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And no quarrel’ a knight ought to take But for a truth, or for the Commons sake.

«6 • For first Good Hope his leg harness should be ;

His habergeon of Perfect Righteousness,
Girt fast with the girdle of Chastity;

His rich placard 2 should be Good Business,
Brandred 3 with Almés so full of Largess;
The helmet Meekness, and the shield Good Faith ;
His swordé Goddés Word, as Saint Paul saith.

A repulsive sketch of the dwarf is given, and the poem then breaks for a time from the seven-ind Troilus Verse or Chaucer Stanza, vulgarly called rhyme royal, because James I. of Scotland followed his master Chaucer in the use of it. This verse had been fixed for us by Chaucer's example in the sale position that had been given by the genius of Bee caccio to octave rhyme in Italy, as the standard measure for sustained poetic narrative. So it ir mained until after the accession of Elizabeth, and so, therefore, it was adopted by Stephen Hawes for his “Pastime of Pleasure," and significantly dropped when this character of empty prating slander, False Report, under the name of Godfrey Gobelive, is set to try Graundamoure's temper by gross slander against woman. The verse chosen for this part of the narrative is Chaucer's Riding Rhyme, so called from its use by Chaucer in description of his pilgrims on the road to Canterbury :

" " Also true widows he ought to restore

Unto their right for to attain their dower,
And to uphold and maintain evermore

The wealth of maidens with his mighty power.
And this sov'rayne at every manner hour
To be readý, true, and eke obeisa unt,
In stable love fixed and not variaunt.'”

So taught, and armed, and mounted on the fair barbed steed Minerva brought him, Graundamoure went forward again with his two greyhounds, Grace and Governance, and his varlet, Good Attendance. The knight Truth rode out to put him on his way with a fair company of other knights—Sir Fortitude, Sir Justice, Sir Misericorde, Sir Sapience, Sir Courtesy, with famous Nurture, and then Sir Concord. Each took him by the hand when he at last departed :

""Welcome,' I said; “I pray thee now tell

Me what thou art, and where thou dost dwell?"
• Sotheliche,' quod he, when Ichami in Kent
At home Icham, though I be hither sent;
Icham a gentleman of much noble bin
Though Iche be clad in a knavés skin.'"

""Adieu!' they said, “and Grace with you stand

You for to aidé when that you do fight!'
And so they turned unto the castle right.

And good dame Minerve unto me then said:

• Be not adread of your high enterprise ; Be bold, and hardy, and no thing afraid,

And rather die in any manner of wise,
To attain honour and the life despise,
Than for to live and to remain in shame;
For to die with honour it is a good name.'

With this scorner of women by his side, Graundamoure visited the Temple of Venus, where each applied himself in his own way to Dame Sapieno, her secretary. For Graundamoure, Dame Sapieler drew up a Supplication, and with the setting forth this the poem resumes its original measure. Vents bade Graundamoure abide with her a while, and causi Sapience next to write a letter to La Bell Puerto with thrice nine “ Wo worths" in it, in case she di not redress his pains. Cupid fled with the letter te La Bell Pucell, and Graundamoure offered a turtle to Venus.

Then he went forward upon his way, but Golfres Gobelive came running

“ With 's little nag, and cried · Tarý! tarý:

For I will come and bear you company.'”

Opward went Graundamoure into the wilderness, and in the darkness of night slept under a hill-side till the neigh of his steed Galantise aroused him at sunrise. Then, as he rode on with his varlet and his greyhounds, he was joined by one

"--on a little nag, A foolish dwarfé, no thing for the war, With a hood, a bell, a fox-tail, and a bag:5 In a pyed coat he rodé brygge-a-bragge."' 6

His company upon the road again reduces the verse into riding rhyme, for he resumed his mer ment at the expense of women, till he was overtak by a lady from the Tower of Chastity callei Dar Correction, who, with a knotted whip, set Goulins skipping, and declared him to be False Remist, escaped from the prison in which he had been beid with Villain-Courage and vile False Conjectur'. Graundamoure then went as a guest to the Tower of Chastity, and False Report as a prisoner, with ks feet fettered underneath his nag. There he saw ilir bright hall of jet glazed with crystal, and radar with light of the carbuncle hung from its golded roof; he saw the goodly company, and saw also tl. dungeons of the scorner and the wronger. HC with their heads down in holly bushes and scom !

I Quarrel. Pronounced as three syllables, qu-ar-rel.
- Placard, a kind of breast-plate, a man's jewelled stomacher.
3 Brandred, supported.

