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that I was like forth with to be silenced, I made no scruple Frankfort to Strasburg, where he took him into his to entertain you (contrary to my former usage) with much house as constant companion and helper. Jewel unpleasant and ill dressed discourse, because I see I have transcribed for the printer his friend's Commentary incurred the displeasure and hatred of some; but whether on the Book of Judges, and read the Fathers with deservedly or no, I shall leave to their consideration, for I am
him, especially St. Augustine. Edmund Grinda] persuaded that those who have driven me hence would not
was among the English refugees with whom Jewel suffer me to live anywhere if it were in their power. But
formed closer friendship at Strasburg. In 1556 as for me, I willingly yield to the times, and if they can
| Peter Martyr was called to the professorship of derive to themselves any satisfaction from my calamity, I
Hebrew at Zurich, and went thither, taking Jewel would not hinder them from it. But as Aristides, when he
with him as a part of his own household. After the went into exile and forsook his country, prayed that they
death of Mary, John Jewel returned to England, might never more think of him; so I beseech God to grant
where Elizabeth soon made him Bishop of Salis the same to my fellow-collegians, and what can they wish for
bury. In 1562 Bishop Jewel published in Latin, more ? Pardon me, my hearers, if grief has seized me, being to be torn against my will from that place where I have
for readers throughout Europe, his “ Apology of passed the first part of my life, where I have lived pleasantly,
the Church of England.” It was issued by the and been in some honour and employment. But why do
queen's authority as a Confession of the Faith of the I thus delay to put an end to my misery by one word ?
Reformed Church of England, showing where and Woe is me, that (as with my extreme sorrow and deep feeling
why it had parted from those Roman doctrines I at last speak it) I must say farewell my studies, farewell to
which it accounted to be heresies, and how they these beloved houses, farewell thou pleasant seat of learning,
had arisen in the early Church. Thus Bishop Jevel farewell to the most delightful intercourse 'with you, farewell | wrote in his “Apology" upon young men, farewell lads, farewell fellows, farewell brethren, farewell ye beloved as my eyes, farewell all, farewell.”
THE CHARGE OF HERESY.
Though St. Jerome will allow no man to be patient unda But he did not yet leave Oxford. Another college the suspicion of heresy, yet we will not behave ourselves sheltered Jewel, and the University, making him neither sourly nor irreverently, nor angerly, though he ought public orator, required him to write its congratu
not to be esteemed either sharp or abusive who sptab Jations to the queen upon her proposed change of the
nothing but the truth; no, we will leave that sort of oratory established religion. He was driven also, by threat
to our adversaries, who think whatsoever they speak, although of death, to sign doctrines in which he did not
it be never so sharp and reproachful, modest and apposite believe, whereby he lost his friends and did not
when it is applied to us, and they are as little concerned satisfy his enemies. Then he fled on foot, and was
whether it be true or false; but we, who defend nothing that the truth, have no need of such base arts.
Now if we make it appear, and that not obscurely and craftily, but bona fide, before God, truly, ingeniously, clearly and perspicuously, that we teach the most holy Gospel of God, and that the ancient Fathers and the whole primitive Church are on our side, and that we have not without jest cause left them, and returned to the Apostles and the ancient Catholic Fathers; and if they, who so much dites our doctrine, and pride themselves in the name of Cath her shall apparently see, that all those pretences of antiquity, of which they so immoderately glory, belong not to them, and that there is more strength in our cause than they thought there was; then we hope that none of them will be so careless of his salvation, but he will at some time or other bethink himself which side he ought to join with. Certainly, if a man be not of a hard and obdurate heart, and resolved not to hear, he can never repent the having once considered out defence, and the attending what is said by us, and whether it be agreeable or no to the Christian Religion.
