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I mean), was ready to bring three or four thousand able men into the field to serve you against the said rebels. How can your Majesty have a more lively trial and experience of the contrary effects of much preaching and of little or no preaching 'i The one working most faithful obedience, and the other most unnatural disobedience and rebellion.
But it is thought of sonic, that many are admitted to preach, and few be able to do it well. That unable preachers be removed is very requisite, if ability and sufficiency may be rightly weighed and j udged: and therein I trust as much is, and shall be, done as can be; for both I, for mine own part (let it be spoken without any ostentation), am very careful in allowing such preachers only as be able and sufficient to be preachers, both for their knowledge in the Scriptures, and also for testimony of their good life and conversation. And besides that, I have given very great charge to tho rest of my brethren, the bishops of this province, to do the like. Wo admit no man to the office that either professeth Papistry or Puritanism. Generally, the graduates of the university are only admitted to be preachers, unless it be some few which have excellent gifts of know, ledge in the Scriptures, joined with good utterance and godly persuasion. I myself procured above forty learned preachers and graduates, within less than six years, to be placed within the diocese of York, besides those I found there; and there I have left them: the fruits of whose travail in preaching, your Majesty is like to reap daily, by most assured, dutiful obedience of your subjects in those parts.
But, indeed, this age judgeth very hardly, and nothing indifferently' of the ability of preachers of our time; judging few or none in their opinion to be able. Which hard judgment growcth upon divers evil dispositions of men. St. Paul doth commend the preaching of Christ crucified, absque eminentia >ermoni>? But in our time many have so delicate cars, that no preaching can satisfy them, unless it bo sauced with much fineness3 and exornation of speech: which tho same apostle utterly condemneth, and giveth this reason, Ne evacueter crux Christi*
Some there be also, that are mislikers of the godly reformation in religion now established; wishing indeed that there were no preachers at all; and so by depraving the ministers impugn religion, non aperto Marte, sed euniculis :s much like to the Popish bishops in your father's time, who would have had the English translation of the Bible called in, as evil translated; and the new translating thereof to have been committed to themselves; which they never intended to perform.
A number there is (and that is exceedingly great), whereof some are altogether worldly-minded, and only bent covetously to gather worldly goods and possessions: serving Mammon, and not God. And another great sum have given over themselves to all carnal, vain, dissolute, and lascivious life, voluptatis amatores, magie quam Dei: et qui semetipsos dediderunt ad patrandum omnem immunditiam cum atiditate.1 And
1 Indifferently. Impartially, without applying different measures to different persons. So in the Homily on Beading of the Scriptures, "God receiveth the learned and unlearned, and casteth away none, but is indifferent unto all." And part of the Prnyer for Magistrates in the English Church Liturgy is " that they may truly and indifferently minister justice."
1 "Without excellency of speech."
1 Euphuism; artificial ingenuity.
• "Lest the cross of Christ should bo made of none effect" (1 Corinthians i. 17.)
• Not by open war, but by burrowings.
• Lovers of pleasure more than of God, " who have given themselves over to work all uncleanness with greediness." (Ephesians iv. 19j.
because tho preaching of God's Word, which to all Chrijtia consciences is sweet and delectable, is to them, having r«*. teriatas conscientias,1 bitter and grievous (for, as St. Ambro* saith, Quomodo possunt verba Dei dulcia esse in faueibut nw, in quibus est amaritudo nequitiec ?s), therefore they wish aiso that there were no preachers at all. But because they dirr not directly condemn the office of preaching, so expressly commanded by God's Word (for that were open blasphemy , they turn themselves altogether, and with the same mcank; as the other do, to take exceptions against the persons d them that be admitted to preach.
But God forbid, Madam, that you should open your ous to any of these wicked persuasions, or any way go about to diminish the preaching of Christ's Gospel: for that wouli ruinate altogether at the length. Quum drfectrit pnpluia, dissipabitur populus,' saith Salomon.
