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after an attempt had been made to assassinate him at who has been called the Poet of the Scottish ReformaDundee. When Wishart was arrested, Knox desired tion, Sir David Lindsay of the Mount;' and Lindto go with him, but his friend said, “ Nay, return to say's latest and longest poem, “The Monarchie," your bairnis” (his pupils); “ane is sufficient for a finished in 1553, may have been suggested by a sacrifice.” Wishart was burnt on the 28th of March, sermon that Knox preached in this year 1547, 1546, Cardinal Beatoun looking on. Of Cardinal against the Church of Rome. Dean John Annand Beatoun's use of extreme penalties against heresy it having in public controversy sheltered himself behind was said that he caused the Governor of Perth to authority of the Church, Knox replied that authohang four honest men for eating a goose on Friday. | rity of the Church depended on acceptance of her Beatoun's own life was conspired against, not with- as the lawful spouse of Christ. “For your Roman out privity of the English court; his Castle of St. Church,” he said, “as it is now corrupted, wherein Andrews was seized by surprise ; and he was put to stands the hope of your victory, I no more doubt death on the 29th of May, two months after the that it is the synagogue of Satan, and the head burning of George Wishart. It was at Easter, in thereof, called the Pope, to be that Man of Sin of 1547, that John Knox with his pupils, the sons of whom the Apostle speaks, than I doubt that Jesus the Lairds of Langniddrie and Ormiston, went into Christ suffered by the procurement of the visible the Castle, which was held, after Beatoun's assassi church of Jerusalem. Yea, I offer myself, by word nation, by those who had seized it. They were or writing, to prove the Roman Church this day besieged by the Regent and helped by England. | farther degenerate from the purity which was in Scottish Reformers joined them. John Knox taught days of the Apostles than was the church of the his boys, and catechised them publicly in the Castle Jews from the ordinances given by Moses when as he had done at Langniddrie in a chapel of which they consented to the innocent death of Jesus the ruin is still called John Knox's Kirk. But the Christ." Called upon to make good his challenge, regular preacher to the St. Andrews garrison was Knox preached next Sunday in the parish church, John Rough, a reformer about five years younger and interpreting Daniel's Vision of Four Beasts as a than Knox. Knox was urged to share his work, vision of the Four Empires of Babylon, Persia, and refused to intrude on the regular ministrations. Greece, and Rome, he took for his text 3 “The But on a fixed day Rough preached a sermon on | Fourth Beast shall be the Fourth Kingdom upon the right of a congregation, however small, to elect | earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and a minister, and the responsibility incurred by one shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down who had fit gifts if he refused the call. Then in and break it in pieces. And the ten horns out of the name of the congregation he publicly turned to this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise ; and Knox and said, “ Brother, you shall not be offended, | another shall rise after them, and he shall be diverse although I speak unto you that which I have in from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And charge, even from all those that are here present, he shall speak great words against the Most High. which is this : In the name of God and of His Son and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and Jesus Christ, and in the name of all that presently think to change times and laws; and they shall be call you by my mouth, I charge you that you refuse given into his hand until a time and times and the not this holy vocation; but as you tender the glory dividing of time.” This king John Knox identified of God, the increase of Christ's kingdom, the edifica- ! with him who is elsewhere called the Man of Sin, tion of your brethren, and the comfort of me, whom the Antichrist, describing not a single person, but a you understand well enough to be oppressed by the body of people under a wicked headship held by a multitude of labours, that you take the public office succession of persons. He argued that the Papal rule and charge of preaching, even as you look to avoid was Antichristian by describing it under the three God's heavy displeasure, and desire that He shall | heads of life, doctrine, and law. Of the effect of this multiply his graces unto you.” Then the preacher, sermon Knox wrote himself in his History, “ Some turning to the congregation, said, “ Was not this said, Others hewed the branches of Papistry, but he your charge unto me? and do ye not approve this striketh at the root to destroy the whole.' Others vocation ?” They all answered, “ It was ; and we ap- said, “If the doctors and magistri nostri defend not prove it.” Knox, overwhelmed with emotion, burst now the Pope and his authority, which in their own into tears and left the assembly. He shut himself presence is so manifestly impugned, the Devil have in his chamber, and records in his own History that my part of him and his laws both.' Others said, “his countenance and behaviour from that day till Mr. George Wishart spake never so plainly, and the day that he was compelled to present himself in yet he was burnt; even so will he be in the end.' the public place of preaching did sufficiently declare Others said, “The tyranny of the Cardinal made not the grief and trouble of his heart ; for no man saw his cause the better, neither yet the suffering of any sign of mirth from him, neither had he pleasure God's servant made his cause the worse. And thereto accompany any man for many days together.” fore we would counsel you and them to provide