For whereas they call us heretics, that is so dreadful 8 crime, that except it be apparently seen, except it be palpable, and as it were to be felt with our hands and fingers, it ought not to be easily believed that a Christian is or can be guilty
of it; for heresy is a renunciation of our salvation, a rejection JOAN JEWEL. (From the Portrait before Strype's “ Life of Jewel.")
of the grace of God, and a departure from the body and spurt
of Christ. But this was ever the custom and usage of them found lying exhausted on the road by a friend, who
and of their forefathers, that if any presumed to complain of took him to London ; and thence, in 1554, he crossed
their errors, and desired the reformation of religion, they to Frankfort. There he from the pulpit, with ex
condemned them forth with for heretics, as innovators and treme emotion, publicly repudiated his subscription
factious men. Christ himself was called a Samaritan, for do to the doctrines he denied. “It was my abject and
other cause, but for that they thought He had made a defe. cowardly mind,” he said, “and faint heart that made
tion to a new religion or heresy. And St. Paul the Apista my weak hand to commit this wickedness.” His | being called in question, was accused of heresy, to which be old friend Peter Martyr presently drew Jewel from replied: After the way which they call heresy, 80 erarship II
God of my jathers, believing all things which are written in the Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som jentleman wold Lax, and in the Prophets.
read a merie tale in Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie In short, all that religion which we Christians now profess, 1. done, with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese in the beginning of Christianity, was by the pagans called a soch pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, sect or heresy; with these words they filled the ears of all their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, princes, that when out of prejudice they had once possessed that I find in Plato : Alas, good folke, they never felt, what their minds with an aversion for us, and that they were per trewe pleasure ment. And howe came you, Madame, quoth suaded that whatever we said was factious and heretical, I, to this deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie they might be diverted from reflecting upon the thing itself, allure you unto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe or ever hearing or considering the cause. But by how much men have atteined thereunto? I will tell you, quoth she, the greater and more grievous this crime is, so much the and tell you a troth, which perchance ye will mervell at. rather ought it to be proved by clear and strong arguments, One of the greatest benefites, that ever God gave me, is, that especially at this time, because men begin now-a-days a little he sent me so sharpe and severe Parentes, and so jentle a to distrust the fidelity of their oracles, and to inquire into scholemaster. For when I am in presence either of father or their doctrine with much greater industry than has heretofore mother, whether I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, ben employed; for the people of God in this age are quite of eate, drinke, be merie, or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, another disposition than they were heretofore, when all the l or doing anie thing els, I must do it, as it were, in soch frsponses and dictates of the Popes of Rome were taken for weight, mesure, and number, even so perfitelie, as God made Gospel, and all religion depended upon their authority ; the the world, or else I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie Holy Scriptures and the writings of the Apostles and Prophets threatened, yea presentlie some tymes, with pinches, nippes, are everywhere now to be had, out of which all the true and and bobbes, and other waies, which I will not name, for the catholic doctrine may be proved, and all heresies may be honor I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I refuted.
thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme cum, that I must go to M. But seeing they can produce nothing out of the Scriptures Elmer, who teacheth me so jentlie, so pleasantlie, with soch izainst us, it is very injurious and cruel to call us heretics, faire allurementes to learning, that I thinke all the tyme who have not revolted from Christ, nor from the Apostles, nor nothing, whiles I am with him. And when I am called from trun the Prophets. By the sword of Scripture Christ over- him, I fall on weeping, because, what soever I do els, but came the devil when He was tempted by him; with these learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and whole misliking Weapons everything that exalteth itself against God is to be unto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so moch my brought down and dispersed, for all Scripture (saith St. Paul) pleasure, and bringeth dayly to me more pleasure and more, is gtern by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be but represf, for correction, for instruction, that the man of God may trifles and troubles unto me. I remember this talke gladly, be perfect and throughly furnished unto all good works ; and ac both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, and bicause also, it cordingly, the holy fathers have never fought against heretics was the last talke that ever I had, and the last tyme, that with any other arms than what the Scriptures have afforded | ever I saw that noble and worthie Ladie. them. St. Augustine, when he disputed against Petilianus, a Destist heretic, useth these words, Let not (saith he) these In 1553 Aylmer was Archdeacon of Stowe, and tards he heard, “ I say,” or “ Thou sayest,” but rather let us say, he was one of the Protestant exiles at Zurich in the * Teus saith the Lord." Let us seek the church there, let us judge | reign of Mary. It was he who after the accession of of ur caure by that. And St. Jerome saith, Let whatever is pre- | Elizabeth published at Strasburg a loyal reply to usind to be delivered by the Apostles, and cannot be proved by the John Knox's “First Blast of the Trumpet against tra's Any of the written Word, be struck with the sword of God.
