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the Scottish Church. On the 24th they annulled former acts for the maintenance of the Roman Church, abolished the Pope's jurisdiction, and made it criminal to say a mass or hear a mass.1 And so the Scottish Reformation was accomplished.
The short reign of Francis II. of France, husband of young Mary Queen of Scots, was ended by his death in December, 1560, and he was succeeded by a boy of eleven, Charles IX. The queen-mother, Catherine of Medicis, made friendly advances to Elizabeth, who said to the young king's ambassador, "Tell your master that war is only fit for poor devils of princes who have their fortunes to make, and not for the sovereigns of two great countries like France and England."
The change of rule in England brought home from Switzerland and Germany many Reformers who had been in exile under Mary. John Fox did not return immediately. His age was forty-one in the year of Elizabeth's accession, and he was then living with a wife and two children at Basle, earning his bread as a corrector of the press. He was born at Boston, in Lincolnshire, educated at Oxford, and expelled in 15-15 on accusation of heresy. He was then tutor, first to the children of Sir Thomas Lucy, at Charlcote, near Stratford-on-Avon, and next to the children of the Earl of Surrey after their father's execution. Their grandfather, the Duke of Norfolk,
self to the printer Oporinus by showing him die first sketch of his "History of the Church." Th\i«. written in Latin, was published in 1554. After uVdeath of Mary, his friends, Edmund Grindal and others, returned to England, whence they supplied Fox with ample material from the records of the bishops' courts. An enlarged version of his History, still in Latin, came from the press of Oi>orinus in August, 1559. Then Fox came home, and lived at first near Aldgate, at the manor place of the Duke of Norfolk, constantly busied over the production of the first English edition of his famous book, which appeared in folio in 1563 as "Acts and Monuments of the* latter and perilous Days touching matters of tin Church, wherein are comprehended and descrilfd the great Persecutions and horrible Troubles tin; have been wrought and practised by the Romi-i Prelates, especially in this realm of England ati Scotland, from the Year of Our Lord a Thousani unto the Time now Present. Gathered and collect^: according to the true copies and writings certificatorr. as well, of the parties themselves that suffered, a also out of the Bishops' Registers which were tidoers thereof." It is the book of a devout and zealous partisan, adorned with pictures designed '■•■ impress more vividly on readers' minds the reaax; for repudiation of the Church of Rome, Fox «£demned the Roman Church for jwrsecution to tit death, and honestly endeavoured to prevent, as f.r as he could, infliction of the penalty of death bv tiReformed Church upon those whom he accouct". heretics. He busied himself much to save the lira of two Anabaptists, and sought without success" do away with punishment by death in matters >i religion. But in the conflict of opinion he was ~ eager combatant, not an impartial judge, deeply ft* vinced of the truth of his own cause, and shu^u-* what is to be found also sometimes in a writer ■' more genius, the inability to know how men » honest and as earnest as himself could hold •!■ opposite opinion.
A few records of the suffering of English^: in Spain were added by Fox to his nat-ran're i English persecutions, the chief of them being t» account of the burning of an English merchant«' an auto da fi, at Seville, on the 20th of Dw*i. ber, 1560.
THE CRUELL HANDI.YNG AND BIRXYXG OF XICHMJBURTOX, ENGLISHMAN AND MERCHANT IX SfiXSl
Forasmuch as in our former l>ooke of Actos and V*: mentes mention was made of the mortyrdome of NVi Burton, I thought here also not to omit f fame, tk* f" beyng sueh as is not unworthy to be known, as »*-" the profitable example of his singular constancie, is al" the notyng of the extreme bearing and craefl r»»s of those Catholicke Inquisitours of Spayne, who nai.s pretensed visour of religion, do nothing but tub "■* owne private gayne and conimoditie, with crafty dro*-'5*' and spoylyng of other men's goodes, as by the utti this story may appears.
