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your mind as nigh as you can, all the conditions of a man or woman suddenly taken and ravished by death: and think with yourself that ye were in the same condition so hastily taken, and that incontinent you must needs die, and your soul depart hence, and leave your mortal body, never to return again for to make any amends or to do any release to your soul after this hour.
Secondly : That ye never read this meditation but alone by yourself in secret manner, where you may be most attentive thereunto, and when ye have the best leisure without any let of other thoughts or business. For if you otherwise behave yourself in the reading of it, it shall anon lose the virtue and quickness in stirring and moving of your soul when you would ratherest have it stirred.
Thirdly: That when you intend to read it, you must afore lift up your mind to Almighty God, and beseech Him that by the help and succour of His grace the reading thereof may fruitfully work in your soul a good and virtuous life, according to His pleasure, and say: Deus in adjutorium meun intende, Domine adjuvare me festina. Gloria patri, &c. Laus tibi Domine rex æternalis gloriæ. Amen.
Alas, alas, I am unworthily taken, all suddenly death hath assailed me; the pains of his stroke be so sore and grievous that I may not long endure them; my last home I perceive well is come. I must now leave this mortal body, I must now depart hence out of this world never to return again into it. But whither I shall go, or where I shall become, or what lodging I shall have this night, or in what company I shall fall, or in what country I shall be received, or in what manner I shall be entreated, God knoweth, for I know not. What if I shall be damned in the perpetual prison of hell, where be pains endless and without number? Grievous it shall be to them that be damned for ever, for they shall be as men in extreme pains of death, ever wishing and desiring death, and yet never shall they die. It should be now unto me much weary one year continually to lie upon a bed were it never so soft: how weary then shall it be to lie in the most painful fire so many thousands of years without number, and to be in that most horrible company of devils most terrible to behold, full of malice and cruelty ? O wretched and miserable creature that I am: I might so have lived and so ordered my life by the help and grace of my Lord Christ Jesu, that this hour might have been unto me much joyous and greatly desired. Jany blessed and holy Saints were full joyous and desirous of this hour, for they knew well that by death their souls should be translated into a new life, to the life of all joy and endless pleasure : from the straits and bondage of this corruptible body into a very liberty and true freedom among the company of heaven; from the miseries and grievances of this wretched world, to be above with God in comfort inestimable that cannot be spoken nor thought. They were assured of the promises of Almighty God, which had so promised to all them that be his faithful servants. And sure I am, that if I had truly and faithfully served Him unto this hour, my soul had been partner of these promises. But unhappy and ungracious creature that I am, I have been negligent in His service, and therefore now my heart doth waste in sorrows, seeing the nighness of death, and considering my great sloth and negligence.
I thought full little thus suddenly to have been trapped ; but, alas, now death hath prevented me, and hath unwarily
attacked me, and suddenly oppressed me with his mighty power, so that I know not whither I may turn me for succour, nor where I may seek now for help, nor what thing I may do to get any remedy. If I might have leisure and space to repent me and amend my life, not compelled with this sudden stroke, but of my own free will and liberty, and partly for the love of God, putting aside all sloth and negli. gence, I might then safely die without any dread, I might then be glad to depart hence and leave my manifold miseries and encumbrances of this world. But how may I think that my repentance or mine amendment cometh now of my own free will, sith I was before this struck so cold and dull in the service of my Lord God? or how may I think that I do this more rather for His love than for fear of His punishment, when if I had truly loved Him, I should more quickly and more diligently have served Him heretofore? Me seemeth now that I cast away my sloth and negligence compelled by force. Even as a merchant that is compelled by a great tempest in the sea to cast his merchandise out of the ship, it is not to be supposed that he would cast away his riches of his own free will, not compelled by the storm; and even so likewise do I. If this tempest of death were not now raised upon me, it is full like that I would not have cast from me my sloth and negligence.
