes to grief, with his head upon the little hill over his buried Pearl.

The next poem in the series illustrates Purity and Patience, by dwelling upon Scripture incidents that enforce such virtues; the Parable of the Marriage Feast; the Fall of the Angels; the sins of the world before the Deluge, and the Deluge itself; the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; the Captivity of Judah ; the Stories of Belshazzar and of Nebuchadnezzar; and the other poem is a lesson of patience enforced by the story of Jonah. The pieces show not only a poetical mind in their author, but variety of power. This poet, whose name is lost, can paint a storm with vigour, and look tenderly upon a vision of his little child among the angels worshipping the Lamb.

Another poet, whose name is forgotten, produced at the close of the fourteenth century, probably in 1394 and 1395, two pieces which he associated with the two greatest poetical works of his day. One was in alliterative verse, after the manner of “ The Vision of Piers Plowman," and was called “ Pierce the Plowman's Crede.” The other was in rhyming ballad stanzas, and professed to be a story by the Plowman whom Chaucer had reckoned as one of his Canterbury Pilgrims—“ The Plowman's Tale.” Mr. Skeat has been the first to show that these two poems are from the same hand. When the Pelican in the Plowman's Tale says—

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“Of freres I have told before

In a making of? a Crede,"

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he refers certainly to the previously written “ Pierce the Plowman's Crede.” As the Pelican stands for every good Christian who was called a Lollard for endeavouring to check pride and worldliness among the clergy, it is not necessary to believe that the poet

means himself by his Pelican when he says, “I THE LIVING AND THE DEAD."

have told before." But it is not improbable that he From Cotton MS., Nero A. x.

does; and when Mr. Skeat adds to the resemblance

in tone of thought, good evidence of the frequent mild that she will bring him to see that blissful

occurrence in both poems of such words and terms bower. He can see only its outside, she says, but of speech as may more fairly be accounted proper to if he will trace the stream up to its source he will an individual writer than common to two, he adds find a hill from which he can look out upon the

all argument necessary to convince us that the author distant glory of that city. Eagerly he seeks the hill,

of “The Plowman's Tale” (which was first printed in and sees from it the New Jerusalem. When he has

Chaucer's works in the edition of 1542), did mean dwelt upon its glories, the moon rises, and white-robed

| himself when he wrote that he had told before of virgins issue from the city, each having bound on her

the Friars “ in a making of a Crede." breast the blissful pearl. They come forth in love

The Ploughman of the Creed is simply a ploughand delight. The Lamb is before, and before the

man. The poet supposes himself to know his PaterLamb the elders bow. Legions of angels fill the

noster and his Ave Maria, but not yet his Creed. air with a sweet incense, and a sweet song rises in

He must learn it before Easter, and would like to praise of the Lamb that was slain. The Father have it from a man, learned or unlearned, looks among the shining company of those whose home is with the Lamb, and there he sees his

“that liveth thereafter Little Queen in peace and joy, and yearns towards

And fully followeth the faith and feigneth none other: her with love-longing in great delight. His delight

That no worldly weal wilneth no time, urges him to seek to cross the stream and be with But liveth in loving of God, and his law holdeth,

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