The fift day of the moneth of Xouemlier. about ti»' of our Lord God 1500, this Nicholas Burton, ritan •-• tyme of London, and marchaiint, dwelling in th» jm&
little Saint Bartlemewe, peaceably and quietly following his traffike in the trade of marchaundise, and beyng in the citie of Cadiz, in the partes of Andolazia in Spuyne, there came into his lodgyng a Judas (or, as they terme theui) a Familiar of the Fathers of the Inquisition, who, in askyng for the sayd Nicholas Burton, fayned that hee had a letter to deliuer to his owne handes: by whiche meanes he spake with him immediatly. And hauing no letter to deliuer to him, then the sayd Promoter or Familiar, at the motion of the Deuill his master, whose messenger he was, inuonted another lye, and sayd that he would take ladyng for London in such shyppes as the sayd Nicholas Burton had fray ted to lade, if he would let any: whiche was partly to knowe where hee laded his goodes, that they might attache them, and chiefly to detract the tyme untill the Alguisiel, or Sergeant of the sayd Incjui
Triana,1 where the sayd fathers of the Inquisition proceeded agaynst him secretly accordyng to their accustomable cruell tyranny, that neucr after he could be suffered to write or speake to any of Ins nation: so that to this day it is unknowen who was his accuser.
Afterward the xx. day of December, in the foresayd yeare, they brought the sayd Nicholas Burton, with a great number of other prisoners, for professyng the true Christian religion, into the citie of Siuill, to a place where the sayd Inquisition sat in judgement, which they call the Awto,s with a canuas coate, whereon in diuers partes was paynted the figure of an houge deuill tormentyng a soulc in a flame of fire, and on his head a coppyng tanke of the same worke.
His toung was forced out of his mouth, with a clouen sticke fastened vppou it, that hee shoulde not vtter his conscience
sition, might come and apprehend the body of the sayd Nicholas Burton: whiche they did incontinently.
Who then well perceauyng that they were not able to burden nor charge him that he had written, spoken, or done any thyng there in that countrey agaynst the ecclesiasticall or temporall lawes of the same realmc, boldly asked them what they had to lay to his charge, that they did so arrest hym, and bad them to declare the cause, and hee would aunswere them. Notwithstanding, they aunswered nothyng, but commaunded him with cruell and threatnyng woordes to hold his peace, and not to speake one word to them.
And so they caryed him to the cruell and filthy common prison of the same towne of Cadiz, where he remained in yrons xuij. dayes amongest theeues.
All whiche tyme he so instructed the poore prisoners in the Wordo of God, accordyng to the good talent whiche God had geuen him in that behalfe, and also in the Spanish toung to vtter the same, that in short space he had well rcclaymed sundry of these superstitious and ignorant Spanyardes to embrace the Woorde of God, and to reiect their popish traditions.
Whiche beyng knowen vnto the officers of the Inquisition, they conueyed him, laden with yrons, from thence to a citie called Siuill, into a more cruell and straighter prison called
and fayth to the people, and so hee was set with an otr-.^r Englishe man of Southampton, and diuers others condemned men for religion, as well Frenchmen, as Spanyardes, vppon a scaffold ouer agaynst the sayd Inquisition, where their sentences and judgementes were read and pronounced against them.
And immediatly after the sayd sentences geuen, they were all caryed from thence to the place of execution without the
1 In the low snbnrb of Seville called Triana, on the opposite bank of the Guadalquiver.
* Judgement which they call the A\cto. Auto (Latin "actus") was originally a Spanish forensic term, and meant a decree or judgment of a court. The -4ufo da H (Act of Faith) was a public gaol delivery by the Court of the Inquisition, when acquittals and convictions of those accused of crimes against religion were read, and those adjudged to death were delivered to the secular power by which sentence was immediately executed. The "Auto" ended with the delivery of the judgments; but as, in days of extreme persecution, burning of heretics immediately followed, and they were carried !■» the place of execution with much public ceremony, in yellow dresse * painted over with suggestions of the ]«ius of hell, to arrest attention and strike doubters dumb with fear, the term Auto da Fi wps commonly associated with these public elocutions. Besides the general Auto da Fc, there was the private Auto, the Autillo, or little Act, and the delivery of judgment in a single cose, the ^4ut« lingular.
citie, where they most cruelly burned him, for whose constant fayth God be praysed.
