« AnteriorContinuar »
by Christian men as part of the service or the law of written in man's soul and heart, the words so written God, except that which is grounded in Holy Scrip without forth oughten to be expowned and be interture of the New Testament, as some say, or as others | preted and brought for to accord with the doom say, in the New Testament and in that part of the of reason in thilk matter, and the doom of reason Old Testament which the New has not revoked. ought not for to be expowned, glosed, interpreted They who hold this trowing, said Pecock, “if any and brought for to accord with the said outward clerk affirmeth to them any governance, being con writing in Holy Scripture of the Bible or ough where trary to their wit or pleasance, though it lie full open else out of the Bible.” Pecock referred to a previous and full surely in doom of reason, and therefore surely book of his own on “ The just apprising of Holy in moral law of kind, which is law of God, for to be Scripture” in which he had dwelt on that law of done, yet they anon asken, Where groundest thou nature which it is not the work of Scripture to it in the New Testament?' or “Where groundest reveal, and he drew an illustration from the country thou it in Holy Scripture in such place which is not people who came into London on Midsummer ere by the New Testament revoked ?""
with carts full of branches of trees from Bishop's The second trowing, or opinion, from which Pecock Wood, and flowers from the fields, for decoration of traced much undue blame of the clergy, was this: | the houses of the citizens in remembrance of John “That whatever Christian man or woman be meek the Baptist and of the prophecy that many should in spirit and willy for to understand truly and duly joy in his birth. Did they think that the branches Holy Scripture, shall, without fail and default, find and flowers grew from the hands of the country the true understanding of Holy Scripture in whatever folk by which they were given, or from the carts in place he or she shall read and study, though it be in which they were brought? Though Christ himself the Apocalypse or ough where else, and the more and his Apostles were the bringers, " yet the men of meek he or she be, the sooner he or she shall come London, receiving so those branches and flower into the very true and due understanding of it which oughten not say and feel that those branches ani in Holy Scripture he or she studieth. This second flowers grewen out of Christ's hands and out of the opinion they weenen to be grounded in Holy Scrip | Apostles' hands. For why? in this deed Christ and ture.” Here Pecock quoted some of the passages on the Apostles diden none otherwise than as other men which it was based, adding that, “in other divers mighten and couthen do. But the said receivers places of Scripture mention is made that God givethoughten see and hold that the branches grewen ou: good things to meek men more than if they were not of the boughs upon which they in Bishop's Wood so meek.”
stooden, and those boughs grewen out of stocks a The third trowing, Pecock explained to be the truncheons, and the truncheons or shafts grewen ot opinion that no Christian should let reason of man of the root, and the root out of the next earth therrto overthrow the view of Scripture teaching that he or upon which and in which the root is buried, so that she had arrived at by such meek and faithful study. neither the cart, neither the hands of the bringers, This trowing was founded upon admonitions of St. neither those bringers, ben the grounds or fundamects Paul, in the second chapter of the Epistle to the of the branches; and in like manner the field is the Colossians, and in the first chapter of the Epistle fundament of those flowers, and not the hands of to the Corinthians. As Pecock quoted one of the the gatherers, neither those bringers. Certes, but if warnings to the Colossians that was relied upon, each man wole thus feel in this matter, he is duller the warning relied upon was, “ See ye that no man than any man ought to be." So it is, said Pecoch. beguile you by philosophy and vain falseness after with whatever we find of the natural law brought to the traditions of men and after the elements of the us by Scripture. It is not the purpose of Scripture world, and not after Christ.”
to bring us those truths which we should have stii Against the first of these three trowings, Pecock though all the Scriptures were burned. These belong proceeded to argue for thirteen conclusions. The first to the Law of Nature; "they ben grounded in thulk was that “It longeth not to Holy Scripture, neither forest of Law of Kind which God planteth in me!!* it is his office into which God hath him ordained, soul when he maketh him to His image and liked neither it is his part, for to ground any governance or deed or service of God, or any law of God, or any truth which man's reason by nature may find, learn