* “ The Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God ” (Ephesians vi. 17). “For the Word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart" (Hebrews iv, 12).

5 The hood with a bell on its point and the fox-tail for playful flapping about were badges of the fool. “A flap with the foxtail” thus became a phrase for a jest. “In a pyed coat,” a coat of motley, like the mazpie.

6 Brugge-a-bragge (French “ De bric et de broc"), anyhow, hither and thither. Wh:nce bric-i-brac.

7 Icham, I am, used to represent a rustic speech. First-Euis "ic eom.'

by ladies with knotted whips were Villain-Courage sought for the last conflict, and Pallas gave a box and his fellows:

containing ointment of marvellous herbs' wherewith

to anoint his armour, which would turn aside the “ These men with sugared mouths so eloquent

fervent fire breathed by the serpent, and give power A maiden's herté coud right soon relent,

over magic to his sword. From a large and goodly And these young maidens for to take in snare

ship in the haven a boat put out to them whence They feign great woe, and for to suffer care :

they were hailed by two ladies whom Dame Patience The foolish maidens did believe they smarted,

had sent. Then after due inquiries they were rowed Thus to their willé the men them converted.”

to the ship Perfectness, into which Dame Patience

received them gladly. Then they weighed anchor, and Then Graundamoure rode on over the mountains on the other shore Graundamoure went forth alone and the craggy rock till he came to a well, beside to combat with the dragon, Privy Malice. When the which hung a shield and horn, with an inscription death-blow was given to it, by help of the ointment of setting forth that a giant was there ready to contest Pallas, and the fiend within as “a foul Ethiop which the way on to La Bell Pucell. The horn was blown, such smoke did cast that all the island was full tenethe giant came, a monster with three heads, called brous," had escaped amidst loud thunderings, it reFalseness, Imagination, Perjury. Graundamoure mained only for Perseverance to bring Graundamoure charging him, broke his spear upon this giant's to the presence of La Bell Pucell. So they were helm, leapt down and drew his sure sword, Clara | joined and wedded. The great aim of his mortal life Prudence, and after a stout battle overcame and cut I was won, but afterwardsoff the three heads. Then came riding to him three ladies, Verity, Good Operation, and Fidelity, and

“ Thus as I lived in such pleasure glad carried Graundamoure with sweet song to their castle,

Into the chamber came full privily where his wounds were healed, while he was told of

A fair old man, and in his hand he had another giant to be met after departing. Temper

A crookéd staff; he went full weakély ; ance prepared their supper, and after rest he travelled

Unto me then he came full softély, on again

And with his staff he took me on the breast,

• Obey!' he said, 'I must you needs arrest. “When th’ little birdés swetély did sing Lauds to their Maker early i' th' morning."

My name is Agé, which have often seen Soon he met a messenger whom La Bell Pucell

The lusty youth perish unhappily,' ..." had sent, after receiving the letter brought to her by Cupid. Disdain and Strangeness had counselled her Graundamowe must needs obey the arrest. Then in one way, Peace and Mercy in another, and finally came to him Policy she had sent Dame Perseverance to her knight, with a goodly shield to be worn by him for her sweet

“ With Avaricé bringing great richés. sake. So Perseverance took Graundamoure with her

My wholé pleasure and delight doubtless for a night's rest at the manor place of her cousin

Was set upon treasure insatiate, Comfort Comfort gave best of counsel on the power

It to behold, and for to aggregate. of patience and wise kindness over stormy winds that stood between him and the object of desire, and told him also of a giant with seven heads yet to be

This gift of Pallas, which represents the power of a well-trained

mind to stand against all perils of the world, is a symbol first used by vanquished. Over the heath he went next day till

Homer in the tenth book of the “Odyssey," when he represented this giant was found, where upon every tree hung

Hermes providing Ulysses with muly to enable him to face unhurt shields of knights whom he had slain. The names of the charins of Circe:his seven heads were Dissimulation, Delay, Discom

“Thus I passing turned my feet

Om throngh the glens for the divine retreat fort, Variance, Envy, Detraction, Doubleness. The

Of Circe; and a youth, in form and mould battle with him lasted a day, and when Graundamoure

Fair as when tender manhood seems most sweet, had overcome there came from the castle that stood by

Beautiful Hermes, with the wand of gord, seven ladies riding on white palfreys. They were