O would to God that I might now have some farther respite, and some longer time to amend myself of my free will and liberty! O if I might entreat Death to spare me for a season! but that will not be, Death in no wise will be entreated, delay he will none take, respite he will none give, if I would give him all the riches of this world. No, if all my lovers and friends would fall upon their knees and pray him for me. No, if I and they would weep, if it were so possible, as many tears as there be in the seas drops of water; no pity may restrain him. Alas, when opportunity of time was, I would not use it well, which if I had done, it would now be unto me more precious than all the treasures of a realm. For then my soul as now should have been clothed with good works innumerable, the which should make me not to be ashamed when I should come to the presence of my Lord God, where now I shall appear laden with sin miserably, to my confusion and shame. But, alas, too negligently have I let pass froin me my time, not regarding how precious it was, nor yet how much spiritual riches I might have got therein, if I would have put my diligence and study thereunto. For assuredly no deed that is, be it never so little, but it shall be rewarded of Almighty God. One draught of water given for the love of God shall not be unrewarded. And what is more easy to be given than water. But not only deeds, but also the least words and thoughts shall be rewarded in like wise. O how many good thoughts, deeds, and words might one think, speak, and do in one day! But how many more in one whole year! O, alas, my great negligence! O, alas, my foul blindness! O, alas, my sinful madness, that knew this well, and would not put it in effectual execution!
O if now all the people of this world were present here to see and know the perilous condition that I am in, and how I am prevented by the stroke of death, I would exhort them to take me as an example to them all, and while they have leisure and time to order their lives and cast from them sloth and idleness, and to repent them of their misbehaviour towards God, and to bewail their offences, to multiply good works, and to let no time pass by them unfruitfully. For if it shall please my Lord God that I might any longer live, I would otherwise exercise myself than I have done before. Now I wish that I may have time and space, but righteously I am denied. For when I might have had
1"O God, be thou my refuge; O Lord, make haste to help me. Glory be to the Father, &c. Praise be unto thee, O Lord, eternal King of glory. Amen."
it, I would not well use it: and therefore now when I would now am wrapped in. May not I think my wit to have well use it, I shall not have it. O ye therefore that have been well occupied in this lewd and unfruitful business! and may use this precious time in your liberty, employ it | have not I well bestowed my labour about this service of my well, and be not too wasteful thereof; lest peradventure wretched body ? hath not my time been well emploved in when you would have it, it shall be denied you likewise, as these miserable studies, whereof now no comfort remaineth, now it is to me.
but only sorrow and repentance ? Alas, I heard full often But now I repent me full sore of my great negligence, that such as should be damned should grievously repent and right much I sorrow that so little I regarded the themselves, and take more displeasure of their misbehaviour wealth and profit of my soul, but rather took heed to the than ever they had pleasure before ; and yet that repentance vain comforts and pleasures of my wretched body. 0 cor- then should stand them in no stead, where a full little repentruptible body, O) stinking carrion, () rotten earth, to whom ance taken in time might have eased them of all their pain. I have served, whose appetites I have followed, whose desire | This I heard and read full often, but full little heed or regard I have procured, now dost thou appear what thou art in thy I gave thereunto. I well perceived it in myself, but all too own likeness. That brightness of thy eyes, that quickness late I dread me. I would that now by the example of n. in hearing, that liveliness in thy other senses by natural all other might beware, and avoid by the gracious help of warmness, thy swiftness and nimbleness, thy fairness and God these dangers that I now am in, and prepare themselves beauty, all these thou hast not of thyself, they were but against the hour of death better than I have pri parid I.. lent unto thee for a season. Even as a wall of earth that is Alas, what availeth me now any delicacy of meats and fair painted without for a season with fresh and goodly | drinks which my wretched body insatiable did