2 For why, because.
3 In the first book of Richard Hooker's “ Ecclesiastical Petty," and know.” After setting forth six arguments to
published in 1593, is a like argument. "As the actions of u se prove this conclusion he drew from it as a corollary, of sundry distinct kinds, so the laws thereof nust according to “that whenever and wherever in Holy Scripture or distinguished..... As tbat first error sheweth wbert in our out of Holy Scripture be written any point or any
posites in this cause have grounded themselves. For as the most
maintain that God must be glorified in all things, and that the stis governance of the said law of kind, it is more verily
of men cannot tend unto His glory unless they be framed after Es written in the book of man's soul than in the outward Law; so it is their error to think that the only Law wh book of parchment or of vellum ; and if any seeming
appointed unto man in that belief is the Sacred Scripture By t* discord be betwixt the words written in the outward
which we work naturally, as when we breathe, sleep, more, vt
forth the glory of God as natural agents do, albeit we have no apres book of Holy Scripture and the dooin of reason purpose to make that our end, nor any advised determinado tbc
to follow a law, but do that we do (for the most part) not as a
thinking thereon. In reasonable and moral actious pode * i His and him are not of necessity masculine. They were also taketh place; law by the observation whereof we xiinfy thods neuters in First English and in Pecock's time. “Hit” or “it' was such sort as no creature else under man is able to do; bes only used in the nominative and accusative, and “its" was a form creatures have not judgment to examine the quality of the verba not yet invented. But Pecock does make "Scripture” masculine. is done by them, and therefore in that they do they neither CARA
The second of Pecock's thirteen conclusions against | faith themselves rest upon reason as well as Scripture; the first trowing of the blamers of the clergy, was and the Sacraments of the Church, Pecock urged, that although Holy Scripture be not the ground of would not be grounded on Scripture for our govermoral truths at which man's natural reason must nance without the help of reason, and unless the arrive, “yet it may pertain well enough to Holy law of God in nature were joined to the law of God Scripture that he rehearse such now said governances in Holy Writ. Pecock's eleventh conclusion was, and truths, and that he witness them as grounded therefore, that the laity ought to make much of somewhere else in the law of kind or doom of man's clerks who had well studied that moral philosophy ; reason. And so he doth (as to each reader therein and, twelfth conclusion, they should prize and study it may be open) that by thilk rehearsing and wit | books based upon such assay and experience, which nessing so done by Holy Scripture to men, those distinguished between those parts of the law of God men shoulden be both remembered, stirred, provoked, which are and are not grounded in Scripture, and and exhorted for to the rather perform and fulfil between those truths of faith which are and those those same so rehearsed and witnessed governances which are not laws. His thirteenth and last conand truths.” The third principal conclusion was that clusion, against the first of the three trowings of the “ the whole office and work into which God ordained laity, came then straight to the point that the question Holy Scripture, is for to ground articles of faith, and _“Where findest thou it grounded in Scripture ?" for to rehearse and witness moral truths of law of -is only applicable to those governances or truths kind grounded in moral philosophy, that is to say, in involving articles of faith. To apply such a question doom of reason.” Of the articles of faith grounded to the statement of governance or truth grounded in in Scripture, some—as, that in the beginning God | law of nature or moral philosophy is, he said, as unmade Heaven and Earth—are not laws; and some reasonable as to ask Scripture authority for a truth in -as, that each man ought to be baptized in water grammar, or to ask of a conclusion in saddlery-are laws. The next point in the argument “ Where findest thou it grounded in tailor-craft?”. the fourth conclusion—was that, as it is not the | "And," said Pecock, “if any man be feared lest he part of Scripture to ground laws of nature, so it is trespass to God if he make over little of Holy Scripno part of the law of nature to ground articles of ture, which is the outward writing of the Old Testafaith. Nevertheless-fifth conclusion—as Scripture ment and the New, I ask why is he not afeared lest rehearses and enforces the moral law of nature, he make over little, and apprise over little, the inward so treatises on natural religion may rehearse and Scripture of the before-spoken law of kind, written enforce articles of faith which are not grounded | by God Himself in man's soul, when he made man's in them. The whole office and work of the books soul to His image and likeness ?” of moral philosophy is to express outwardly, by pen Pecock next proceeded to the discussion of texts and ink, the truth, grounded on the inward book | usually quoted in relation to his argument. He of law of kind, buried in man's soul and heart, | dwelt, also, on the effect produced upon those of and to rehearse some truths and conclusions of the laity who had been enabled, by Wiclif and his faith, grounded in Holy Scripture, that the readers | fellow-workers, to read the Bible in their mother be the more and often stirred and exhorted by the tongue. They had found it “miche delectable and recital of them. That was the sixth conclusion ; sweete, and draweth the reders into a devocion and and the seventh went on to maintain that the greater a love to God, and fro love and deinté of the world ; part of God's whole law to man on earth is grounded as y have had herof experience upon such reders, outside Holy Scripture in the inward book of law and upon her now seid dispocioun.” The delight and of