better defences than fire and sword, for it may be

that always ye shall be disappointed. Men now Among those reformers besieged in the Castle of St. Andrews who called upon Knox to preach was one

* See the volume of this Library illustrating “Shorter Euglish John Rough was burnt, by sentence of Bishop Bonner, on the Poems," pages 145–151. 22nd of December, 1557.

3 Daniel vi, 23-25.

have other eyes than they had then. This answer gave the Laird of Niddrie.”

Lindsay's poem of “ The Monarchie, a Dialogue between Experience and a Courtier of the Miserable Estate of the World,” began with a religious prologue, and was then divided into four books, which went through the four great Monarchies, Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, Roman, to dwell especially upon that which grew out of the last, namely, the Fifth, spiritual and Papal, which, after the triumph over Antichrist, was to be followed by the true Monarchy of Christ. These lines from the section of Lindsay's “ Monarchie" which treats of the Fifth or Papal Monarchy, touch the self-seeking of

With the gay cloke that happis the bed,
Howbeit that he be purelye cled.
And gyf the wyfe de on the morne,
Thocht all the babis suld be forlorne,
The vther kow he cleikis awaye,
With hir pure coit of reploch graye.
And gyf, within tway dayis or thre,
The eldest chyild hapnis to de,
Off the thrid kow he wylbe sure.
Cuhen he hes all, than, vnder his cure,
And Father and Mother boith ar dede,
Beg mon the babis, without remede:
Thay hauld the Corps at the kirk style;
And thare it moste remane ane quhyle,
Tyll thay gett sufficient souerte
For thare kirk rycht and dewite.11
Than cumis the Landis Lord, perfors,
And cleiks tyll hymn ane herield hors.
Pure laubourars wald that law wer doun,
Quhilk neuer was fundit be resoun.
I hard thame say, onder confessioun,
That law is brother tyll Oppressioun.


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The seilyel Nun wyll thynk gret schame, Without scho callit be Madame; The pure Preist thynkis he gettis no rycht, Be he nocht stylit lyke ane knycht, And callit “schir” affore his name, As “schir Thomás” and “schir Wilzame." All Monkrye, ze may heir and se, Ar callit Denis," for dignite: Quhowbeit his mother mylk the kow, He man3 be callit Dene Androw, Dene Peter, dene Paull, and dene Robart. With Christ thay tak ane painfull part, With dowbyll clethyng frome the cald, Eitand and drynkand quhen thay wald; With curious countryng in the queir: 4 God wait gyf thay by 5 heuin full deir. My lorde Abbot, rycht venerábyll, Ay marschellit vpmoste at the tabyll ; My lord Byschope, moste reuerent, Sett abufe Erlis, in Parliament; And Cardinalis, duryng thare ryngis, 6 Fallowis to Princis and to Kyngis; The Pope exaltit, in honour, Abufe the potent Empriour.

The proude Persone,? I thynk trewlye, He leidis his lyfe rycht lustelye; For quhy he hes none vther pyne, Bot tak his teind, and spend it syne. Bot he is oblyste, be resoun, To preche ontyll perrochioun: 9 Thoucht thay want precheing sewintene zeir, He wyll nocht want ane boll of beir. 10

[14 lines omitted.] And, als, the Vicar, as I trow, He wyll nocht faill to tak ane kow, And vmaist claith, thoucht babis thame ban, Frome ane pure selye housbandman. Quhen that he lyis for tyll de, Haiffeing small bairnis two or thre, And hes thre ky, withouttin mo, The Vicare moist haue one of tho,

At the end of June, 1547, the Reformers in St. Andrews Castle were, with the help of a French fleet and French soldiers, beset by land and sea. At the end of July they capitulated, and Knox became a chained prisoner in a French galley, under conditions that brought on dangerous fever. After nineteen months of imprisonment he was set free, in February, 1549. Edward VI. was then King of England, and John Knox, welcomed by the Privy Council, was at once sent to preach in Berwick.