This Nicholas Burton, by the way, and in the flames of fire, made so chearefull a countenaunce, embracyng death with all pacience and gladnesse, that the tormentours and enemyes which stode by sayd that the deuill had his soule before he came to the lire, and therefore they sayd his senses of feelyng were past him.
It happened that after the arrest of this Nicholas Burton aforesayd, immediatly all the goodes and marcliaundise whiche hee brought with him into Spayno by way of trafficke, were, uccordyng to their common vsage, seised and taken into the Sequester; among the which they also rolled by much that appertained to an other Englisho marehaunt, wherewith he was credited as faetour; wherof, so soone as newes was brought to the marehaunt, as well of the imprisonment of his faetour as of the arrest made vppon his goodes, he sent his atturney into Spayne, with authoritie from him to make clayme to his goodes, & to demaundo them, whose name was John Fronton, citizen of Bristow.
When his atturney was landed at Siuill, and had showed all his letters and writynges to the holy house, requyring them that such goodes might bee redeliuered into his possession, aunswere was made him that he must sue by bill, and retayne an aduocate (but all was doubtlcsse to delay him), and they, forsooth, of curtesie assigned hym one to frame his supplication for him, and other such bilks of petition as ho had to exhibite into their holy court, demanding for echo bill viij. rials, albeit they stoode hym jn no more stead than if he had put vp none at all. And for the space of three or iiij. monethes this fellow missed not twise a day, attendyng euery momyng and aftornoone at the Inquisitours Palace, prayng vnto them vppon his knees for his dispatch, but specially to the Byshop of Tarracon, who was at that very time chief in the Inquisition at Siuill, that he of his absolute authoritie would commaunde restitution to be made thereof; but the booty was so good and so great that it was very hard to come by it agayne.
At the length, after he had spent whole iiij. monethes in sutes and requestes, and also to no purpose, he receaued this aunswere from them, that he must shew better euidence and bryng more sufficient certificates out of England for proofe of his matter then those whiche he had already presented to the Court; whereupon the partic forthwith posted to London, and with all speede returned to Siuill agayne with more ample and large letters, testimonials, and certificates, accordyng to their request, and exhibited them to the Court. Notwithstandyng, the Inquisitours still shifted him off. excusing themselues by lacko of leasure, and for that they were oceupyed in greater and moro weighty affaires, and with such aunsweres delayed him other foure monethes after.
At the last, when the partiu had wellnygh spent all his monoy, and therefore sued tho more earnestly for his dispatch, they referred the matter wholy to the Byshoppc: of whom, when he repayred unto him, he had this aunswere: that for him selfe hee knew what hee had to do; howbeit hee was but one man, and the determination of the matter appertained vnto the other Commissioners as well as vnto him: and thus, by postyng and passyng it from one to an other, the partie could obtaino no ende of his sute. Yet for his importunitie sake, they wore resolued to dispatchc him, but it was on this sorte: one of the Inquisitours called Gasco, a man very well experienced in these practices, willed the partie to rcsorte vnto him after dinner.
The fellow being glad to heare these newes, and supposing that his goodes should be restored vnto him, and that he was called in for that purpose, to talke with the other that was in
prison, to conferre with him about their accomptes;—tht rather thorough a little misunderstandyng, hearyng the Inquisitor cast out a word, that it should be needef ull for hym to talke with the prisoner;—and beyng therevpon mora then halfe persuaded that at the length they ment good fayti. did so, and repayred thether about the euening. Immediatly vpon his commyng, the jayler was foorthwith charged with hym, to shut hym vp close in such a certain prison, where they appointed him.
The partie hopyng at the first that hee had bene called for about some other matter, and scyng him selfe, contrary to his expectation, cast into a darke dungeon, pereeaued at thr length that the world went with him farre otherwise thfn he supposed it would haue done.