Now, where it is thought, that the reading of the godly Homilies, set forth by public authority, may suffice, I continfc of the same mind I was when I attended last upon yoar Majesty. The reading of Homilies hath his commodity; If, is nothing comparable to the office of preaching. The godly preacher is termed in the Gospel ■ Jidelis servus et prudes, qui iiovit famulitio Domini cibum demensum dare in tempore, * who can apply his speech according to the diversity of tim~, places, and hearers, which cannot be done in Homilies: eihortations, reprehensions, and persuasions, are uttered wii more affection, to the moving of the hearers, in Sermons tin-. in Homilies." Besides, Homilies were devised by the godly bishops in your brother's time, only to supply necessity, for want of preachers; and are by the statute not to be preferred, but to give place to Sermons, whensoever they may be bad; and were never thought in themselves alone to eontm sufficient instruction for the Church of England. For itw» then found, as it is found now, that this Church of Englaii hath been by appropriations, and that not without s&crilf ?i. spoiled of the livings, which at the first were appointed t» the office of preaching and teaching. Which appropriation were first annexed to abbeys; and after came to the crown; and now are dispersed to private men's possessions, withvC hope to reduce the same to the original institution. So ai st this day, in mine opinion, where one church is able to vitid sufficient living for a learned preacher, there are at the Iri". seven churches unable to do the same: and in many par-jbi of your realm, where there be seven or eight hundred seal' (the more is the pity), there are not eight pounds a year reserved for a minister. In such parishes it is not pesmbif to place able preachers, for want of convenient stipend. If every flock might have a preaching pastor, which is ratVr to bo wished than hoped for, then were reading of Homil**
7 Consciences seared.
8 "How can the word of God be sweet in thy mouth, in which ii the bitterness of sin?" (Senn. 13 in Psal. cxviii.)
• "When prophecy shall fail, the people shall be scattered."
10 "A faithful and wise servant, who knoweth how to give his Leri'» household their meat in due season." (Matthew xxiv. 45.)
11 More in Sermons than in Homilies. A Homily is so called treat: '±t Greek 6fi<\<a, which has for its first sense a being together, thwartintercourse and instruction, and meant such setting forth of Axtrxm as could be understood in an assembly of the people. The word wm applied in tho Church of England to the two books of HomihVs »»&' in 1547 and 1563, and appointed to be read on " any Sunday or ^h day when there is no Sermon." The Sermon, from Latin •■ «rn»." a speaking or discourse, was direct from the mind of the minister, ix.' could be suited to the audience and occasion. Such a sermon wa» e the ancient Church called also a Homily, sometimes a traetata, aci the preachers " tractatores." The restricted use of the word H.«^< in the English Reformed Church was only for the conveawn^* af distinction between the sermons of the minister and t by tho state.
altogether unnecessary-. But to supply that want of preaching of God's Word, which is the food of the soul, growing upon the necessities afore-mentioned, both in your brother's time, and in your time, certain godly Homilies have been devised, that the people should not be altogether destitute of instruction: for it is an old and a true proverb, " better half a loaf than no bread."
Now for the second point, which is concerning the learned exercise and conference amongst the ministers of the Church: I have consulted with divers of my brethren, the bishops, by letters; who think it the same as I do, viz., a thing profitable to the Church, and therefore expedient to be continued. And I trust your Majesty will think the like, when your Highness shall have been informed of tho manner and order thereof; what authority it hath of the Scriptures; what commodity it bringeth with it; and what incommodities will follow, if it be clean taken away.
The authors of this exercise are the bishops of the diocese where the same is used; who both by the law of God, and by the canons and constitutions of tho Church now in force, have authority to appoint exercises to their inferior ministers, for increase of learning and knowledge in the Scriptures, as to them seemeth most expedient: for that pertaineth ad dueiplinam clericalem.1 The times appointed for the assembly is once a month, or once in twelve or fifteen days, at the discretion of tho ordinary. The time of the exercise is two hours: the place, the church of the town appointed for the assembly. The matter entreated of is as followeth. Some text of Scripture, before appointed to be spoken of, is interpreted in this order: First, the occasion of the place is shewed. Secondly, the end. Thirdly, the proper sense of the place. Fourthly, the propriety of the words: and those that be learned in the tongues shewing the diversities of interpretations. Fifthly, where the like phrases are used in the Scriptures. Sixthly, places in the Scriptures, seeming to repugn, are reconciled. Seventhly, the arguments of the text are opened. Eighthly, it is also declared what virtues and what vices are there touched; and to which of the commandments they pertain. Ninthly, how the text hath been wrested by the adversaries, if occasion so require. Tenthly, and last of all, what doctrine of faith or manners the text doth contain. The conclusion is, with the prayer for your Majesty and all estates, as is appointed by the Book of Common Prayer, and a psalm.
These orders following are also observed in the said exercise. First, two or three of the gravest and best learned pastors are appointed of the bishop to moderate in every assembly. No man may speak, unless he be first allowed by tho bishop, with this proviso, that no layman be suffered to speak at any time. No controversy of this present time and state shall be moved or dealt withal. If any attempt the contrary, he is put to silence by the moderator. None is suffered to glance openly or covertly at persons public or private; neither yet any one to confute another. If any man utter a wrong senso of the Scripture, he is privately admonished thereof, and better instructed by the moderators, and other his fellowministers. If any man use immodest speech, or irreverent gesture or behaviour, or otherwise be suspected in life, he is likewise admonished, as before. If any wilfully do break these orders, he is presented to the bishop, to be by him corrected.