kind. Therefore Pecock's next conclusion was profit, and the lifting of their souls, led them to find his eighth--that no man can know the whole law of all they needed in their Bibles, and to forget that God to which a Christian is bound, without know there are truths of God written elsewhere, and reason ledge of moral philosophy; and, ninth, no man given to man wherewith to find them, and apply without such knowledge could surely and sufficiently them to his use. But reason is fallible_Scripture understand those parts of Holy Scripture which infallible ; to those who said, for that cause, Let not rehearse moral virtues not being positive law of reason be our guide, the next part of the argument faith. From these followed the tenth conclusion, was addressed. This led to argument on the necessity that the learning of the said law of nature, and of of an instructed clergy, on the errors introduced by the said moral philosophy, is necessary to Christian private exposition that destroyed Church unity. Here men if they will serve God aright. The articles of Pecock, in a passage that I give without change of
spelling, spoke thus of
DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCH. “Certis in this wise and in this now seid maner and bi this now seid cause bifille the rewful and wepeable destruccioun of the worthi citee and vniuersite of Prage, and of the hool
nor approve themselves. Men do both, as the Apostle teacheth; yea, those men which have no written Law of God to show what is good or evil carry written in their hearts the universal law of mankind, the Law of Reason, whereby they judge as by a rule which God hath given unto all men for that purpose. The Law of Reason doth somewhat direct men how to honour God as their Creator; but how to glorify God in such sort as is required to the end he may be an
Saviour, this we are taught by Divise Law, which law both ascertaineth the truth and supplieth unto us the want of that other law. So that in moral actions, Divine law helpeth exceedingly the Law of Reason to guide man's life; but in supernatural it alone guideth."
i Her, tbeir.
? Reference is to the taking of Prague in 1419 by Ziska, who led | the Hussites after the burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague
in 1415 and 1416. In 1419, John de Troeznow, called Ziska,
rewme of Beeme, as y haue had ther of enformacioun ynou3. so oon clerk is different from an other in kunnyng. And And now, aftir the destruccioun of the rewme, the peple ben ther fore, brother, take heede to doom of cleer resoun in this glad for to resorte and turne azen into the catholic and mater, which also is remembrid to vs bi the wise man, general feith and loore of the chirche, and in her pouer te Ecclesiastici vje. č., thus : Manie be to thee pesible, but of a bildith up a zen what was brent and throwun doun, and noon thousind oon be thi counseiler. And in special be waar that of her holdingis can thriue. But for that Crist in his pro thou not accepte, chese, and take a clerk forto be sufficient to pheciyng muste needis be trewe, that ech kingdom deuidid in thee into the now seid purpos bi this aloon, that he mai were hem silf schal be destruyed, therfore to hem bifille the now a pilioun on his heed; neither bi this, that he is a famose and seid wrecchid my's chaunce. God for his merci and pitee a plesaunt precher to peple in a pulpit; neither bi this, that kepe Ynglond, that he come not into lijk daunce. But forto he is a greet and thikke rateler out of textis of Holi Scripture turne here fro azen vnto oure Bible men, y preie ze scie ze to or of Doctouris in feestis or in othere cumpanyingis : for me, whanne among you is rise a strijf in holdingis and certis experience hath ofte tauzt and mai here teche surely opiniouns, (bi cause that ech of you trustith to his owne ynou3, that summe werers of piliouns in scole of dyuynyte studie in the Bible aloon, and wole haue alle treuthis of han scantli be worthi for to be in the same scole a good scoler; mennys moral conuersacioun there groundid,) what iuge mai and ful manye of the ijo. and ij". soortis appeering ful therto be assigned in erthe, saue resoun and the bifore seid gloriose to the heering of the lay parti, and also summe of doom of resoun? For thouz men schulden be iugis, zit so othere maner of clerkis, whanne thei schulden come forto muste thei be bi vce of the seid resoun and doom of resoun; dispute and examyne and trie and iuge in harde doutis of and if this be trewe, who schulde thanne better or so weel Goddis lawe, were not worthi forto therto vnnethis opene her vse, demene, and execute this resoun and the seid doom, as mouth. I detecte here no man in special; who euer can proue schulde tho men whiche han spende so miche labour aboute him silf to be noon such as y haue here now spoken of, he thilk craft ? Asid these ben tho now bifore said clerkis. therbi schewith weel him to be noon of hem." And therfore, 3e Bible men, bi this here now seid which ze muste needis graunte, for experience which ze han of the From what seemed to him the first mistaken disturblaunce in Beeme, and also of the disturblaunce and trowing of those who for their devotion to the dyuerse feelingis had among jou silf now in Ynglond, so Scripture as a rule of life were called the Bible men, that summe of zou ben clepid Doctour-mongers, and summe Pecock passed to a brief discussion of the second and ben clepid Opinioun-holders, and summe ben Neutralis, that of
third trowing, for which his reply to the first had so presumptuose a cisme abhominacioun to othere men and
I prepared the ground. Then he went on to the eleven schame to you it is to heere; rebuke now 3ou silf, for as
impugned ordinances of the Church which he had miche as ze wolden not bifore this tyme allowe, that resoun
undertaken to defend, and the first of these, occupeand his doom schulde haue such and so greet interesse in the
| ing the second part of his book, was the use of lawe of God and in expownyng of Holi Scripture, as y haue
images, the going on pilgrimages, and veneration of seid and proucd hem to haue.