In April, 1550, John Knox, cited to appear at Newcastle, justified himself for preaching that the mass, at its best, was an idolatrous substitute for the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. In 1551 he preached chiefly at Newcastle, and in December of that year he was made one of King Edward's six chaplains in ordinary, each paid with a salary of forty pounds. Two of them were to be always present with the king, and four to preach elsewhere in appointed districts. Knox's influence produced modifications of the form of administering the Communion as set forth in King Edward's first service-book, modifications planned to shut out the Roman doctrine of real presence.

At Berwick, John Knox engaged himself to Miss Marjorie Bowes, whom he married in 1553, after the death of Edward VI., under whom his scruples as to the constitution of the English Church caused him to refuse first the living of All Hallows, and afterwards a bishopric. After the change of reign Knox at first hoped to live quietly in the north of England, but it was soon made evident to him

1 Seilye, simple.

11 Lindsay here repeats what he had expressed between the two Denis. Dene or Dan, the shortened form of Dominus, Master; sol parts of bis “Satire of the Three Estates" in a tragi-comic episode Dan Chaucer and Dan John Lydgate. "Sir" (schir) was for a long of a poor man ruined by church claim on his scanty goods after time a common prefix to a clerical name, as with "Sir Topas the each death in his household. Here the poor husbandman dies, curate" in "Twelfth Night."

leaving widow and children. The church claims his counterpane 3 Man, must.

* Account-keeping in the choir. (upmost cloth) and one of his three cows. If next the widow die 5 God knows if they buy. 6 Ryngis, reigns.

another cow is taken. If then the eldest of the orphans dies, the 7 Persone, parson.

& Take his tithe and then spend it. church takes the last cow, the little ones must beg, and the corpse 9 Perrochioun, parishioners. 10 Beir, barley.

go unburied until they can find surety for burial fees.

that he must leave the country, and he crossed to clergy that was to meet in the church of the Black Dieppe at the end of January, 1554. Returning to Friars (Dominicans) of Edinburgh on the 15th of Dieppe from time to time for news from his wife and May, 1556. He went boldly and unexpectedly with friends in England, John Knox presently found a Erskine of Dun and other gentlemen, but, as the friend in John Calvin—a man of his own age—in Queen Regent discouraged action against him, the Geneva. In August, 1555, he used opportunity of citation was set aside on ground of informality, and paying a visit to his wife at Berwick, and went | Knox, master of the situation, spent that 15th of quietly to Edinburgh, where he preached to a small May and the ten following days, forenoon and aftergathering of Protestants, who then showed a growing noon, in preaching to large audiences. In the midst desire to be taught by him. He stirred some to enthu- of the enthusiasm of this work, on the third dav of siasm, persuaded them against outward conformity to it, he wrote to his wife's mother at BerwickRoman forms, and established formal separation. In a hall at Calder House in West Lothian hangs a

JOHN KNOX TO MRS. BOWES. picture of John Knox, with an inscription on the back, saying that.“ the first sacrament of the supper

Belovit mother, with my maist hartlie commendation in given in Scotland after the Reformation was dis

the Lord Jesus, albeit I was fullie purpoisit to have visitit pensed in this hall.” The reference is to this visit to

yow before this tyme, yet hath God laid impedimentis, whilk Scotland at the close of 1555. Knox was invited by

I culd not avoyd. They are suche as I dout not ar to his Erskine of Dun to his home in Angus, and there for

glorie, and to the comfort of many heir. The trumpet blew a month preached daily to the chief people of the

the ald sound thrie dayis together, till privat houssis of in. neighbourhood. Then he went to Calder House,

different largenes culd not conteane the voce of it. God, for where his host was Sir James Sandilands, Chief of