But within two or three dayes after, he was brought forth into the Court, where he began to demaunde his goodes; and because it was a deuise that well serued their turne, without any more circumstaunco they had hym Bay his Aue Marie. The partie began <$: sayd it after this maner: Aur Jforv gratia plena Dominua tecum, benedicta tu in tttuiieribus, tt bent'dictus fructus ventris tui Iexut. Amen.
The same was written worde by worde as he spake it; and without any more talke of claymyng his goodes became it was booteles, they commaunde hym to prison agayne, and enter an action agaynst hym as an heretieke, forasmuch i> he did not say his A tie Maria after the Romish fashion, bat ended it very suspiciously, for he should haue added, mortouer, Sancta Maria, mater l)ti, ora pro nobii peeeatortbiu, by abbreuiatyng whereof it was euideut enough (sayd they, thit he did not allow the mediation of saintcs.
Thus they picked a quarell to detaine him in prison i longer season, and afterwardes brought hym forth ink' their stage, disguised after their maner, where sentence' wa.. geuen that he should lose all the goodes whiche he sued for. though they were not his owne, and besides this, sun\r . yeares imprisonment.
In August, 1561, Mary Queen of Scots, aged nineteen, widow of Francis II. of France, returned to Scotland, and heard mass on the first SundaT after her arrival. In the same year John Bodlev obtained in England a seven years' patent for th* version of the Bible which had been prepared and printed at his cost in Geneva, and was known as the Geneva Bible. Few men of any creed were at that time free from faith in the use of force and violence for the advancement of the highest truth they knew. In its preface and short annotations the Genevi Bible was not without trace of desire to hew Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal. Some shadow of this form of zeal was even upon that society established by the influence of Calvin at Geneva, which Knox held to be more truly Christian than anything that had been seen elsewhere since the days of thr Apostles.
Jean Cauvin, or John Calvin, was horn at Noyon in 1509. At the age of twenty-three, after a liberal education at Paris, Orleans, and Bourges, he had completely adopted such reformed opinions as prevented him from entering the ministry within th* Church of Rome, for which he was to have beta trained. He found a friend in Margaret of Navanr. and while still young produced in Latin, at Bafl*a first outline, developed afterwards more fully, of the principles of his faith, and of the fkitk of many whom his genius made afterwards his followers, the Institutes of the Christian Religion. It was in 1536, when twenty-seven years old, that Calvin first settled at Geneva, but all his reforms had not acceptance then, and in 1538 he was compelled to leave. In 1541 he was recalled, and then established at Geneva that "yoke of Christ" by which he sought to enforce Christian life, as well us Christian doctrine. A girl was whipped for singing a song to a psalm-tune; three children were punished for waiting outside the church to eat cakes in sermon-time; a child was beheaded for having struck her parents; and a lad of sixteen was condemned to death for only threatening to strike his mother. The unreformed Church had its ecclesiastical courts, which took cognisance of offences against minor morals, and their summoners made them occasion of much petty oppression and cruelty. Calvin also was following traditional customs when he sought unity of faith by burning the learned Spaniard, Michael Servetus, in October, 1553, for blasphemy and heresy, because he was a Christian who could not accept the doctrine of the Trinity. Calvin died in 1564, leaving his mind strongly impressed on the Reformed Church of England, and yet more strongly, through John Knox, on the Reformed Church of Scotland. In Elizabeth's reign, Calvin's interpretation of the doctrines of the Christian Faith was that commonly accepted by the English clergy. In 1561, while Calvin was still living, his body of Church Doctrine, the "Institutio Christiana? Religionis," was published in a translation by Thomas Norton, who was about the same time joint author with Thomas Sackville of "Gorboduc," the first English tragedy. "The Institution of Christian Religion, written in Latine by M. John Calvine, translated into English according to the author's last edition," by Thomas Norton, appeared as a solid folio in 1561; a new edition of it was required in 1562, and other editions in 1572, 1574, 1580, and 1582. Calvin's " Institutes," in its first edition, was a. short book, but it grew with his life. Every point of doctrine newly treated by him, in sermons or otherwise, had its treatment presently incorporated with the "Institutes," so that the whole body of ('alvin's religious opinions had come at last to be therein contained.