the Monstrous Regiment of Women.” His age then And St. Ambrose to the Emperor Gratian, Let the Scriptures
was thirty-eight. sath bet, let the Apostles, let the Prophets, let Christ be inter
The title of Aylmer's book is “An Harborowe * stand. The Catholic Fathers and bishops of those times
for Faithfull and Trewe Subiectes, agaynst the late ditut i ubit but our religion might be sufficiently proved by
blowne Blaste, concerninge the Gouerment of Sartre: por durst they esteem any man an heretic, whose
Wemen, wherin be confuted all such reasons as a eftir th-y could not perspicuously and clearly prove such by
straunger of late made in that behalfe, with a breife Ti fare. And as to us, we may truly reply with St. Paul,
Exhortation to obedience. Anno M.D.lix. ProAfter the stay which they call Heresy, 80 worship I the God of y Mathere, beliering all things which are written in the Law and
verbes 32. Many daughters there be, that gather the Ir piels, or the writings of the 1 postles.
riches together : but thou goest above them all. As for favour it is deceitfull, and bewtie is a vaine
thing: but a woman that feareth the Lord : she is John Aylmer, who was born in 1521, and educated
worthie to be praysed. Geve her of the fruit of her at Cambridge, was that tutor to Lady Jane Grey
handes, and let her owne workes prayse her in the #Lo is nained in a passage often quoted from Roger
gate.--At Strasborowe the 26 of April.” Alum's * Schoolmaster :"-
Aylmer begins with reasoning upon the power of sample, whether love or feare doth worke more in a
God, who by weak instruments has declared his stania fuit vertue and learning. I will gladlie report: which | glory; who had enabled one poor friar, Luther, There are now hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more
without armies at his back, to cast out of the temple in Efore I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate of God Antichrist, armed and guarded with the * Laostarrhire, to take my leave of that noble Ladie Jane power of Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Laws. py, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. Hir
nue, the Duke and the Duches, with all the houshould, And as we began with the matter of women, so to return Its bed and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the Parke: thither again with the example of a woman. Was not Queen i tucade her, in her Chamber, readinge Phædon Platonis in Anne, the mother of this blessed woman, the chief, first, and
only cause of banishing this beast of Rome, with all his bezzarly baggage: Was there ever in England a greater frat wrought by any man than this was by a woman? I take pot from King Henry the due praise of broaching it, nor from that lamb of God, King Edward, the finishing and perfecting of that was begun, though I give her her due commendation. I know that that blessed martyr of God, Thomas Cranmer, Bishop of Canterbury, did much travail in it, and furthrudit: but if God had not given Queen Anne faror in the sight of the king, as he gave to Esther in the sizht of Nebuchadnezzar, Haman and his company, the Cardinal, Winchester, More, Rochester3 and others, would sorin huve triced up Mordecai, with all the rest that leaned to that side. Wherefore, though many deserved much praise for the helping forward of it, yet the crop and root was the queen, which God had endued with wisdom that she could, and given her the mind that she would, do it. Seeing then that in all ages God hath wrought his most wonderful works br most base means, and showed his strength by weakness, his wisdom by foolishness, and his exceeding greatness by man's exceeding feebleness, what doubt we of this power when we lack policy, or mistrust his help which hath wrought such wonders? Who is placed above Him, saith Job, to teach Him what He should do? Or who can say to Him, Thou hast not done justly? He sendeth a woman by birth; we may not refuse her by violence. He stablisheth her by law; we may not remove her by wrong.
