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Life" is continued in this manner till Old Age and Death have laid the Pilgrim gently on his couch, there to await Death's coming. Mercy takes him to her infirmary, which has Fear of God for porter, and where there are two messengers—Prayer and Almsgiving—whom he may send before him to the Heavenly Jerusalem. At last Death mounts upon his bed. Gracedieu reassures him. Death runs him through the body with her scythe.
He started and awoke, dead or alive he knew not till he heard a cock crow and the ringing of the convent bell, and saw that he was awake in the morning in his own bed in the monastery of Chalis.
The popularity of Guilevile's “Romaunt of the Three Pilgrimages" in England during the fifteenth century indicates the growth of the tendency to spiritual allegory, which had its source far back in
regular canons of St. Augustine-made a collection of “Sermons for the Greater Festivals of the Church," and in the middle of the fifteenth century put into English verse a Latin book of “Instructions for Parish Priests." ? It began by admonishing priests to know their duties and live as they preach. It then explained in detail how a parishioner was to be dealt with from the cradle to the grave. Beginning at earliest, with birth and baptism, by taking the religious duties of the mother when the child is yet unborn, and the baptism of a child that is half-born to a dying mother, it proceeded to general rules that concern christening, confirmation, marriage, teaching of children, confession, how the people were to be taught as to the Communion, and trained to the right manner of receiving it: also how they were to be made to behave in church :
the writings of Greek fathers of the Church and the spiritualizing of the love-conceits of troubadours by lettered monks, who shared the accomplishments of their time, but were restrained by their vows from rhyming of love, like the noblemen and gentlemen who were their neighbours. From English translations of Guilevile we pass, by natural transition, through an English poem of the same character, to Spenser's “Faërie Queene," and Bunyan's “ Pilgrim's Progress."}
OF BEHAVIOUR IN CHURCH. Yet thou mosté teach them mare That when they doth to churché fare, Then bid them leave their many wordes Their idle speech and nice bordes, 3 And put away all vanitye And say their Pater noster and their Ave. Ne none in churché stondé shall, Ne lean to pillar ne to wall, But faire on knees they shall them set, Kneeling down upon the flet, And pray to God with herté meke To give them grace and mercy eke. Suffer them to make no bere 5 But aye to be in their prayere, And when the Gospel read be shall Teach them then to stand up all,
John Mirk, who was a canon of Lilleshall, in Shropshire—a house associated with the order of the
1 Much interesting detail on the subject of Guilevile's allegory and its English versions will be found in these two volumes :-“The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, entitled 'Le Pélerinage de l'Homme, compared with the Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan, edited from notes collected by the late Mr. Nathaniel Hill, of the Royal Society of Literature, with illustrations and an Appendix." Pickering, 1858.-" The Booke of the Pylgremage of the Sowle, Translated from the French of Guillaume de Guileville, and Printed by William Caxton An. 1483, with Iluminations taken from the MS. Copy in the British Museum ; edited by Katherine Isabella Cust." Pickering, 1859.
: "Instructions for Parish Priests, by John Myrc," was first printed in 1868 for the Early-English Text Society; edited from the Cotton. MS. Claudius, A. ii., by Mr. Edward Peacock, F.S.A.
3 Bordes, jests. “* Bord' is abridged,” says Jamieson, "from Old French 'bebourdir' and 'bohorder,' to joust witb lancts."
+ The flet, the flat, the floor. 5 Bere, noise.
Creed. English rhymed forms of these were given, and then followed instruction as to the teaching and explaining of the Articles of Faith, and the Seven Sacraments of the Church :- 1. Baptism ; 2. Contirmation ; 3. The Eucharist; 4. Penance ; 5. Priest's orders; 6. Matrimony; 7. Extreme Unction :
“ Lo! here the seven and no mo;
Look thou preché ofté tho.
And bless them fairé as they con
The usage of the Church in the fifteenth century was set forth upon all these heads, and as Penance was associated with Confession, this gave rise to a section upon admonition against, and forms of penance for, the seven deadly sins. The seventh sacrament being extreme unction, the book ended with the last offices of the priest to his parishioner. Then added the author
Whenever and wherever the sacred host was seen the people were to kneel; and a list was given of the evils from which any one was protected for the day on which he should have seen it.
“ Also within church and seyntwary
Do right thus as I thee say ;
“Now, dear priest, I pray thee,
For Goddés love, thou pray for me,
Witchcraft was to be forbidden the people ; also usury. Husbands and wives were to be taught that both must consent before either could undertake a penance, or a vow of chastity, or a pilgrimage
“ Save the vow to Jerusalem,
That is lawful to either of them.”