Chryst his Sonis sake, grant me to be myndful, that the the Knights Hospitallers in Scotland. Among those

sobbis of my hart hath not been in vane, nor neglectit, in

the presence of his Majestie. O! sweet war the death that who attended Knox's preachings at Calder House

suld follow sic fourtie dayis in Edinburgh, as heir I have were Archibald, Lord Lorne, afterwards Earl of

had thrie. Rejoise, mother; the tyme of our deliverance approacheth: for, as Sathan rageth, sa dois the grace of the Halie Spreit abound, and daylie geveth new testimonyis of the everlasting love of oure mercifull Father. I can wryt na mair to you at this present. The grace of the Lord Jesus rest with you. In haste—this Monunday—your sone, John Knox.

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While thus busy in Scotland, Knox was made one of its pastors by the English congregation at Geneva. He accepted the call, and in the summer of 1556 went to Geneva with his wife and his wife's mother. He left behind him an organised body of Scottish Church Reformers, and he gave to them, for the encouragement and support of their faith, this Pastoral Letter

John Knox. (From a Portrait at Calder House. Engrared for McCrie's

Life of Knox," 1811.)

Argyle; John Lord Erskine, afterwards Earl of Mar; and Lord James Stewart, afterwards Earl of Murray. At the beginning of 1556 Lockhart of Bar and Campbell of Kineancleuch took Knox to Kyle, where there were many advanced Reformers. Next he was with the family of the Earl of Glencairn at Finlayston. Then he was at Calder House again, and then again at Dun, where many gentlemen received the Sacrament sitting at the Lord's Table, and entered into a Covenant binding themselves to renounce the Popish communion, and maintain the

opish communion, and maintain the pure preaching of the Gospel as they had opportunity. Knox's preaching had by this time stirred so many that he was summoned before a convention of the


Efter hie had bene quyet amang thame.

“The comfort of the balie Gaist for salutatioun." Not sa mekill to instruct you as to leave with you, dearlie belovit brethren, sum testimony of my love, I have thought gud to communicate with you, in theis few lynis, my weak consall, how I wald ye suld behave yourselves in the middis of this wickit generatioun, tuiching the exercis of Godis maist halie and sacred Word, without the whilk, nether sall knawledge incres, godlines apeir, nor fervencie continew amang yow. For as the Word of God is the begyning of lyfe spirituall, without whilk all flesche is deid in Godis presence, and the lanterne to our feit, without the bryghtnes whairof all the posteritie of Adame doith walk in darknes; and as it is the fundament of faith, without the whilk na man under. standeth tha gud will of God; sa is it also the onlie organe and instrument whilk God useth to strenthin the weak, to comfort the afflictit, to reduce to mercie be repentance sic as have sliddin, and finallie to preserve and keip the verie lyfo of the saule in all assaltis and temptationis. And thairfoir yf that ye desyr your knawledge to be increasit, your faith to be confirmit, your consciencis to be quyetit and comfortit, or finallie your saule to be preservit in lyfe, lat your exercis bo Paule calleth [it] resuif lyie, borrowing precious unguementi touchit or moveit, to delectabill. Even si cure Lorde Jesus; I

confortable and ma exet is the sam.