devour? colours, and also gilted with gold, it appeareth goodly for What availeth my vanity or pride that I had in mys if, the time to such as consider no deeper than the outward craft either of apparel or of any other thing belonging unto me thereof; but when at the last the colour faileth, and the What availeth the filthy and unclean delights and lusts of gilting falleth away, then appeareth it in his own likeness. the stinking flesh, wherein was appearance of much pleasure, For then the earth plainly showeth itself. In like wise my but in very deed none other than the sow hath, weltering wretched body, for the time of youth it appeared fresh and herself in the miry puddle? Now these pleasures be gone, lusty, and I was deceived with the outward beauty thereof, my body is nothing better, my soul is much the work, and little considering what naughtiness was covered underneath: nothing remaineth but sorrow and displeasure, and that i but now it showeth itself. Now, my wretched body, thy thousand-fold more than ever I had any pleasure before. beauty is faded, thy fairness is gone; thy lust, thy strength, () lewd body and naughty, which hast brought me to this thy liveliness, all is gone, all is failed! Now art thou then utter discomfort! O dirty corruption, () satchel full et returned to thine own carthly colour. Now art thou black, dung, how must I go to make answer for thy lewdness; cold, and heavy, like a lump of carth; thy sight is darkened, thy lewdness I say, for it all cometh of thee. My soul hud thy hearing is dulled, thy tongue faltereth in thy mouth, nothing need of such things as was thy desire. What need and corruption issueth out of every part of thee. Corruption my soul, that is immortal, either clothing, or meat, or dirink: was thy beginning in the womb of thy mother, and corrup What need it any corruptible gold or silver? Whit pd it tion is thy continuance. All thing that ever thou receivest, any houses or beds, or any other things that appertain th 19 wore it never so precious, thou turnest into corruption, and these? For thee, O corruptible body, which like a rotten now to corruption thyself returnest : altogether right vile wall daily needeth reparations and botching up with meat and loathly art thou become, where in appearance before thou and drink, and defence of clothing against cold and hat, #18 wast goodly; but the good lines were nothing else but as a all this study and diligence taken, and yet now wilt thou foto painting or a gilting upon an earthen wall, under it was sake me at my most need, when account and reckoning of all covered with stinking and filthy matter. But I looked not our misdeeds must be given before the throne of the Juin so deep, I contented myself with the outward painting, and most terrible. Now thou wilt refuse me, and leave me to the in that I took great pleasure. For all my study and care jeopardy of all this matter. O, alas, many years of de libera. was about thee, either to apparel thee with some clothes of tion suffice not before so great a Judge to make answrt, which divers colours, either to satisfy thy desire in pleasant sights, shall examine me of every idle word that ever passed by in delectable hearings, in goodly smells, in sundry manner mouth. () then how many idle words, how muiny (5:1 of tastings and touchings, either else to get thee ease and thoughts, how many deeds have I to make answer for and rost as well in sleep as otherwise; and provided therefore such as we set but at light, full greatly shall be weigts pleasant and delectable lodgings, and to eschew tediousness in the presence of His most high Majesty. O, alas, whit in all these, not only lodgings but also in apparel, meats and may I do to get some help at this most dangerous hur: drinks procured many and divers changes, that when thou Where may I seek for succour? Where may I rutir wast weary of one, then mightest thou content thyself with any comfort ? some other. (), alas, this was my vain and naughty study My body forsaketh me, my pleasures be vanished us whereunto my wit was ready applied; in those things I spent as the smoke; my goods will not go with me. All the the most part of my days. And yet was I never content worldly things I must leave behind me. If any (vrir long, but murmuring or grudging every hour for one thing shall be, either it must be in the prayers of my friends, and in or other. And what am I now the better for all this? what mine own good deeds that I have done before. But as for EV reward may I look for of all my long service? or what great good deeds that should be available in the sight of God, les benefit shall I receive for all my great study, care, and they be few or none that I can think to he available: $37 diligence?