thine? Wilt thou have a taste, how prodigal or pompous she is ? I pray thee, then, mark these two points which I know to be true, although in that sex they be strange. Seven years after her father's death she had so proud a stomach, and so much delighted in glistening gases of the world, in gay apparel, rich attire, and precious jewels, that in all that time she never looked upon those that her father left her but once, and that against her will. And after so gloried in them, that there came never gold nor stone upon her head till her sister enforced her to lay off her former soberness and bear her company in her glistening gains. Yea, and then she so ware it as every man might see, that her body carried that which her heart misliked. I am sure that her maidenly apparel which she used in King Edward's time made the noblemen's daughters and wives to be ashamed to be drest and painted like peacocks, being more moved with her most virtuous example than with all that ever Paul and Peter wrote touch. ing that matter. Yea, this I know, that a great man's daughter, receiving from Lady Mary before she was Queen, goodly apparel of tinsel, cloth of gold and velvet, laid on with parchment lace of gold, when she saw it said, “ What shall I do with it?” “Marry,” said a gentlewoman, "wear it." “Nay," quoth she, “ that were a shame, to follow my lady Mary against God's Word, and leave my lady Elizabeth which followeth God's Word." See that good example is oft times much better than a great deal of preaching. And this all men know, that when all the ladies bent up the attire of the Scottish skits at the coming in of the Scottish Queen, to go unbridled, and with their hair frounced, curled, and double curled, she altered nothing, but to the shame of them all kept her old maidenly shamefastness. Another thing to declare how little she setteth by this worldly pomp, is this, that in all her time she never meddled with money but against her will, but seemed to set so little by it, that she thought to touch it was to defile her pure bands consecrated to turn over good books, to lift unto God in praver, and to deal alms to the poor. Are not these arguments sufficient to make thee think of her that she will neither call to thee before she hath need, nor misspend it vainly after she hath it.*
Of the arguments of the “ First Blast” Aylmer says presently-
The arguments, as I remember, be these, not many in Dumber, but handsomely amplified.
First, that whatsoever is against nature, the same in a Commonwealth is not tolerable. But the government of a woman is against nature. Ergo, it is not tolerable.
The second, Whatsoever is forbidden by Scripture is not lawful. But a woman to rule is forbidden by Scripture. Ergo, it is not lawiul.
The third, lí a woman may not speak in the Congregation, much less may she rule. But she may not speak in the Congregation. Ergo, she may not rule.
The fourth, What the Civil Law forbiddeth, that is not lawiul. But the rule of a woman the Civil Law forbiddeth. Ergo, it is not lawful.
The fifth, Seing there followeth more inconvenience of the rule of women than of men's government, therefore it is not to be borne in a Commonwealth.
The last, The Doctors and Canonists forbid it. Ergo, it cannot be good.
Theme (as I remember) be the props that hold up this matter, or rather the pickaxes to undermine the State.
John Aylmer takes each of these syllogisms in turn, and shows logically where it fails. Then having knocked down all the props, and blunted all the pickaxes, he calls upon each loyal Englishman to support and establish their queen, and cheerfully to pay their taxes.
If thou mistrust the mi spending of that thou givest and she tak th, thou art to foolish. For could she that in all his life hath lived upon her own so humbly without pride, so v rtly without prodigality, so maidenly without pomp, now find in her heart in unnecessary charges to lash out
* This passage recalls the account giren of Elizabeth as a foud princess by her tutor. Roger Ascham, in a private letter, written 13 April, 1550, to his German friend, John Sturm, which certainly expressed the writer's private mind :
“ There are many honourable ladies now who surpass Thomas More's daughters in all kinds of learning; but among all of them the brightest star is my illustrious Lady Elizabeth, the king's sister ; 0 that I have no difficulty in finding subject for writing in her praise, but only in setting bounds to what I write. I will write pothing however which I have not myself witnessed. She had me for ber tutor in Greek and Latin two years, but now I am released from the Court and restored to my old literary leisure here, where by her benencepce I hold an honest place in this l'niversity. It is difficult to say whether the gifts of nature or of fortune are most to be admired in that illustrious lady. The praise which Aristotle gives wholly centres in her-beanty, stature, prudence, and industry. She has just jus& 1 her sixteenth birthday, and shows such dignity and gentleness as are wonderful at her age and in her rank. Her study of true relixion and learning is most energetic, Her mind has no womanly weakness, her perseverance is equal to that of a man, and her memory long keeps what it quickly picks up. She talks French and Italian as well as English: she has often talked to me readily and well in Latin, and moderately so in Greek. When she writes Greek and Latin, Dutkunk
e beautiful than her hand-writing. She is as much delighted with music as she is skilful in the art. In adornment she is element rather than showy, and by her contempt of gold and head-ren, abe reminds one of Hippolyte rather than of Phar. She read with me almost all Cicero, and great part of Titus Livins ; for she drew all ber knowledge of Latin from those two authors. She user to ove the morning of the day to the Greek Testament, and afterwards real select orations of Isocrates and the tragedies of Sophocles. Fur I thought that from those sources she might gain purity of style, her mind derive instruction that would be of value to her to meet
The Cardinal, Wolsev.