Ithit manna beca thing, sa sum

frequent in the law of your Lord God. Despys not that the Gospell. This hungir and thrist doith argue and prufe precept whilk Joses (who, be his awn experience had learnit the lyfe of thair saullis. But gif sic men as having libertie what comfort lyeth bid within the Word of God) gave to the to reid and exercis thame selves in Godis Halie Scripture, and Isralitis in theis wordis : “Theis Wordis whilk I command the yet do begin to wearie becaus fra tyme to tyme they reid but this day sal be in thi hart, and thou sal exercis thi children in aothing, I ask why wearie thay not also everie day to drink thamne, thou sal talk of thame when thou art at home in thiwyne, to eat bread, everie day to behald the bryghtnes of the hous, and as thou walkest be the way, and when thou lyissone, and sa to use the rest of Godis creatures whilk everie doun, and when thou rysis up, and thou sall bind thame for, day do keip thair awn substance, cours, and nature ? thay sall & signe upon thi hand, and they salbe paperis of remember. | anser, I trust, becaus sic creatures have a strenth, as oft as. ance betwene thi eis, and thou sall wryt thame upon the thay ar usit, to expell hunger, and quenche thrist, to restoir postis of thi hous and upon thi gatis.” And Moses in another strenth, and to preserve the lyfe. O miserabill wreachis, place commandis thame to “remember the law of the Lord wha dar attribut mair power and strenth to the corruptible God, to do it, that it may be weill unto thame, and with creatures in nurisching and preserving the mortall karcas, thair children in the land whilk the Lord sall gif thame;". than to the eternall Word of God in nurissment of the saule mean yng that, lyke as frequent memorie and repetitioun of whilk is immortall! To reasone with thair abominable un. Godis preceptis is the middis whairby the feir of God, whilk | thankfulnes at this present it is not my purpois. But to

the beginning of all wisdome and filicitie, is keipit recent yow, deir brethrene, I wryt my knawledge and do speik my in mynd, sa is negligence and oblivioun of Godis benefitis conscience, that sa necessarie as meit and drink is to the preressavit the first grie of defectioun fra God. Now yf the Law, servatioun of lyfo corporall, and so necessarie as the heit and whilk be reasone of our weaknes can wirk nathing but wraith bryghtnes of the sone is to the quicknyng of the herbis and

aanger, was sa effectuall that, rememberit and rehersit of to expell darknes, sa necessarie is also to lyfe everlasting, and purpois to do, it brought to the pepill a corporall benedic to the illuminatioun and lyght of the saule, the perpetuall in, what sall we say that the glorious Gospell of Chryst meditatioun, exercis, and use of Godis Halie Word.

duith wirk, so that it be with reverence intreatit? St. And thairfoir, deir brethrene, yf that ye luke for a lyfe to calleth [it] the sueit odour of lyfe unto thois that suld cum, of necessitie it is that ye exercise yourselves in the Buke ste, borrowing his similitude fra odoriferous herbis or | of the Lord your God. Lat na day slip over without sum

unguementis, whais nature is, the mair thay be comfort ressavit fra the mouth of God. Opin your earis, and
of moveit, to send furth thair odour mair pleasing and Hie will speik evin pleasing thingis to your hart. Clois
1. Even sic, deir brethren, is the blissit evangell of not your eis, but diligentlie lat thame behald what portioun
de Jesus; for the mair that it be intreatit, the mair of substance is left to yow within your Fatheris testament.

€ and mair plissant is it to sic as do heir, read, and Let your toungis learne to prais the gracious gudness of him
le sam. I am not ignorant that, as the Isralitis wha of his meir mercie hath callit you fra darknes to lyght
ha becaus that everie day they saw and eat but ane , and fra deth to lyfe. Nether yit may ye do this sa quyetlie
am thair be now a dayis (wha will not be haldin of that ye will admit na witnessis; nay, brethren, ye are or-
Sort; that efter anis reiding sum parcellis of the deynit of God to reule and governe your awn houssis in his
lo convert thame selves altogether to prophane trew feir and according to his halie word. Within your awn

humane letteris, becaus that the varietie of houssis, I say. In sum cassis ye ar bishopis and kingis, your dirin conteaynit doith bring with it a daylie wyffis, children and familie ar your bishoprik and charge; of "whair contrairwys within the simpill Scriptures you it sal be requyrit how cairfullie and diligentlic ye have

Ipetuall repititioun of a thing is fascheous and instructit thame in Godis trew knawledge, how that ye have his temptatioun I confes may enter in Godis studeit in thame to plant vertew and to repress vyce. And Sa tyme, and impossibill is it that thairin they thairfoir, I say, ye must mak thame partakeris in reading, ; The end : for Godis electioun, besydis othir exhortation, and in making commoun prayeris, whilk I wald

hath this ever joynit with it that Godis elect! in everie hous wer usit anis a day at leist. But above all