The ground of this, or like exercise, is of great and ancient authority. For Samuel did practise such like exercises in his time, both at Naioth in Ramatha, and at Bethel. So did Eliza-us the prophet, at Jericho. Which studious persons in
1 To the discipline of the clergy.
those days were called filii prophetarum,- that is to say, the disciples of the prophets, that being exercised in the study and knowledge of the Scriptures, they might be able men to serve in God's Church, as that time required. St. Paul also doth make express mention, that the like in effect was used in the primitivo Church; and giveth rules for the order of the same; as namely, that two or three should speak, and the rest should keep silence.
That exercise of tho Church in those days St. Paul calleth prophetiam, and tho speakers prophetaa: terms very odious in our days to some, because they are not rightly understood. For indeed prophetia, in that and like places of St. Paul, doth not, as it doth sometimes, signify prediction of things to come, which gift is not now ordinary in the Church of God; but signifieth there, by the consent of the best ancient writers, tho interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures. And therefore doth St. Paul attribute unto those that be called prophetic in that chapter, doctriiiam ad adiJUiatxonem, exhortationem, et consolationem?
This gift of expounding and interpreting the Scriptures was, in St. Paul's time, given to many by special miracle, without study: so was also, by like miracle, the gift to speak with strango tongues, which they had never learned. But now, miracles ceasing, men must attain to the knowledge of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tongues, 4c, by travail and study, God giving the increase. So must men also attain by like meanB to the gift of expounding and interpreting the Scriptures. And amongst other helps, nothing is so necessary as these above-named exercises and conferences amongst the ministers of the Church: which in effect are all one with tho exercises of students in divinity in tho universities; saving that the first is done in a tongue understood, to the more edifying of the unlearned hearers.
Howsoever report hath been made to your Majesty concerning theso exercises, yet I and others of your bishops, whose names are noted in tho margin hereof, as they have. testified unto me by their letters, have found by experience, that these profits and commodities following have ensued of them:—1. The ministers of the Church are more skilful and ready in the Scriptures, and apter to teach their flocks. 2. It withdraweth them from idleness, wandering, gaming, &c. 3. Some, afore suspected in doctrine, are brought hereby to open confession of the truth. 4. Ignorant ministers are driven to study, if not for conscience, yet for shame and fear of discipline. 5. The opinion of laymen, touching the idleness of the clergy, is hereby removed. 6. Nothing by experience beateth down Popery more than that ministers (as some of my brethren do certify) grow to such good knowledge, by means of these exercises, that where afore were not three ablo preachers, now are thirty, meet to preach at St. Paul's Cross; and forty or fifty besides, able to instruct their own cures. So as it is found by experience tho best means to increase knowledge in the simple, and to continue it in the learned. Only backward men in religion, and contemners of learning in the countries abroad, do fret against it; which in truth doth the more commend it. Tho dissolution of it would breed triumph to the adversaries, and great sorrow and grief unto the favourers of religion; contrary to the counsel of Ezekiel, who saith, Cor jiitti non est eoiitristaiidum.* And although some few have abused this good and necessary exorcise, there is no reason that the malice of a few should prejudice all. Almses may be
* The sons of the prophets.
»" Speaking unto edification, and exhortation, and comfort." (1 Corinthians xiv. 3.)
• "The heart of the righteous utut not be muds sod." (Eietiaf xuLffi.)