At the time when this was written, in the middle of the fifteenth century, for the instruction of the humbler clergy, the battle against neglect of duty by those who should be leaders of the Church was steadily continued. Followers of Wiclif were upholding strenuously the Bible as the only rule of faith; were battling against what they believed to be traditions of men, injurious to discipline and doctrine: were contrasting the pride of the Court of Rome, of cardinals, and of lordly prelates, with the life and teaching of Christ, and with the unworldly zeal of the Apostles ; were desiring in the Church pure
i Sakering, consecration of the host.
* Throwing the hatchet and putting the stone. Axtree may be axle. tree, which is said to have been used for throwing by the rustics.
3 Bars, Casting the bar was another of the athletic sports of the people ; and Henry VIII., after he came to the throne, is said by Hall and Holinshed to have retained " casting the bar" among his amusements. In a paper of the Spectator, written by Eustace Budgell (No. 161), a country fair of the year 1711 is described ; and the describer says : " Upon my asking a farmer's son, of my own parish, what he was gazing at with so much attention, he told me that he was soeing Betty Welch, whom I knew to be his sweetheart, pitch a bar."
* Chost, chest, “ceast," strife.
5 Mymg, remember, 6 Lere, dear. 7 Hodymoke, equivalent to "hugger mugger," in concealment. So in Satiro-mastix, “One word, Sir Quintilian, in hugger muser : " and Polonius in Hamlet, “ We have done but greenly in hngver-mister to inter him." In Icelandic “hugr," the mind, genitive "bare." enters into such compounds as “ hugar-angr" and "hugar-ekki.* far grief and distress of mind, “hugar-glöggt," &c. “Mugra " mesa mistiness, and, formed in the same way, “hngar-mugsa" would be mugginess or mistiness of mind, a mind obscured in base.
8 zerne, earnestly.
Bible teaching from men who strove religiously | of right in his impulsive nature, to make what those themselves to follow it, with frequent instruction of whom he defended looked upon as dangerous conthe people, by preaching and explaining to them the cessions. About the middle of the fifteenth century, Word of God.
perhaps in 1449, Reginald Pecock produced, on the Reginald Pecock, who was born not long before religious struggle of his day, a long English book, the death of Chaucer, was a Welshman, who studied entitled “The Repressor of Overmuch Blaming of at Oxford, and became Fellow of Oriel in 1417. In the Clergy." About the same time, in 1450, he was 1421 he was admitted to priest's orders; and a few made Bishop of Chichester. In 1456 he was followyears later was thriving in London, because his learn ing up his “Repressor" with another English treatise ing won him the goodwill of a friend of literature designed to promote peace by the persuasion of the who was then protector of the kingdom, Humphrey, Lollards. It was called a “ Treatise on Faith;” and Duke of Gloucester. Pecock was made Rector of Pecock, admitting it be vain to attempt to over-rule Whittington College, founded by the Sir Richard the Lollards by telling them that “ the church of the Whittington who was thrice Lord Mayor of London clergy may not err in matters of faith," trusted to (in 1397, 1406, and 1419). The College, dedicated argument, and said: “The clergy shall be condemned to the Holy Ghost, was in the Church of St. Michael at the last day if, by clear wit, they draw not men Royal, rebuilt by him, and finished by his executors into consent of true faith otherwise than by fire and in 1124. It consisted of a Master and four Fellows, sword and hangment; although,” he said, “I will clerks, choristers, &c., and near it was an almshouse not deny these second means to be lawful, provided for thirteen poor people. The office of Master of the former be first used.” He upheld the Bible as this College was associated with that of Rector of the the only rule of faith, was accused of under-rating Church to which it belonged ; and Pecock became the authority of the Fathers, even of the four great Master of Whittington College and Rector of St. fathers and doctors of the Church-Ambrose, AugusMichael Royal in 1431. Here he was resident for tine, Jerome, and Gregory—the four stots' of the the next thirteen years, in the midst of the Lollard allegory of Piers Plowman, who drew the harrow controversy, still active in study, and writing Eng. after the plough of the Gospel. It was urged that lish tracts upon the religious questions of his time when the Fathers had been quoted to rebut an arguIn 1440 he published a “ Donet,” or Introduction to ment of Pecock's he had even been known to say, the Chief Truths of the Christian Religion. In 1444 “Pooh, pooh!” In 1457, when, as Bishop of Chihis friend Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, gave chester, Reginald Pecock took his place in a Council Pecock the bishopric of St. Asaph. In this office his at Westminster, many temporal lords refused to take busy mind was still active, and there were many part in the business unless he were ejected. The critics of the opinions he expressed.