norance(I speik of thois that ar cumin to the thingis, deir brethren, studie to practis in lyfo that whilk the Hledge edge to sum taist and feilling of Godis Lord commandis, and than be ye assurit that ye sall never thay ar never satisfeit in this lyfe, but fray heir nor reid the same without frute: and this mekill for the

h unger and thay thrist to eat the breid exercises within your housis. h e heavin, and to drink the watter that Considdering that St. Paul callis the Congregatioun the V erlasting-whilk thay can not do but be bodie of Chryst, whairof everie ane of us is a member, teach

a n d faith luketh ever to the will of God | ing ws thairby that na member is of sufficience to susteane e s a that faith hath baith her begynning and feide the self without the help and support of any uther,

the Word of God: and sa I say that I think it necessarie that for the conferrence of Scriptures, & Godis chosin children can despys or assemblies of brether be had. The order thairin to be

ir salvatioun be any lang continewance, observit is expressit be sanct Paule, and thairfoir I neid not Labdin

to the end. Often it is that Godis elect to use many wordis in that behalf : onlie willing that when

dage and thraldome that they can not ye convene (whilk I wald wer anis a weik), that your begyn. mereix thame Selva

brokin unto thame, neither yit libertie ning suld be fra confessing of your offences, and invocatioun

Ves in Godis halie Word: but then doith of the spreit of the Lord Jesus to assist yow in all your sadis deir child

dren loth, but maist gredilie do thay godlie interprysis; and than lat sum place of Scripture be 'the fude thair saulis; then do thay accuse thair planelie and distinctlie red, sa mekill as sal be thocht suffi

then lament and bewaill thay the miser cient for a day or tyme, whilk endit, gif any brother have of tha

hair brethren; and than cry and call thay exhortatioun, interpretatioun, or dout, lat him not feir to na opinlie whair thay dar) for frie passage to speik and move the same, sa that he do it with moderatioun,

either to edifie or be edifeit. And heirof I dout not but great od's benefits received the first step of defection from

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profit sall schortlie ensew: for first be heiring, reiding, and the Lord Jesus rest with yow. Reinember my weaknes in conferring the Scriptures in the assemblie, the haill bodie your daylie prayeris, the 7 of July, 1557. of the Scriptures of God sal becum familiar, the judgement

Your brother vnfeaned, JOHNE KXox. and spreitis of men sal be tryit, thair pacence and modestie salbe knawin, and finallie thair giftis and utterance sall During the next two years Knox was quietly at

plicatioun of wordis, perplext interpreta- | home in Geneva, with Calvin for a friend. Calvin's tioun, and wilfulnes in reasonyng is to be avoydit at all spiritual rule in Geneva made John Knox speak of tymes and in all places, but chieflie in the Congregatioun, the place as “the most perfect school of Christ that whair nathing aucht to be respectit except the glorie of God, ever was in the earth since the days of the Apostles. and comfort or edificatioun of our brethrene. Yf any thing In other places," he said, “I confess Christ to be occur within the text, or yit arys in reasonyng, whilk your truly preached ; but manners and religion to be so judgementis can not resolve, or capacities aprehend, let the sincerely reformed, I have not yet seen in any other same be notit and put in wryt befoir ye depart the congre place beside.” In April, 1557, two friends from gatioun, that when God sall offir unto yow any interpreter Edinburgh brought to John Knox at Geneva letters your doutis being notit and knawin may have the mair from the Earl of Glencairn, and from Lords Lorne, expedit resolutioun, or els that when ye sall have occasion to

Erskine, and James Stewart, inviting him, in the wryt to sic as with whome ye wald communicat your judge

name of the brethren, to return to Scotland and aid mentis, your letteris may signifie and declair your unfeaned

them in maintaining and advancing the Reformation desyre that ye haue of God and of his trew knawledge, and

there. Calvin advised him that he could not refuse thay, I dout not, according to thair talentis, will indeuour

the call. He obeyed it; resigned his pastoral care and bestow thair faithfull labors, (to] satisfie your godlie

at Geneva; and in October was at Dieppe upon petitionis. Of myself I will speak as I think, I will moir

his way to Scotland, when he was met by letters, gladlie spend xv houris in communicatting my judgment

telling him that the greater number of the Scottish with yow, in explanyng as God pleassis to oppin to me any place of Scripture, then half ane hour in any other matter

reformers were become faint-hearted, and seemed to besyd.