must be done principally and purely for His love. But us Nothing better am I, but much the worse. Much corrup deeds when of their kind they were good, yet did I lr? tion and filth my soul thereby hath gathered, so that now them by my folly. For either I did them for the ploksin it is made full horrible and loathly to behold. Reward getmen, or to avoid the shame of the world, or el for my IT I none other than punishment, either in Hallererlasting, affection, or else for read of punishment. So that del or at the least in Purgatory, if I may so easily escape. The i did any good deed in that purity and straightne that it benefits of my labour are the great cares and sorrows which I ought of right to have been done. And my misde , EN
lewd deeds that be shameful and abominable, be without number. Not one day of all my life, no not one hour, I trow, was so truly expended to the pleasure of God, but many deeds, words, and thoughts miscaped me in my life. Alas, little trust then may I have upon my deeds. And as for the prayers of my friends, such as I shall leave behind me, of them many peradventure be in the same need that I am in. So that where their own prayers might profit themselves, they cannot so profit another. And many of them will be full negligent, and some forgetful of me. And no marvel, for who should have been more friendly unto me than mine own self ? Therefore I that was most bounden to have done for myself, forgot my own weal in my life-time; no marvel therefore if others do forget me after my departing hence. Other friends there be by whose prayers souls may be holpen, as by the blessed and holy saints above in heaven, which verily will be mindful of such as in earth here have devoutly honoured them before. But, alas, I had special devotion but to a few, and yet them I have so faintly honoured, and to them so coldly sued for favour, that I am ashamed to ask aid or help of them. At this time indeed, I had more effectually meant to have honoured them, and more diligently to have commended my wretched soul unto their prayers, and so to have made them my special friends ; but now death hath prevented me so, that no other hope remaineth but only in the mercy of my Lord God: to whose mercy I do now offer myself, beseeching him not to look upon my deserts, but upon his infinite goodness and abundant
straight, but it was not effectual; my mind well intended, but no fruit came thereof. All for because I delayed so often and never put in eifect that that I had purposed. And therefore delay it not as I have done, but before all other business put this first in surety, which ought to be chief and principal business. Neither building of colleges, nor making of sermons, nor giving of alms, neither yet any other manner of business shall help you without this. Therefore first and before all things prepare for this. Delay not in any wise, for if you do, you shall be deceived as I am now. I read of many, I have heard of many, I have known many that were disappointed as I am now. And ever I thought and said, and intended, that I would make sure and not be deceived by the sudden coming of death. Yet nevertheless I am now de. ceived, and am taken sleeping, unprepared, and that when I least weened of his coming, and even when I reckoned myself to be in most health, and when I was most busy, and in the midst of my matters.
Therefore delay not you any farther, nor put your trust over much in your friends. Trust yourself while ye have space and liberty, and do for yourself now while you may. I would advise you to do that thing that I by the grace of my Lord God would put in execution if His pleasure were to send me longer life. Account yourself as dead, and think that your souls were in prison of Purgatory, and that there they must abide till that the ransom for them be truly paid, either by long sufferance of pain there, or else by suffrages done here in earth by some of your special friends. Be your own friend. Do you these suffrages for your own soul, whether they be prayers or almsdeeds, or any other penitential painfulness. If you will not effectually and heartily do these things for your own soul, look you never that other will do them for you; and in doing them in your own persons, they shall be more available to you a thousand-fold than if they were done by any other. If you follow this counsel, and do thereafter, you shall be gracious and blessed; and if you do not, you shall doubtless repent your follies but too late.
Thus seeking that his latest words might aid a sister's soul upon the heavenward way, John Fisher freely gave his life for that which he believed to be the truth. A few words, spoken against conscience, would have saved him from the scattold.
Alas, my duty had been much better to have remembered this terrible hour, I should have had this danger ever before my eyes, I should have provided therefore so that now I might have been in a more readiness against the coming of death, which I knew assuredly would come at the last, albeit I knew not when, where, or by what manner, but well I knew every hour and moment was to him indifferent, and in his liberty. And yet my madness ever to be sorrowed: Notwithstanding this uncertainty of His coming, and the uncertainty of the time thereof, I made no certain nor sure provision against this hour. Full often I took great study and care to provide for little dangers, only because I thought they might happen, and yet happed they never a deal. And but trities they were in comparison of this. How much rather should I have taken study and care for this so great a danger, which I knew well must necessarily fall unto me once. For this cannot be eschewed in no wise, and upon this I ought to have made good provision, for in this hangeth all our wealth. For if a man die well, he shall after his death nothing want that he would desire, but his appetite shall be satiate in every point at the full; and if he die amiss, no provision shall avail him that ever he made before. This Provision therefore is most effectually to be studied, sithens this alone may profit without other, and without this none can avail.