Met me alone, and there my hand in his did fold. Steadfastness, Amorous Purveyance, Joy after Heavi

Whither, he said, wouldst thon thy steps incline, ness, Continuance, Pleasaunce, Report Famous,

Ah, hapless, all inweeting of thy way? Amity, who hailed him as victor. These seven ladies

Thy friends lie huddling in their styes like swine ;

And these wouldst thou deliver ? I tell thee nayundertook next day to bring Graundamoure to La

Except I help thee, thou with them shalt stay. Bell Pucell. They rode till they saw from afar a

Come, take this talisman to Circe's ball, goodly region

For I will save thee from thine ills this day,
Nor leave like ruin on thy life to fall,

Since her pernicious wiles I now will tell thee all.
“ Where stood a palace high and precious
Beyond an haven full tempestuous."

Therewith the root he tore up from the ground,

Black, with a milk-white flower, in heavenly tongue But in that goodly region was a fire-breathing

Called Moly, and its nature did expound

Hard to be dug by men; in gods all power is found." dragon, made by the Dame Strangeness and the

(1 hilip 8. Worsley's Translation.) crafty sorceress Disdain, of the seven metals with a

2 Riches is a word in the singular ; the French “ richesse,” in which fiend enclosed. In a temple of Pallas strength was the final s is part of the word itself, and not a plural suffix.

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Then Fame with the burning tongues entered the Temple, promising that memory of Graundamoure's great acts should be preserved by her, who had preserved the memories of Hector, Joshua, Judas Maccabæus, David, Alexander, Julius Cæsar, King Arthur, Charlemagne, and Godfrey of Boloigne. But Time followed, and wondered much that Fame could promise everlasting praise, when Time himself lives only until Doomsday.

John Fisher was a Yorkshireman, born in 1459, son of Robert Fisher, a trader at Beverley, who died when his two boys, John the elder and Robert the younger, were still children. Their mother married again. The boys were first educated in a priest of Beverley Church. John showed special ability, and was at last, when his age was four or five-and-twenty, sent in 1484 to Cambridge. He graduated in 1498 and 1491, became a Fellow of his College, Michael House, and Master of Michael House in 1495. It was about this time, at the age of thirty-six, that he took holy orders. In 1501 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and he served afterwards

" Then I am past, I may no longer be, And after me is Dame Eternity.”

1 A Dirige. The first word of the funeral hymn, “Dirige gressus meos." Hence the word “dirge."

2 Art here and in next line becomes a dissyllable by rolling the r.

for two years as Vice-Chancellor of the University. also is the suppression of Fisher's name, while he is The reputation of Dr. John Fisher caused Margaret, described in the preface to the reader as “an EnglishCountess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., to man, a Bishop of great learning and marvellous draw him into her service. As her chaplain and virtue of life." The Pelican is taken here also, as confessor he obtained her complete confidence, and by the writer of the Plowman's Tale, as symbol used it, to the best of his knowledge, for the advance of devotion. There is a little emblematic woodcut ment of religion and learning. He caused her to added to the pages introducing Fisher's treatise upon found two colleges at Cambridge, St. John's and Prayer, with Learn to Die for its uppermost thought; Christ's, and also the chair still known as the Lady a Latin inscription also around the self-sacrificing Margaret's Professorship of Divinity, which he him- | Pelican, which means : For Law, King, and Commonself held for a time. His funeral sermon on her wealth ; and around that an English motto: “Love death was printed by Wynken de Worde, and has kepythe the Lawe, obeyeth the Kynge, and is good to been more than once reprinted. In 1504, Henry VII., | the Commenwelthe." who trusted much in Fisher's piety and wisdom, made | The treatise has for its text the words in the him Bishop of Rochester. The University of Cam eighteenth chapter of Luke, “ that men ought always bridge made him its Chancellor. Henry VIII., who to pray;" and thus it begins :had been indebted to Fisher for care and instruction in his childhood, honoured him in the earlier part

PRAYER WITHOUT CEASING. of his reign, and told Cardinal Pole that he could

Forasmuch as this saying of Our Saviour Christ, Oportet never have met in all his travels a man to com

semper Orare, A Man must always Pray, written in the pare in knowledge and virtue with the Bishop of

Gospel of Saint Luke, appertaineth generally unto all Rochester. 1

Christian men: who seeth not how profitable and necessary John Fisher's treatise (“De Necessitate Orandi ”).