divines called on the Archbishop of Canterbury to When Thomas Arundel was Archbishop of Can submit to them Pecock's books for scrutiny. He terbury, from 1396 to 1413, the action against the was required to come with his books to Lambeth on Lollards had been quickened, new provision had been the eleventh of the next month, November. He was made for the burning of heretics, and freedom of then ordered to quit the Council chamber. Twentypreaching had been checked throughout the Church. four doctors, to whom Pecock's books were submitted, The reason for this was that, as preaching consisted found heresies in them. John of Bury, an Austin in interpretation of the Scripture, the much inter friar, replied to the “Repressor” with a “Gladius preting by many minds would lead to diversities of Salomonis” (“Sword of Solomon”), attacking him explanation, encourage laymen to apply their reason for his appeal to reason, and opposing the conclusions to Church matters, spread confusion of opinion, and which he held to be heretical. Finally, the Archbreak up the oneness of the Church. Arundel's bishop of Canterbury, Thomas Bourchier (Archbishop battle was for unity in Christendom. He died of a from A.D. 1454 to A.D. 1486) pronounced a sentence swelling of the tongue; and men said that was a which is thus reported :julement upon him for silencing the preachers. Three or four years after Arundel's death, Sir John “Dear brother, Master Reginald, since all heretics are Ollcastle (Lord Cobham), who had been a successful blinded by the light of their own understandings, and will general in the French wars, but at home was a friend not own the perverse obstinacy of their own conclusions, we and supporter of the Lollards, was, on Christmas shall not dispute with you in many words (for we see that Dav. 1417, suspended over a fire, and roasted alive you abound more in talk than in reasoning), but briefly show 28 a Lollard. Such acts were meant to daunt the
you that you have manifestly presumed to contravene the spirit of the Lollards, and did silence some, while it
sayings of the more authentic doctors. For as regards the nitirmed in them the spirit of opposition. But to the
descent of Christ into hell, the Tarentine doctor, in an inquiry braver minds it gave new energy of resistance to the
of his into the three creeds, says that it was left out of the action of the bishops. Then Reginald Pecock began
Nicene and Athanasian creeds, because no heresy had then a d-fence of the bishops, which could not please the
arisen against it, nor was any great question made about it. Lollaris because it was directed against them, and
As to the authority of the Catholic Church, the doctor displeased many of those whose champion he made
Augustine says, Unless the authority of the Church moved me,
I should not believe the Gospel. As to the power of councils, mer:lf, because he brought their case into court
the doctor Gregory says (and his words are placed in the before the body of the laity, by writing in English,
Canon, Distinct. xv.), that the four sacred Councils of Nice, diressing himself to them, appealing to their judg
Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon are not less to be mint with such arguments as then passed for reason anong scholastic men; and was led by the deeper sense
i The four stots. See page 99, col. 2.
honoured and hvorenced than the four holy Gospels. For in _“ for his finding ;” one account says forty pounds, them me he assorts, as on a square corner-stone, the struc- | another eleven. A fuller copy of the instructions, ture of sted faith is raised; and in them the rule of good in which the sum named is eleven pounds, adds to lite and mannits consists. The other doctors also say with the clause about the prisoner's bed-maker. “that no one month that although the sacred councils may err in
one else shall speak to him without leave, and in matters of tart, yet they may not err in matters of faith,
the presence of the abbot, unless the King or the her nem érty general council, where two or three are
Archbishop send to the abbey any man with writing ut here to wehrt in Christ's name, His Holy Spirit is there
specially in that behalf;" and another copy, which in the midst of them, who does not suffer them to err in faith
gives forty pounds as the sum paid—and xi. seems to or to depart. from the way of truth. As regards the sense
have been only a clerical error for xl.—shows that and autentning of Scripture, the doctor Jerome says, that
part of the money was to be considered by the abbey whoevre enslerstands or expounds it otherwise than the
payment to itself for its trouble and responsibility; mraning in the Holy Spirit requires, is an undoubted heretic. Win whom are the Lincoln doctor (Grosteste), thus
for concerning “the said Reynold” there was a an in W T excogitates any opinion contrary to Scrip
“ Provided in all wise that all the forty pounds Lewa, the fratelliy teach it and obstinately adhere to it, is to
above written be not expended about his finding, ha correntet tor herrtic." The archbishop having then
but a competent part thereof, as his necessity shall A ward at the necesity of removing a sickly sheep from
require; and that the remanent thereof be disposed the front let the whole flock should be infected, offered
to the common weal of the behoof of the said place." Bu sur le bonis obuste butwein making a public abjuration of his CV bod innng delivered, after degradation, to the secular *imo that: tund of fire and fuel for the burning.” “ Choose One w two," he added), “ for the alternative is immePralo ito the coercion of heretics."