() ye that have time and space to make your provision against the hour of death, defer not from day to day like as I have done. For I often did think and purpose with myself that at some leisure I would have provided; nevertheless for every frivolous business I put it aside, and delayed this provision always to another time, and promised with myself that at such a time I would not fail but do it, but when that came another business arose, and so I deferred it again unto another time. And so, alas, from time to time, that now death in the meantime hath prevented me. My purpose was good, but it lacked execution; my will was
While Fisher was founding colleges in Cambridge, impulse had been given to Greek studies by the fall of Constantinople, in the year 1453. Exiled Greeks carried their scholarship abroad. William Grocyn, an English clergyman, learnt Greek at Florence under Demetrius Chalcondylas, and the brilliant Italian poet and scholar, Poliziano ; then came home, and in 1491 began, at Exeter College, the teaching of Greek in the University of Oxford. He was aided in this work by Thomas Linacre, who also had learnt his Greek at Florence. One of their comrades was John Colet, who was twenty-four years younger than Grocyn, and six years younger than Linacre.
John Colet, born in 1466, studied in France and Italy after seven years' training at Magdalen College, and was one of many who drew aid from the new study of Plato to their aspiration for the highest spiritual life. In Plato there was not only
I Never a deal, never in any part, dever a bit.
a philosophical upholding of the doctrine of the The office suited him well, for he had an enthusiastic immortality of the soul, but a belief also that the admiration of St. Paul as the interpreter of Chrissoul became imbruted, if used only as the servant tianity. “Paul,” he wrote, in a letter to the Abbot to the flesh, and was fitted for immortal happiness of Winchcomb, “seems to me a vast ocean of wisdom by lifting itself when upon earth above the sensual and piety.” At Oxford, before he was a dean, Colet delights to a pure search for the highest truth.' had given free lectures on St. Paul's Epistles. As Greek studies, that thus brought in Plato as the dean, he at once began to reform the cathedral disally of men already combating against fleshly corrupcipline. He gave Divinity lectures to all comers on tions of the Church, caused many an upholder of the Sundays and holidays, a contemporary writer tells joys of the refectory and outward pomps to raise us, when he was usually found expounding St. Paul's their cry, “ Beware of the Greeks, lest you be made epistles with a grace and earnestness that went to a heretic;" and John Colet had not laboured long the hearts even of those who did not understand in his pure way before he incurred suspicion of the Latin in which he was teaching. He despised heresy. His father was a rich City knight, who had the lives commonly led by monks, set forth the been twice Lord Mayor. Of Dame Christian, his dangers of an unmarried clergy, spoke against imagemother, Erasmus, who was among Colet's intimate worship and the confessional, and saw irreverence in friends, said in a letter, “I knew in England the thoughtless, hurried repetition of a stated quantity of mother of John Colet, a matron of singular piety; | psalm and prayer. she had by the same husband eleven sons, and as The Bishop of London thought his Dean a heretic, many daughters, all of which hopeful brood were but Colet was protected by the friendship of Archsnatched away from her, except her eldest son; and | bishop Warham. “He was in trouble, and should she lost her husband far advanced in years. She | have been burnt," said Latimer, “if God had not herself being come to her ninetieth year, looked so turned the king's heart to the contrary." His family smooth and was so cheerful that you would think | interest brought Colet church preferment; his eccleshe never shed a tear, nor brought a child into the siastical income he spent on the wants of his family, world ; and, if I mistake not, she survived her son, and in exercise of hospitality; and the whole income Dean Colet. Now that which supplied a woman from his large fortune-derived as an only surviving with so much fortitude was not learning, but piety child from a rich father-was spent upon works of to God." Her son had both. In 1504 he became benevolence. In 1510 he founded St. Paul's School Doctor of Divinity, and in 1505 Dean of St. Paul's. -still vigorous and efficient -a monument to a good
I The following passage from the “Phædo," as given in Professor Jowett's masterly translation of the Dialogues of Plato-an English Plato for all libraries-will partly show what attracted the Reformers. A part of it is paraphrased by the elder brother in Milton's "Comus," and causes the younger brother to exclaim
“How charming is divine philosophy!
Not harsh and crabbed, as dull fools suppose,
Where no crude surfeit reigns."
"The soul resembles the divine, and the body the mortal. There can be no doubt of that, Socrates.'
". Then reflect, Cebes : is not the conclusion of the whole matter this-that the soul is the very likeness of the divine, and immortal, and intelligible, and uniform, and indissoluble, and unchangeable; and the body is in the very likeness of the human, and mortal, and unin. telligible, and multiform, and dissoluble, and changeable. Can this, my dear Cebes, be denied ?'