In 1562, under the regency in France of Catherine of Medicis, the Huguenots rose in civil war after the massacre of Vassy. In March, 1563, there was )>eace between Catherine and the Huguenots by the edict of Amboise. In that year Queen Elizabeth authorised the Issue of a second " Book of Homilies," to secure uniformity of teaching in the English < 'hurch. She had already adopted, in 1559, the "Book of Homilies" first issued in 1547. In the year 1564—year of the birth of Shakes] >eare—the queen's Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker, began the preparation of a Bible which was to secure the utmost accuracy of text by direct reference to the Hebrew and Greek. So many bishops were among the scholars engaged in producing it, that it was called the Bishops' Bible. This was published
in 1568, the year in which the seven years' patent for the printing of the Geneva Bible expired, and it became from that date the authorised version for use of the Church of England, until 1611, the date of the first edition of the version authorised by James I.
Matthew Parker, born at Norwich in 1504, wras educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, of which he became master in 1544. He was chaplain to Anne Boleyn, to Henry VIII. and to Edward VI., and took such part in the early education of Elizabeth as won her heartiest goodwill, and gave him great influence over her in after life. Mary deprived him of his preferments, but Elizabeth made him, somewhat against his will, her first Archbishop of Canterbury, called him for his lightness of body, "her little archbishop," and gladly took counsel with him for his weight of mind. Matthew Parker was very learned, and partly out of reverence for the past, partly out of desire to take a middle way of peace, he was unwilling to make those great changes in the outward form of worship which were sought by the most uncompromising of those who had put away the Church of Rome. In country places the great majority of the people were still Roman Catholic, and everywhere the less educated would associate familiar forms of worship with their religious life. Archbishop Parker and the Queen desired to change only what they accounted evil in itself, because associated with false doctrines or practices that had crept into the Church ; and the Archbishop sought to show that the Reformed Church of England was not, as to essentials, a new Church, but the old restored. He encouraged research into Church Antiquities; himself published in 1572 a.Latin book on the Antiquities of the British Church and Privileges of the Church of Canterbury; and desired to promote a study of First English, that in ^Elfric's sermons Englishmen might find record of opinions held by the first Church of England, which were not those of the Church of Rome, but those to which the Church of England in Elizabeth's day had reverted.
Bishop Jewel worked with Parker in the same direction. John Jewel, born in Devonshire in 1522, was educated at Merton and Corpus Christi Colleges, Oxford. While a student he was lamed for life by an illness. When he had taken his B.A. degree he lived by teaching, and was for seven years reader of Latin and Rhetoric in his college. In 1544 he commenced M.A. In 1548 Peter Martyr was called from Germany to teach divinity at Oxford, and Jewel became one of his foremost friends and followers. In 1551 John Jewel became Bachelor of Divinity, and took a poor living at Sunningwell, near Oxford, to which, lame as he was, he walked to preach once a fortnight. At Mary's accession Jewel was expelled from his college as a follower of Peter Martyr, and a Lutheran. The last words of hLs last lecture, given in Latin, to his college were these :—
In my last Lectures I have (said he) imitated the custom of famished men, who when they see their meat likely to be suddenly and unexpectedly snatched from them, devour it with the greater haste and (rreediness. For whereas I intended thus to put an end to my Lectures, and perceived that I was like forthwith to be silenced, I made no scruple to entertain you (contrary to my former usage) with much unpleasant and ill dressed discourse, because I see I have incurred the displeasure and hatred of some; but whether deservedly or no, I shall leave to their consideration, for I am persuaded that those who have driven me hence would not suffer me to live anywhere if it were in their power. But as for me, I willingly yield to the times, and if they can derive to themselves any satisfaction from my calamity, I would not hinder them from it. But as Aristides, when he went into exile and forsook his country, prayed that they might never moro think of him; so I beseech God to grant the same to my fellow-collegians, and what can they wish for more? Pardon me, my hearers, if grief has seized me, being to be torn against my will from that place where I have passed the first part of my life, whero I have lived pleasantly, and been in some honour and employment. But why do I thus delay to put an end to my misery by one word? Woe is me, that (as with my extreme sorrow and deep feeling I at last speak it) I must say farewell my studies, farewell to these beloved houses, farewell thou pleasant seat of learning, farewell to the most delightful intercourse with you, farewell young men, farewell lads, farewell fellows, farewell brethren, farewell ye beloved as my eyes, farewell all, farewell."