Prunk band admitted the right of the Church to
og mod submission, though he thought it was the Charla's duty to persuade by reason; and it was in mimodula accord with his own teaching that he should Wow submit to the force used against himself. He miljonies the condemned opinions; and on the 4th of Tember, 1457, was brought in his robes as Bishop
A thoirtha-star to St. Paul's Cross, where he recanted probably, in presence of twenty thousand people, and Pred delivered with his own hand three folios of his WHOSE Smolovon quartos to the public executioner, whole o not thin as publicly into a fire lighted for the
A tumoght litor, the authorities of the University Altun wont in procession to Carfax, and there bronne every convy of a book of Pecock's that could be Piment le the WWI. In March, 1459, Reginald Pecock WAH ddegrrivold of his bishopric, and sent by the ArchImagen Canterbury to Thorney Abbey, in CamVervisi white, with these instructions for his safebonus whenommodd to William Ryall, who was Abbot n't worry between the years 1457 and 1464 :
If well have a secret closed chamber (having a chimWe word invitince within the abbey, where he may have
het ke wane altar to hear mass; and that he pass not the wird beraber To have but one person that is sad (grave)
oil well-dowswd to make his bed, and to make him fire, as It wbredd vedt That he have no books to look on, but only a werper mi viney), a mass-book, a psalter, a legend, and a Tabel 1 horat he have nothing to write with ; no stuff to write mmIhne he have competent fuel according to his age, med rom hom niecommity shull require. That he be served daily ud and drink am a brother of the abbey is served when the iw or com a from the freytour (i.e., from dining in hall), word wanne whunt buttot after the first quarter, as his disposi.
w rosewable appetite shall desire, conveniently after the second linenotion of the said abbot.”
We turn now to Pecock's “Repressor" for some knowledge of that defence of the Church against the Lollards which brought down upon its author the condemnation of the Church. He began with a text from the fourth chapter of St. Paul's Second Epistle
- - -- -i These instructions are quoted in the introduction to the valuable edition of Pecock's “Repressor," by Mr. Churchill Babington, which is included among "The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages," published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls.
My differ as to the amount paid to the abbey for the maintenance of Reynold (Reginald) Pecock,
2 Tborney Abbey, completed in 1108, covered five times as much ground as this part, left standing after the Reformation.
tenance of Reynold (Reginald) Pecock,
to Timothy: “Undernyme thou, biseche thou, and nyme thou, biseche thou, and blame thou, in al pacience and blame thou, in all pacience and doctrine." __“ Re- | doctrine : as though I should say thus : If thou canst teach, prore, rebuke, exhort, with all long-suffering and shew, and prove that the deed of which thou undernymest doctrine." And thus he opened his case with a com
and blamest the person or persons is a default and a trespass, ment that, at the outset, granted the right of the laity
and then that he is guilty thereof, undernyme then and tu question, and made it the duty of the higher
blame thou in thilk cunning, or doctrine, and in patience; clergy to reply to questions, and with patience to set
and if thou canst not so shew, teach, and prove, thou oughtest forth the doctrine that would satisfy the doubter's
be still, and not so undernyme and blame. mind.
For else Saint Paul should not have said thus : Undernyme
thou, blame thou, in all patience and doctrine; yea, and else REGISALD PECOCK'S PROLOGUE TO “ THE REPRESSOR."
thou oughtest undernyme and blame first thyself of this
default that thou undernymest and blamest not, having the " C'ndernymed thou, bisechethou, and blame thou, in all
doctrine which thou oughtest have, ere than thou take upon patience and doctrine."