have repented of their invitation. He then sent off Farther, in reading the Scripture I wald ye suld joyne sum

the most earnest exhortations that his letters could bukis of the ald, and sum of the new Testament together, as

convey, and awaited in France the answers to them, Genesis and ane of the evangelistis, Exodus with another, and

preaching at Dieppe for a time as colleague to the sa furth, euer ending sic bukis as ye begyn, (as the tyme will

pastor of the newly-formed Protestant congregation suffer) for it sall greitly comfort yow to heir that harmony,

there. The expected answers from Scotland did not and weiltunit sang of the halie Spreit speiking in oure fatheris come. He himself felt that his appearance there frome the begyning. It sal confirme yow in theis dangerous would at that time stir up tumult and lead to bloodand perrellous dayis, to behald the face of Christ Jesus his shed, and he asked himself, “What comfort canst thou loving spous and kirk, from Abell to him self, and frome him have to see the one half of the people rise up against self to this day, in all ageis to be ane. Be frequent in the the other, yea, to jeopard the one to murder and prophetis and in the epistillis of St. Paul, for the multitude destroy the other?” Knox wrote from Dieppe on the of matteris maist comfortable thairin conteanit requyreth 1st of December, 1557, a letter to the Scottish Proexercis and gud memorie. Lyke as your assemblis aucht to testants in general, and on the 17th, another to the begyn with confessioun and invocatioun of Godis halie Spreit, Scottish Protestant nobility, and in the beginning of sa wald I that thay wer never finissit without thanksgiving

the year 1558 he returned to Geneva. There he and commoun prayeris for princes, ruleris, and maiestratis,

was among the persons engaged in preparing that for the libertie and frie passage of Chrystis evangell, for the

English version of the Bible produced in Geneva at comfort and delyverance of our afflictit brethrene in all places

the expense of John Bodley, and known afterwards now persecutit, but maist cruellie now within the realme of

as the Geneva Bible, and he published his “ First France and Ingland, and for sic uther thingis, as the Spreit of

Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Piegithe Lord Jesus sal teache unto yow to be profitable ether to

ment? of Women.” He meant, he said, that the your selues, or yit to your brethren whairsoeuer thay be. If

trumpet should be blown three times, and at the this, or better, deir brethrene, I sall heir that ye exercis your

third time he would declare his name, which was selues, than will I prais God for your great obedience, as for thame that not onlie haue ressavit the Word of Grace with

not upon the title-page of the “ First Blast,” though gladnes, but that also with cair and diligence do kcip the

manifest in every page. There was no doubt as to same as a treasure and jewell maist precious. And becaus

the authorship. Knox saw the part of Christendom that I can not expect that ye will do the contrarie, at this

he cared for subject to three Marys, who maintained present I will vse na threatenyngis, for my gud hoip is,

the cause of Rome in their religion-Mary of Guise', that ye sall walk as the sonis of lyght in the middis of this

Regent of Scotland ; Mary Queen of Scots ; and wickit generatioun, that ye salbe as starris in the nyght

Mary Queen of England. This led him to argue ceassone, wha yit ar not changeit into darknes, that ye salbe that “to promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, as wheit amangis the kokill, and yit that ye sall not change dominion, or empire above any realm, nation, or city, your nature whilk ye haue ressavit be grace, through the is repugnant to nature, contumely to God, a thing fellowschip and participatioun whilk we haue with the Lord most contrarious to His revealed will and approved Jesus in his bodie and blud. And finallie, that ye salbe of ordinance, and finally it is the subversion of good the novmber of the prvdent virginis, daylie renewing your order, of all equity and justice.” Then Mary of lampis with oyle, as ye that pacientlie abyd the glorious England died, Elizabeth came to the throne, and she aparitioun and cuming of the Lord Jesus, whais omnipotent too was a woman. Spreit rule and instruct, illuminat and comfort your hartis and myndis in all assaltis, now cuer. Amen. The grace of

i Regiment, rule, government.

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