"No, indeed.' ". But if this be true, then is not the body liable to speedy dissolu. tion ? and is not the soul almost or altogether indissoluble?'
". And do you further observe, that after a man is dead, the body, which is the visible part of man, and has a visible framework, which is called a corpse, and which would naturally be dissolved, and decomposed, and dissipated, is not dissolved or decomposed at once, but may remain for a good while, if the constitution be sound at the time of death, and the season of the year favourable. For the body when shrunk and embolmed, as is the custom in Egypt, may remain almost entire throuzh infinite ages; and even in decay, still there are some portions, such as the bones and ligaments, which are practically indestructible. You allow that
to the true Hades, which, like her, is invisible, and pure, and noble, and on her way to the good and wise God, whither, if God will, my soul is also soon to go-that the soul, I repeat, if this be ber nature and origin, is blown away and perishes immediately on quitting the body, as the many say? That can never be, my dear Simmias ani Cebes. The truth rather is that the soul, which is pure at departina. draws after her no bodily taint, having never voluntarily had oudnection with the body, which she is ever avoiding, berseli gatberei into herself, for such abstraction has been the study of her life. And what does this mean but that she has been a true disciple of philosophy, and has practised how to die easily? And is not philosophy the practice of death?'
"Certainly.' " That soul, I say, herself invisible, departs to the invisible word --to the divine, and immortal, and rational; thither arriving, she lives in bliss, and is released from the error and folls of men, their fears and wild passions, and all other human ials, and for ever dwie as they say of the initiated, in company with the gods? Is not this true, Cebes ?'
“'Yes,' said Cebes, 'beyond a doubt.'
“But the soul that has been polluted, and is impure at the time of her departure, and is the companion and servant of the body always and is in love with and fascinated by the body and by the desires It! pleasures of the body, until she is led to believe that the trutb oris exists in a bodily form, which a man may touch, and see, and taste and use for the purposes of his lusts--the soul, I mean, aerustan to hate, and fear, and avoid the intellectual principle, which tott bodily eye is dark and invisible, and can be attained only by philsen --do you suppose that such a soul as this will depart pure and us alloyed ?'
" . That is impossible,' he replied. ""She is engrossed by the corporeal, which the continual as tion and constant care of the body have made natural to her."
". Very true.'
"And this, my friend, may be conceived to be that heavy, wpict.. enrthy element of sight by which such a soul is depressed ant dans down again into the visible world, because she is afraid of the inssit and of the world below---prowling about tombs ani sepulchne un neighbourhood of which, as they tell us, are seen cert sb w apparitions of souls which have not departed pure, but are choyouw sight, and therefore visible.'
"'That is very likely, Socrates.'"
man, that lives and acts in his own spirit. The science, looked down upon the weak. And the matter in Latin Grammar produced for the use of his school debate was the eating of meats ; how far it was lawful to was first published in 1513, and was still used in the proceed in different kinds of food. By the Jewish cere. earlier part of the nineteenth century. Its preface
monial law many things were forbidden. From the idolowas written by Wolsey, who was in that year Dean
thyta, for example (that is, things offered in sacrifice unto of York ; Colet himself wrote the English rudiments;
idols), many shrank with abhorrence. But yet there were Erasmus wrote the greater part of the Latin syntax;
some who acted boldly in this matter as they considered and Colet's friend and first head-master, William
lawful, and ate on every occasion what they pleased, thoughtLily, wrote the Latin rules for genders in the verses
lessly and inconsiderately, with no small scandal and offence
to the weak. beginning “ Propria quæ maribus," and the rules for
In this place, therefore, St. Paul enjoins that kindly past tenses and supines, beginning “As in præsenti.”
account must be taken of the weak; that the mind and From Colet's lectures given at Oxford on St. Paul's
resolution of the feebler one must not be startled by any Epistle to the Romans-as translated by Mr. J. H.
venturesomeness of act even in what was lawful; that Lupton,' an accomplished master of St. Paul's School,
offence must be avoided, edification sought, and peace mainwho has paid due honour to its founder by editing
tained by a settlement of their disputes. several of his works—I take
In the first of these he counsels humility, in the second
patience, in the third charity. A SUMMARY OF ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE
After giving a reason for writing to the Romans, and ROMANS.
promising after a time to visit them, he concludes his Epistle
with remembrances and salutations. In the Epistle written by St. Paul the Apostle to the Romans, he counsels peace and concord to those who in that city bore the name of Christ.