But he did not yet leave Oxford. Another college sheltered Jewel, and the University, making him public orator, required him to write its congratulations to the queen upon her proposed change of the established religion. He was driven also, by threat of death, to sign doctrines in which he did not believe, whereby he lost his friends and did not satisfy his enemies. Then lie fled on foot, and was
Frankfort to Strasburg, where he took liim into his house as constant companion and heljier. Jewel transcribed for the printer his friend's Commentary on the Book of Judges, and read the Fathers with him, especially St. Augustine. Edmund Grind.il was among the English refugees with whom Jewel formed closer friendship at Strasburg. In 155'i Peter Martyr was called to the professorship of Hebrew at Zurich, and went thither, taking Jewel with him as a part of his own household. After the death of Mary, John Jewel returned to Englaml where Elizabeth soon made him Bishop of Salisbury. In 1562 Bishop Jewel published in Latin, for readers throughout Europe, his "Apology of the Church of England." It was issued by tb'queen's authority as a Confession of the Faith of tbe Reformed Church of England, showing where and why it had parted from those Roman doctrines which it accounted to be heresies, and how they had arisen in the early Church. Thus Bishop Jewel wrote in his "Apology" upon
THE CHARGE OF HERESY.
Though St. Jerome will allow no man to be patient under the suspicion of heresy, yet we will not behave ourstlttt neither sourly nor irreverently, nor angerly, though he ought not to be esteemed either sharp or abusive who sp*«kt nothing but the truth; no, we will leave that sort of oratory to our adversaries, who think whatsoever they speak, although it be never so sharp and reproachful, modest and appose when it is applied to us, and they are aa little concerned whether it be true or false; but we, who defend nothing W the truth, have no need of such base arts.
Now if we make it appear, and that not obscurely and craftily, but bona fide, before God, truly, ingeniously, clearly and perspicuously, that we teach tho most holy Gospel of God, and that the ancient Fathers and the whole primitiw Church are on our side, and that we have not without jns! cause left them, and returned to the Apostles and th? ancient Catholic Fathers; and if they, who so much d.t<* our doctrine, and pride themselves in the name of Cathuhea. shall apparently see, that all those pretences of antiquity, d which they so immoderately glory, belong not to tlit-m. and that there is more strength in our cause than they though: there was; then we hope that none of them will be so caretaa of his salvation, but he will at some time or other bethink himself which side he ought to join with. Certainly, if a man be not of a hard and obdurate heart, and resolved not to hear, he can never repent the having once considered oar defence, and the attending what is said by us, and whether it bo agreeable or no to the Christian Religion.
For whereas they call us heretics, that is so dreadful * crime, that except it be apparently seen, except it be palpable. and as it were to be felt with our hands and fingers, it onzitt not to be easily believed that a Christian is or can be guilty of it; for heresy is a renunciation of our salvation, a rejectio» of the graco of God, and a departure from the body and spoil of Christ. But this was ever the custom and usage of them and of their forefathers, that if any presumed to complain J their errors, and desired the reformation of relieion. tt*r condemned them forthwith for heretics, as innovator* aad factious men. Christ himself was called a Samaritan, for no other cause, but for that they thought He had mudc a defertion to a now religion or heresy. And St. Bnul the Ap»-«ti» being called in question, was accused of heresy, to which ka replied: After the way which they call heresy, to worth'p I tit