it is for every man diligently and effectually to apply himon the Need of Prayer was translated into English self to prayer? And so expedient and beneficial a thing is in at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign (in 1560) as no wise to be neglected for vain and hurtful delectations and "A Godlie treatisse declaryng the benefites, fruites, pleasures. Wherefore to the end that our prayer may wax and great Commodities of Prayer, and also the True sweet and pleasant unto us, first of all it shall be very comUse thereof. Written in Latin foutie yeres past, by modious and profitable to have ready at hand and in our an Englyshe man of great vertue and learnyng. And remembrance certain reasons with the which as most apt and lately translated into Englyshe.” The translation in convenient motions (as oft as we perceive ourselves to wax Elizabeth's reign of a devotional work by one whom cold in devotion, and be as it were oppressed with a slothful her father had sent to the block, printed in St. Paul's unaptness to serve God) we may stir up our minds and whet

our hearts to prayer. Moreover, it shall marvellously profit and exceedingly further us not to be ignorant of the singular

fruits and commodities that very many have obtained by COGITA-MORI

prayer; for by the knowledge thereof, we shall more easily invite and prepare ourselves to pray. And finally it shall be very needful for us thoroughly to understand the very true manner which is specially required in every man to be observed in the time of his prayer; forasmuch as in every work of any difficulty that man taketh in hand, the right way of doing thereof being once known doth very much further the due execution and perfect finishing of the same. I have therefore intended by the help of God to intreat in order of these three things: that is to say, of the Necessity of Prayer, of the Fruit of Prayer, and of the true Use and Manner of Prayer.

But forasmuch as the words of Our Saviour before said do cast some scruple and doubt into many men's minds, it shall not be out of purpose for the better understanding thereof if we do first expound and declare how those words are most rightly to be understanded. And to begin withal,

this saying of Our Saviour is most assuredly true, Oportet EMBLEMATIC DEVICE.

semper Orare, for Prayer is necessary to us every day, every From the English Version (1560) of Fisher's treatise on the "Need of Prayer."

hour, and every minute. And yet doth not Almighty God so severely demand an account thereof of as that he bindeth

us to incessant prayer with our mouth, which thing never Churchyard, " by John Cawood, one of the Printers

man hath unto this time, or could be able to observe. But to the Queene's Maiestie," with a preface of “ The

forasmuch as there passeth no moment of time in which we Translator to the Reader," urging its use for the

have not great need of the help and assistance of Almighty increase of love to God and man, is suggestive; so God: there are we of necessity constrained by continual - -- ----

prayer, humbly with all diligence to require and crave His

divine help and succour. For who is he that perceiveth not 1 "Se judicare me nunquam invenisse in universa peregrinatione mea, qui literis et virtute cum Roffense esset comparandus."

(so as he give his mind diligently to observe the same) that

Fisher was commonly known among scholars, from his see of Rochester, as

all we are even presently to be returned to dust and ashes, • Roffensis.”

whensoever God should detain and hold His hand of help

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from over us, and that there is no man of power without fect life. For if it were not so, Saint Paul would not have Him to endure the space of one moment of time, as Job willed the Corinthians, that whatsoever they did, they should sayeth. In His hand is the life of every living creature. intend and direct the same to the glory of God, saying unto Every ono of us remaineth in no better estate than as if he them, Sire editis, sive bibitis, sive quid aliud facitis, omnia in did hang in a basket over a great deep pit, borne up and sus- gloriam Dei facite. Whether ye eat or drink, or what thing tained by a cord in the hand of another man. And in that else soever ye do, do all to the honour of God. And sur ly case doubtless the man so placed standeth in great need of if God be moved with our words and speaking to be gracious the diligent help of him that holdeth the rope, and thereby unto us, He will be much more stirred in the same by our stayeth him from falling : for if he once let go the rope, the good works and well doing, forasmuch as works do now other that hangeth must needs down headlong into the bottom supply the place of words. of the pit. And likewise must it needs happen unto every one of us, if God sustain us not incessantly with His mighty A little later Fisher defines prayer “the continual hand and power. And He it is that so stayeth the rope that desire of the heart which is always strong, and hath we be not by the grievousness of the fall bruised and crushed his continual motion in man's mind." Thus we must in pieces, and so forthwith consumed to nothing. I speak

always pray, not indeed by utterance of forms of nothing now of many other dangerous perils and headlong

words, “but so that there pass no minute of time in falling places wherewith we be continually environed. What

which we do not desire the succour of His grace and is he then so gross witted and so blind in judgment, that

the felicity to come.” understandeth not that there is no time, nor no one moment

John Fisher wrote against Lutheran opinions, and of time, in the which we have not very great need earnestly

held firmly by those in which he had been bred. In to call upon God, to require His aid, defence and succour, and in the which we have not cause incessantly to pray?