Winchester, Gardiner. · Rochester, John Fisher.
In 1562 John Aylmer was made Archdeacon of Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart. Lincoln, and in 1576 Bishop of London, on the Lord Darnley. In October, 1565, Philip of Spain translation of Sandys to the see of York.
wrote to require enforcement in the Netherlands of edicts against heresy. The nobles required Margaret of Parma, who was then Regent, to publish the letter. A storm of feeling was aroused. Thousands began to emigrate to England, and set up their looms among us. In 1566 Philip conceded to the Netherlands moderation of the law against heretics by substitution of hanging for burning. In March of that year occurred Darnley's murder of Rizzio, and on the 19th of June the birth of Mary Stuart's son James, afterwards James I. of England.
On the 22nd of August, 1567, the Duke of Alva entered Brussels. He then occupied other towns of the Netherlands, established the Council of Tumults -otherwise known as the Council of Blood. Margaret of Parma retired from the Regency, and Alva became Governor-General of the Netherlands. At the same time the second Huguenot civil war broke out in France. In this year, on the night of Sunday, the 9th of February, Lord Darnley, the husband of Mary Queen of Scots, was destroyed by a gunpowder plot. In May, the Earl of Bothwell was divorced from a wife to whom he had been married only fourteen months, and married to Queen Mary. Before
the end of July, Mary had been compelled by her JOHN AYLMER. From the Portrait prefixed to his Life by Strype.
own subjects to sign her abdication in favour of her son James, and appoint the Earl of Murray-friend of Knox and the foremost Reformers — Regent
during his minority. Mary escaped from Lochleven, Here let us recall a few more of those events which
raised her friends, was defeated at Langside, and occupied the minds of Englishmen, and quickened
turned to England : thus she became in 1568, and energies of thought and feeling during the first
remained for eighteen years, a state prisoner to twenty-one years of Elizabeth's reign. In 1564
England, regarded by the Roman Catholics abroad year of the birth of Shakespeare-Catherine de'
as future Queen of England if their cause should Medici was visited by her daughter Elizabeth, who
triumph. In February, 1568, a sentence of the in 1560 had been married, aged fifteen, to Philip of Inquisition condemned to death all the inhabitants Spain, aged thirty-four. The Duke of Alva came
of the Netherlands except some who were named, with the Spanish Queen Elizabeth, and was heard
and Alva estimated at eight hundred the executions exhorting Catherine to strike down some leaders of
after Passion week. In June this year, also, Counts the Huguenots, saying to her, “One head of salmon
Egmont and Horn were executed. There was pause is worth ten thousand heads of frogs.” In March of
of civil war in France between Roman Catholics this year 1564, Cardinal Granvella was obliged by
and Huguenots, but in 1569 it was resumed, and in a league of nobles of the Netherlands, headed by
that year young Walter Raleigh went to France, William of Orange and Counts Egmont and Horn, to
and joined the Huguenots as volunteer. It was retire from the Government. In July, 1565, Mary |
in 1569 that Edmund Spenser went to Cambridge, entering Pembroke College as a sizar, and in that
year also he first appeared in print, as contributor of every contingency of life. To these I added Saint Cyprian and Melanchthon's Common Places, &c., as best suited, after the Holy
verse to a religious miscellany by one of the refugees Scriptures, to teach her the foundations of religion, together with from persecution in the Netherlands, John Van der elegant language and sound doctrine. Whatever she reads she at Noodt. Contribution to such a book shows clearly once perceives any word that has a doubtful or curious meaning.