relics. Then came, in the third part, his vindication “And also herbi take ze a sufficient mark, that ze haue
of wealth of the clergy. The fourth part defended nede forto haue joure recours and conseil with suche now biforeseid clerkis, thouz zewolden labore, and powre, and
the Church government by bishops, archbishops, dote alle the daies of youre lijf in the Bible aloon. And
patriarchs, and popes, and replied to the complaint drede 3e of the effect which bifille to Bohemers for lijk cause,
of the Lollards that ecclesiastical laws, made by the and mys gouernaunce in holding the first seid opinioun ; and
high clergy, were set over divine laws. The fifth bi so miche the more drede 30 thilk effect, bi how miche bi
part of the “Repressor” replied to the complaints Crist it is pronouncid forto falle, where euer cysme and
against the religious orders—their existence, their dyvisyoun is contynued; for he seith (Matth. xij.) c., that dress, their stately houses, wealth in land-and cuery kingdom or comounte duridid in him silf schal be des. | ended with brief reference to the other five occasions truyed. But thanne azenward ze must be waar her of, that of question : namely, invocation of saints ; church euen as oon sterre is different from an other sterre in cleernes, ornaments, as bells, banners, and relics ; superstitious
use of the sacraments; the use of oaths; and the
approval of war by the clergy. Pecock here referred or the one-eyed, who after the burning of auss deeply resented
also to the places in other works of his in which what he called “the bloody affrout suffered by Bohemians at he had more fully vindicated the Church usage of Constance," placed himself at the head of an armed people against his time. the aggressions of Rome on the liberty of the Bohemian Church.
The point of view in Pecock's “ Repressor" was King Wenzel died, and his brother, the Emperor Sigismund, who acted with the Pope, and had dishonoured his pledge of safe-conduct that of a busy-minded man, essentially religious, who by which Huss had been decoyed to Constance, claimed succession maintained the ecclesiastical forms of his clav by in Bohemia. This threatened the Bohemians with forfeiture alike of
looking at what seemed to him to be their foundacivil and religious liberty. Ziska then raised national war against both Pope and Emperor. He became master of Prague, was victorious
tion in nature and reason. He wrote with Christian over Sigismund on Mount Wittkow, rudely maintained the work of charity, desiring to abate the bitterness of strife. He Reformation sword in hand, and, when an arrow from the wall of
endeavoured to start from first principles, and to show Rubi pierced bis one sound eye and left him wholly blind. talked
reason for change of opinion by that party in the still of joining battle. "I have yet," he said, “my blood to shed. Let me be gone." He still battled, suffering defeat once, until
Church which was intolerant of usages for which Sigismund submitted to the claim of the Bohemians for liberty of there was no direct warrant of Scripture, or which, worship, and give them Ziska for their governor. But Ziska died of
like the custom of demanding oaths and the sanctitplague while, in 1424, this treaty was in progress, and the war con. tinued for cleven years after his death. The Bohemians buried their
- - - - - - -- - -- -------- --- -- - -** hero in the church at Czaslow, and wrote over his grave, “ Here lies John Ziska, who having defended his country against the encroach. I Pilioun, the henllress of a priest or graduate. The Latin "pilens** ments of Papal tyrunny, rests in this hallowed place in despite of was a close-fitting felt cap like the half of an egg, worn at festivals, the Pope."
aud given to a slave on his enfranchisement as a sign of freedom.