thee for to undernyme and blame; and so to each such overThough these words were written by Saint Paul to Timothy, hasty and unwise blamer might be said what is written, being a bishop, and not a lay person of the common people, | Luke, ch. iv., thus : 0) leech, heal thyself. Yea, peradvenyet in these words Saint Paul giveth not to Timothy instruc ture, to some such blamers, and for somewhiles, might be said tion of any higher governance than that which also he might what is written, Luke, the vi. ch., thus: Hypocrite, take first hite giver to a lay person of the common people, because the beam out of thine own eye, and then thou shalt see for that in these words Paul giveth instruction, not of correction to take the mote out of thin neighbour's eye. And further
vt of correcting by threatening and punishing), which more, sithen it is so, that such unwise, undiscreet, and overboth only to the overer anentis his netherer, and not to
hasty undernymers letten* the effect of their wise and discreet the tetherer anentis his overer ; but he giveth instruction of and well-avised undernymings which they in other times ! Teptions and of correpting, which not only longeth to an maken or mowe make to the clergy, and so given occasion serer anentis his netherer, but also to a netherer anentis his that both they themself and their just undernymings ben Vierer, as it is open ; 2 Thessalonians, ch. iii., and Matthew, despised and ben not set by, and so maken thereby themsilf b. xviii., and as reason also it well confirmeth, so that it be to be letters of much good and causers of much evil, it is a with honesty and reverence and with other thereto by right great need that all those which taken upon them to be rason due circumstances. Of which correption first opening undernymers and blamers of the clergy keep well what is or doing to wite. then next blaming, and afterward biseching, said to be the meaning of Saint Paul in the before-rehearsed
a parties: and therefore these same words speaking only words : Undernyme thou, biseche thou, blame thou, in all of correption, so by St. Paul dressed to Timothy, bishop, to patience and doctrine.
bom longeth both to corrept and correct, mowe well enough! Now that God, for His goodness and charity, cease the by taken and dressed farther to each lay person, for to therein sooner in the common people such unwise, untrue, and overrint to him instruction how he should rule him whenever he hasty undernyming and blaming made upon the clergy, and tešeth upon him for to, in neighbourly or brotherly manner, that for the harm and evils thereby coming now said: I shall ft pt his Christian neighbour or brother, namelich, being | do thereto somewhat of my part in this, that I shall justify as otherwise to him his overer. In which words (as it is eleven governances of the clergy, which some of the common
2 Dough for to see) each man which taketh upon him people unwisely and untruly judgen and condemnen to be it s of brotherly correption is informed that the parties evil—of which eleven governances, one is the having and
thilk correption (which ben undernyming, biseching and using of images in churches, and another is pilgrimage in baling) he do “in patience and in doctrine;" that is to going to the memorials or the mind-places of saints, and
v, over this, that for the while of his correpting he have that pilgrimages and offerings mowe be done well, not only i-sti Dor, that he have also therewith such doctrine, knowing, privily, but also openly, and not only so of laymen, but running whereby he can show and prove it to be a default rather of priests and of bishops. And this I shall do by v which he undernymeth and blameth, and the person so writing of this present book in the common people's lanCele mume and blamed to be guilty in the same default and guage, plainly, and openly, and shortly, and to be cleped The
Repressing of ouer miche wijting the Clergie: and he shall have w forasmuch as after it what is written (Romans, ch. x.) five principal parties. In the first of which parties shall be -3 have zeal of good will, but not after cunning, and have made in general manner the said repressing, and in general *L-1 with taken upon them for to undernyme and blame manner proof to the eleven said governances. And in the
tly and sharply, both in speech and in writing, the clergy second, third, fourth, and fifth principal parties shall be made truf'whole Church in earth, and for to bear an hand | in special manner the said repressing
in special manner the said repressing, and in special manner on the said clergy that he is guilty in some governances the proofs to the same eleven governances; though all other
in defaults, which governances those blamers cunnen not | governances of the clergy, for which the clergy is worthy to 'n bw, teach, and prove to be defaults and sins; and have be blamed in brotherly or neighbourly correption, I shall not to thy marlo full much indignation, disturbance, schism, be about to excuse, neither defend; but pray, speak, and 221 bir evils for to rise and be continued in many persons write, in all patience and doctrine, that the clergy forsake ning time of many years: therefore, to each such un them, leave, and amend. Tai, and unready, and overhasty undernymer and IT I say the before rehearsed words of St. Paul: Under
After this prologue, Pecock began his first part by
finding the ground of much blame of the clergy by "Pederyme (First-English "underniman,” undertake), take in
the laity in “three trowings,” holdings, or opinions, of Pad, reprebel.
which the first was: That no governance is to be held * Esche, contend against. First-English “bisæ'ce," disputable,
7p,on (Latin "correptio," a laying hold of), reproof, rebuke.
5 Wijting, blaming. First-English "witan."