1527, he was the only bishop who refused to gratify But forasmuch as after this understanding and sense there

Henry VIII.'s wish for a divorce from Catherine of is no man that by actual prayer (as we call it) doth satisfy and

Arragon by declaring the king's marriage with her fultil the same words of our Saviour, that is to say, every

to be unlawful. Thenceforth he had the king for moment to continue in prayer, therefore we had need to search

enemy. In 1534, his loyalty to conscience again out some other sense and meaning thereof. And indeed this

caused him to stand alone among the bishops in saying of Our Saviour Christ may rightly be otherwise under

refusal to assent to a denial of the Pope's supremacy standed. As thus: A certain monk, one of the old Fathers,

in England. When he refused at peril of his life the being demanded how he fulfilled that saying or command

oath which was refused also by Sir Thomas More, ment of Christ, Oportet semper Orare, made this answer :

he was deprived of bis bishopric, and cast into the When I have (sayeth he) finished, and said my daily prayers, Tower. Books were denied him, all his goods were the time that remaineth I use to bestow in labouring with taken, only some old rays were left to cover him, my hands, as far forth as the ability and strength of my body | and he was ill-fed. On the 17th of June, 1935, doth permit, whereby it cometh to pass that daily I gain Fisher was brought to trial, and he was beheadel on somewhat, with the which I may relieve not only myself, the 22nd. During his imprisonment in the Tower but also some other poor people. And they (sayeth he) pray he wrote to his sister Elizabeth these aclmonitions for me, as oft as by the unquietness and trouble of my body of a fallen statesman and a dying brother :I can not pray for myself : And by this mean he did believe that he satisfied the commandment. And he had the Holy

A SPIRITUAL CONSOLATION."
Scripture agreeable with this opinion which sayeth, Absconde
Eleemosinam in sinu pauperis, et ipsa pro te orabit.

Written by John Fissher, Bishop of Rochester, to his Sister
Hide thy

Elizabeth, at such time as he was prisoner in the Torcer of alms in the bosom of the poor, and that shall pray for thee. See then, how the Holy Scripture confirmeth that our alms

London.

2 CORINTHIANS VI. shall pray for us : and therefore, if a man apply his mind to shew mercy and pity to his neighbours, if he seek to defend

Bebold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salra.

tion. the orphans and fatherless children, if he labour to comfort

MATTHEW XXIV. the widows which be destitute of all consolation, if he be Watch, therefore : for ye know not what bour your Lord doth come. careful to deliver those that be oppressed with violence from

Sister. Elizabeth, nothing doth more help effertually to injury and wrong, finally, if he shew himself ready to help

get a good and a virtuous life, than if a soul, when it is dul to his power any that want succour or relief, so that besides

and unlustie without devotion, neither disposed to prayer nur all this he neglect not the ordinary appointed times for

to any other good work, may be stirred or quickened again prayer by the Church of God, he may well be judged to have

by fruitful meditation. I have therefore devised unto qui fulfilled the former words of Our Saviour. For that man

this meditation that followeth, praying you, for my szar doth pray always, either by himself or else by his alms and

and for the weal of your own soul, to read it at such tims charitable deeds, which supplieth all the want that appeareth

as you shall feel yourself heavy and slothful to do any good in his own praver. In this wise, then, may the words of

work. It is a manner of lamentation and sorrowful curs. Christ aforesaid be understanded, wherein he teachethus

plaining made in the person of one that was hastily prevented' always to continue in prayer, which is as much as to say,

by death, as I assure you every creature may be: none other always to live and do well, which doth sometime happen to

surety we have, living in this world here. But if you wil men, yea, when they be sleeping. For as oft as we do sleep

have any profit by reading of it, three things you must in or wake, walk or sit still, eat or drink, be vexed or be in quiet, or what else soever we do or suffer, if all these doings

in any wise.

Firstly: When you shall read this meditation, deris in be with a true faith referred to the honour and glory of God, no doubt they appertain to the increase of a good and per

2 It is here viven complete from the English version publikeis

Elizabeth's reign. 1 Ecclesiasticus íin the Apocrypha) xxix.

3 Prevented, gone before, forestalled.

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