cation of war, were condemned as contrary to the
falling into utmost peril for the tree use of his reason, express commands of Christ. Pecock's design was
there occurred-on the 29th of May, 1453—the fall to do for the English Church of his own day what
of all that remained of the Eastern Roman Empire, was done by Richard Hooker, at a later stage of
the taking of Constantinople by the Turks; and in the same controversy, for the Church in the time
1455 the production of the first printed book, a of Elizabeth, with equal charity and greater power. Bible (called, from its later discovery in the library Hooker wrote with more vigour in a time more
of Cardinal Mazarin, the Mazarin Bible), was comvigorous, which needed arguments more valid than
pleted. The Fall of Constantinople scattered learned many which passed current among Churchmen and
Greeks, who taught their language in Florence and schoolmen of the fifteenth century. Pecock's reason
elsewhere, introduced into Europe the study of Plato ing was above the standard of his day, though it
-in whom the most cultivated Church reformers could not approach the energy of English thought in
found a strong ally—and gave impulse to the revival the latter years of Queen Elizabeth. He was de
of learning. The Invention of Printing, by quickenfending also many usages and institutions against
ing and cheapening the reproduction of books, enabled which, already in Elizabeth's day, time had proved
every energetic thinker to touch with his mind many the attack to be more powerful than the defence.
other men where he had before touched only one. Pecock's appeal to reason in aid of a right study of
True voices that had reached only a few were to be the Bible was, in the fifteenth century, when the
heard thenceforth by thousands; and the force of balance of culture was largely on the side of the
every strong mind, as leader of opinion in the warfare clergy, an appeal to the less educated laity to secure
for a higher life, was to be as the force of an army, unity of the Church by abandoning the right of
in which every copy of his printed book was as a private interpretation until they were as well quali
private soldier combatant with all the genius and fied for it as the most cultivated Churchmen. The
courage of his chief. desire for a Church that should be a stronghold of
During the rest of the fifteenth century the new Christian unity, was strong in him and strong also in
powers were coming into play. It was not until those for whom the author of Piers Plowman spoke.
about 1474 that William Caxton brought the printing Perhaps the best of the Lollards or Biblemen, those
press to England, and set it up in Westminster afterwards called Puritans, admitting differences of
Abbey. The diffusion of manuscript books had been interpretation that must follow upon the claim of
from the writing-rooms of the monasteries, and when every man to draw from his Bible what he himself
the demand upon a monastery exceeded the powers felt to be its truths, looked rather to unity of Chris of supply by the brotherhood, professional copyists tian life : while on the opposite side it was felt that a
came in aid of the work of the scriptorium, and Decessary safeguard to the unity of Christian life lay
housed themselves conveniently within or near the in the unity of doctrine. It is the purpose of this
precincts of the minster. Thus, when Caxton introvolume not to set forth the arguments produced on
duced the new method of copying manuscripts by either side, but, so far as it touches the great contro
machinery, he sought custom by setting up his busiversy in its successive stages and the sub-divisions
ness among the copyists at Westminster. It was not of opinion, to show in men of the most opposite
until 1508 that Walter Chepman set up the first opinions the same search for conditions that will
printing press in Scotland. hulp a people to come near to God, the same aspira The civil wars of York and Lancaster, stirring no tion of the soul of man toward the source of light
high thought in the hearts of combatants, stayed the and life. In the quotations here given from Reginald
| advance of English literature. In the reign of Henry Perock it is noticeable that while he reasoned with
VII. its old voice began to be heard again, although the Lollards, he did not look at the worst men of not yet with its old vigour. But in Scotland—where the party he opposed, but at the best ; seeking to
our northern English still cherished the spirit of understand their highest view of duty; and set forth
independence, held a kingdom of their own, and the grounds of difference between himself and them.
battled, not in vain, against rulers of England who Jowhere is there a better witness to the powerful desired by conquest to make them subject to their effect proluced upon the English people by Wiclif's
crown-men were free to feel the impulse of the time. work on the translation of the Bible, than when
A few years before the close of the fifteenth century, Pecock traces the enthusiasm against which he rea
Robert Henryson? had taken his place as one of a kuris, to the sweetness men found in the words of
new group of our northern poets, and, in accordance the Gospel coming to them in their mother-tongue,
with the taste of his time for religious allegory, wrote the charın that bound them to it, and that fervent
this poem--founded on a tale in the “ Gesta RoFramning towards the ideal of a Christian life that it
manorum,"? of Levi suddenly awakened in their souls.