what was the bent of young Spenser's mind, and She cannot endure those foolish imitators of Erasmus, who have tied up the Latin tongue in those wretched fetters of proverbs, She likes
how he looked at the course of events. The book a style that grows out of the subject; chaste because it is suitable, was called—“A Theatre wherein be represented as and beautiful because it is clear. She very much admires modest well the Miseries and Calamities which follow the metaphors, and comparisons of contraries well put together and contrasting felicitously with one another. Her ears are so well
Voluptuous Worldling, as also the great Joys and practised in discriminating all these things, and her judgment is so Pleasures which the Faithful do enjoy. An Argu. good, that in all Greek, Latin, and English composition, there is ment both Profitable and Delectable to all that nothing so loose on the one hand or so concise on the other, which she does not immediately attend to, and either reject with disgust or
sincerely love the Word of God.” receive with pleasure, as the case may be. I am not inventing
In August, 1570, a treaty was made in France anything, my dear Sturm ; it is all true: but I only seek to give you which conceded much to the Huguenots. In the an outline of her excellence, and whilst doing so, I have been
spring of 1571 a Synod of the French Reformed pleased to recall to my mind the dear memory of my most illustrious lady. .....
Church was held, by the King's permission, at St. John's College, Cambridge, April 4, 1550." | Rochelle. On the 24th of August, 1572, the French
Huguenots were struck down by the Massacre of he used what authority he might to encourage a form St. Bartholomew.
of meeting called “prophesying," from the schools of In the Netherlands, in 1573, there was the siege the prophets spoken of in the Old Testament, for of Protestant Haarlem, when three hundred women the interpretation of the Word of God. The clergy were among the defenders of the town. It ended in a district met to discuss difficulties with one with a treacherous slaughter of two or three thou another, that they might not be taken by surprise sand. Three hundred were drowned in the lake, when these were propounded to them by parishioners, tied back to back. In December of that year. (1573), and that they might be trained to bring knowledge the Duke of Alva was recalled by his own wish, and thought to their preaching. Queen Elizabeth and boasted on his way home that he had caused objected to the prophesyings as examples of division 16,000 Netherlanders to be executed. Hearing of of opinion among the clergy, encouragements to : such events was part of the education of Edmund bold questioning among the laity, and destructive of Spenser while at Cambridge. He graduated as B.A. a Unity of Doctrine, by which she hoped to secure in 1573, then being about twenty years old. In 1575 peace in the Church. The Books of Homilies pro Edmund Grindal—then aged fifty-six-became Arch vided sermons enough, she thought, and the use of bishop of Canterbury.
them caused a uniformity of preaching that would give small scope for heresies of private judgment.
She therefore bade the new Archbishop issue letters Edmund Grindal was born in 1519, at St. Bees, to the clergy to forbid the “prophesyings," and restrain in Cumberland, was educated at Cambridge, and was excess of zeal for original preaching. Grindal replied in 1550 chaplain to Bishop Ridley. In 1553 he was that his conscience would not suffer him to do this, among those Reformers who fled from persecutions and he was therefore, in 1577, sequestered from the in England, and he went to Strasburg. At the exercise of his office. This is the letter that caused accession of Elizabeth he returned, and he assisted his disgrace :in the drawing up of the new liturgy. In 1559 he was made Master of Pembroke Hall, and in the
LETTER TO THE QUEEN,
Number of Preachers.
scribbling hand; which oeemeth to be of more length this EDMUND GRINDAL.
is indeed: for I say with Ambrose, Scribo manu mea, ad From the Portrait before his Life by Strype.
MADAM, same year Bishop of London. In 1570 he became Archbishop of York, and in 1575 Archbishop of
First of all, I must and will, during my life, confess that
there is no earthly creature to whom I am so much boundre Canterbury. While maintaining generally the discipline established in the Reformed Church of
as to your Majesty; who, notwithstanding mine insuffices
(which commendeth your grace the more), hath bester England, Edmund Grindal agreed in some respects
upon me so many and so great benefits as I could never lige with those whom Matthew Parker is said to have
for, much less deserve. I do therefore, according to ar first called Puritans and Erecisians for what he
most bounden duty, with all thanksgiving, bear towards regarded as their over.precise reference of everything
your Majesty a most humble, faithful, and thankful hur: —whether fit subject of revelation or not—to Bible
and that knoweth He which knoweth all things. Neithai warrant. Edmund Grindal laid great stress on the | I ever intend to offend your Majesty in any thing, unless : importance of a faithful study and interpretation of God's Word. As Bishop of London, as Archbishop
1 Nurse. of York, and now as head of the Church of England, 2 "I write with mine own hand, what you alone may read"