And from the lectures on that epistle, here is Colet's There were among them three disputes. The first was comment upon a part of the twelfth chapter :that between the Jews and Gentiles; the second between Christians and Heathens; the third was in the Christian
OVERCOME EVIL WITH GOOD. community itself, between those who were strong in the faith and those who were weak.
From the presence of God, and the outpouring of his The Gentiles and the Jews were'ñutually accusing one
grace, and the varied bestowal of faith and love, there grow another; each party in turn proudly claiming precedence
up among men various members, so to speak ;-various over the other. But the presumption of the Jews was the
i powers, that is, faculties, offices, actions, and services. greater and more overweening of the two. Accordingly,
These are brietty and cursorily recounted by St. Paul ; when St. Paul interposes to allay this fierce contention, he
rather to give a specimen and sample of them, than to enuuses many arguments to beat down the haughtiness of the
merate all exactly and in their true order. Thus he men. Gentiles, but still it is to the Jews that he chiefly turns, and
tions prophecy according to faith, and the foretelling future directs against their faction the main force and point of his
events; ministry, which the Greeks call diaconate; teaching, discourse. For the Jew was stiffnecked, ever struggling
and exhortation, and giving, and ruling, and mercy, which against the yoke of humility.
the Greeks call alms ;-faculties that are conspicuous in Both parties, Jew and Gentile, St. Paul endeavours to raise
men according to the measure and proportion of grace and to a higher level, to lift thein above all distinction of Jew
faith bestowed. He then adds, what ought to be in the and Gentile, and to lodge them both immovably in Jesus
whole Church,-true love of God, abhorrence of evil, clearing Christ alone. For He alone is sufficient; He is all things;
to the good, mutual and brotherly affection among the faithful, in Him alone is the salvation and justification of mankind.
preferring one another in honour, earnestness and diligence, After declaring the Church to consist of these (namely,
ferrour of life, observance of the time, rejoicing in hope, Jew and Gentile) alike, the Apostle then describes of what
patience in adversity, perseverance in prayer, liberality, hosnature the Christian Church is, and what are its duties and
pitality. He adds, after these, continual blessing, even actions.
towards evil speakers and evil doers; common joy, common It was hotly disputed by many, in what way the Chris.
grief; community of mind and of every desire; lowliness, tians at Rome were to conduct themselves towards the
condescension, courtesy, love, fellow-feeling, agreement, heathen, in whose midst they then were, and under whose
unity; such as springs from a mutual adaptation and conauthority they were living; that is to say, how far they
formity of different parts. But as for haughtiness, pride, were to submit to injuries from them, and to what extent
disdain, self-conceit, contempt of others, avenging of wrongs; they were to pay the tribute exacted.
-he shows them to be abominable in men, and resolutely C'nder this head, St. Paul prudently inculcates peace and
forbids them, as a nursery of mischief and destruction. obedience.
For St. Paul would have all vengeance and retaliation The third dissension and strife that was in the Christian
to be left to God alone; who has said by his prophet: Church was between the stronger in the faith and the
Vengeance is mine, and I will repay. Among the memweaker. In this, scrupulous persons, of weak conscience,
bers of Christ's body, even the Church, he feels that there were shocked at the boldness of their stronger brethren;
ought to be faith in God, and reason subject to faith ; while the latter, confiding in the decision of their own con
humility, toleration, constancy in good at all times and without cessation, a doing good even to those who do us
evil and provoke us wrongfully; that every member, so far Exposition of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, delivered as as it can, may imitate Christ its head, who was perfect lowes in the University of Oxford about the year 1197, by John liness, goodness, patience, kindness; who did good to the t, M.A., afterwards Dean of St. Paul's. Now first published,
evil, that by his goodness he might make them good instead Translation, Introduction, and Notes, by J. H. Lupton, M.A., master of St. Paul's School, and late Fellow of St. John's College,
of evil; herein imitating his Father in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise on the eril and on the good.