i Robert Henryson. See the volume of this Library illustrating
“Shorter English Poems," pages 74-81. While men were thus contending in opinion, and
2 The Gesta Romanorum was a collection of tales current in Europe
in the Middle Ages, so written that they might be used, by help of an the fiery zeal of many was inevitably blended with
"application" added to each, as spiritual allegories for the enliven. the passions of the world, two events happened that ment of sermons or otherwise in aid of the religious life. Some of pratly affected the course of thought in the next the tales were old stories ingeniously applied, and others manifestly entrations. About the time when Pecock's mind
written for the purposes to which they are addressed. The collection,
which is of uncertain origin, was widely used, and of course the MSS. Fan occupied with his “ Repressor,” and he was l of it differ much in substance and arrangement. The name “Gesta
He held the Lady day and nycht,
Within his deip dungeoun; He wald nocht gif of hir a sicht
For gold nor yit ransoun, Bot gife 19 the king mycht get a Knycht,
To fecht with his persoun, To fecht with him, both day and nycht, Quhill ane wer dungin doun. 20
The King gart seikoi baith fer and neir,
Beth be se and land,
Wald fecht with that Gyand.
Hes tane the deid on hand,
And held full trew cunnand."
Romanorum” (Acts of the Romans) was given to it, because a real or imaginary Roman Emperor generally figured in each tale, the Emperor representing in the allegory God or Christ. One form of the story given with original variations as "The Bludy Serk" stands thus in a translation of the "Gesta,” published in 1824 by the Rev. Charles Swan :
OF INGRATITUDE. "A certain noble lady suffered many injuries from a tyrannical king, who laid waste her domains. When the particulars of it were communicated to her, her tears flowed fast, and her heart was oppressed with bitterness. It happened that a pilgrim visited her, and remained there for some time. Observing the poverty to which she had been reduced, and feeling compassion for her distresses, he offered to make war in her defence; on condition that, if he fell in battle, his staff and scrip should be retained in her private chamber, as a memorial of his valour, and of her gratitude. She faithfully promised compliance with his wishes ; and the pilgrim, hastening to attack the tyraut, obtained a splendid victory. But in the heat of the contest, he was transfixed by an arrow, which occasioned his death. The lady, aware of this, did as she promised: the staff and scrip were suspended in her chamber. Now, when it was known that she had recovered all her lost possessions, three kings made large preparations to address, and, as they hoped, incline her to become the wife of one of them. The lady, forewarned of the intended honour, adorned herself with great care, and walked forth to meet them. They were received according to their dignity; and whilst they remained with her, she fell into some perplexity, and said to herself, “If these three kings enter my chamber, it will disgrace me to suffer the pilgrim's staff and scrip to remain there. She commanded them to be taken away; and thus forgot her vows, and plainly evinced her ingratitude.
APPLICATION. “My beloved, the lady is the hnman soul, and the tyrant is the devil, who spoils us of our heavenly inheritance. The pilgrim is Christ, who fights for and redeems us; but, forgetful of his services, we receive the devil, the world, and the flesh, into the chamber of our souls, and put away the memorials of our Saviour's love."
i Serk, sark or shirt. First-English “syrce," and "serce ;" Danish "gærk ;” Icelandic “serkr." The Norse “berserkr" was probably 80 called from the old days of clothing in skins, as one who had a bear's hide for his covering. In this poem I leave the old spelling unchanged.
2 Anceane (French “ancien ") ancient, old. * Ring, reign,
• Ying, young. 5 Scho bur, she bore.
6 Air, heir. 7 Lusty laitis, pleasant manners. Icelandic “lát"=English " let," as in "outlet," means in the plural manners.
* He, high. First-English "heah."
19 Bigly, commodious, pleasant to dwell in Icelandic “ byggja," to inhabit.
11 Om fold, on earth.
12 Paramour, French “par amour," by or with love. Paramour represented either man or woman bound by love to another, and was used in a good sense.
13 Our all quhair, over all where, everywhere. Quh in Scottish is equivalent to wh in English. See notes in pages 265 and 78 of the volume of this Library containing " Shorter English Poems."
14 Lyt, little is Gyane, giant.
16 Cast her in his dungeon, where light she might see none; hunger and cold and great thirsting she found in to her traine, in her abode.
17 Our-tuk, overtook. 18 In schondir schuke, in sunder sbook. 19 Bot gife, but if, unless. 20 Till one was beaten down. 21 Gart seik, caused scarch to be made. 22 Cunnand, engagement, promise. 23 Then broke open the prison chamber, brought home the fair one. ** Wondit, wounded. 25 Behurit to de, must needs die.
26 Unlovesome was his body dight. First-English " dihatan," to dispose, set forth, arrange.