reformed, and that which is good may remain. Neither is there any just cause of offence to be taken, if divers men make divers senses of one sentence of Scripture; so that all the senses be good and agreeable to the analogy and proportion of faith: for otherwise we must needs condemn all the ancient fathers and doctors of the Church, who most commonly expound one and the same text of the Scripture diversely, and yet all to the good of the Church. Therefore doth St. Basil compare the Scriptures to a well; out of the which the more a man draweth, the better and sweeter is the water. I trust, when your Majesty hath considered and well weighed the premises, you will rest satisfied, and judge that no such inconveniences can grow of these exercises, as you have been informed, but rather the clean contrary. And for my own part, because I am very well assured, both by reasons and arguments taken out of the Holy Scriptures, and by experience (the most certain seal of sure knowledge), that the said exercises, for the interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures and for exhortation and comfort drawn out of the same, are both profitable to increase knowledge among the ministers, and tendeth to the edifying of the hearers, I am forced, with all humility, and yet plainly, to profess, that I cannot with safe conscience, and without the offence of the Majesty of God, give my assent to the suppressing of the said exercises: much less can I send out any injunction for the utter and universal subversion of the same. I say with St. Paul, “I have no power to destroy, but to only edify;” and with the same apostle, “I can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.” If it be your Majesty's pleasure, for this or any other cause, to remove me out of this place, I will with all humility yield thereunto, and render again to your Majesty that I received of the same. I consider with myself, Quod horrendum est incidere in manus Dei wiventis.” I consider also, Quod qui facit contra conscientiam (divinis juribus niram) a dificat ad gehennam.” “And what should I win, if I gained" (I will not say a bishoprick, but) “the whole world, and lose mine own soul ?” Bear with me, I beseech you, Madam, if I choose rather to offend your earthly Majesty than to offend the heavenly Majesty of God. And now being sorry that I have been so long and tedious to your Majesty, I will draw to an end, most humbly praying the same well to consider these two short petitions following. The first is, that you would refer all these ecclesiastical matters which touch religion, or the doctrine and discipline of the Church, unto the bishops and divines of your realm; according to the example of all godly Christian emperors and princes of all ages. For indeed they are things to be judged (as an ancient father writeth) in ecclesia, seu synodo, non in palatio.” When your Majesty hath questions of the laws of your realm, you do not decide the same in your court, but send them to your judges to be determined. Likewise for doubts in matters of doctrine or discipline of the Church, the ordinary way is to refer the decision of the same to the bishops, and other head ministers of the Church. Ambrose to Theodosius useth these words: Si de causis pecuniariis comites tuos consulis, quanto magis in causa religionis sacerdotes Domini acquum est consulas f* And like
* “That it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.” (Hebrews X. 31.)
* That he who acts against his conscience (resting upon the laws of God) builds for hell.
* In the church, or a synod, not in a palace.
* “If on affairs of money you consult with your counts, how much more is it fit that you consult with the Lord's priests on affairs of religion?”
wise the same father to the good emperor Valentinianus: Si conferendum de fide, sacerdotum debet esse ista collatio; sicut factum est sub Constantino augustae memoriae principe, qui nullas leges ante praemisit, sed liberum dedit judicium sacerdotibus.” And the same father saith, that Constantius the emperor, son to the said Constantine the Great, began well, by reason he followed his father's steps at the first; but ended ill, because he took upon him de fide intra palatium judicare" (for so be the words of Ambrose), and thereby fell into Arianism; a terrible example : The said Ambrose, so much commended in all histories for a godly bishop, goeth yet farther, and writeth to the same emperor in this form : Si docendus est episcopus a laico, quid sequetur & Laicus ergo disputet, et episcopus audiat; episcopus discat a laico. At certe, si vel scripturarum seriem divinarum wel vetera tempora retractemus, quis est qui abnuat, in causa fidei, in causa, inquam, fidei, episcopos solore de imperatoribus Christianis, non imperatores de episcopis judicare 27 Would God your Majesty would follow this ordinary course! You should procure to yourself much more quietness of mind, better please God, avoid many offences, and the Church should be more quietly and peaceably governed, much to your comfort and commodity of your realm. The second petition I have to make to your Majesty is this: that when you deal in matters of faith and religion, or matters that touch the Church of Christ, which is His spouse, bought with so dear a price, you would not use to pronounce so resolutely and peremptorily, quasi ex auctoritate,” as ye may do in civil and extern matters; but always remember, that in God's causes the will of God, and not the will of any earthly creature, is to take place. It is the antichristian voice of the Pope, Sic volo, sic jubeo; stet pro ratione volumtas.” In God's matters all princes ought to bow their sceptres to the Son of God, and to ask counsel at His mouth what they ought to do. David exhorteth all kings and rulers to serve God with fear and trembling. Remember, Madam, that you are a mortal creature. “Look not only (as was said to Theodosius) upon the purple and princely array, wherewith ye are apparelled; but consider withal, what is that that is covered there with. Is it not flesh and blood P Is it not dust and ashes 2 Is it not a corruptible body, which must return to his earth again, God knoweth how soon?” Must not you also one day appear ante tremendum tribunal Crucifixi, ut recipias ibi, prout gesserio in corpore, sive bonum sive malum ?” And although ye are a mighty prince, yet remember that He which dwelleth in heaven is mightier. He is, as the Psalmist sayeth, terribilis, et is qui aufert spiritum principum, terribilis super omnes reges terrar.”
5 “If we confer about faith, the conference ought to be left to the priests; as it was done under the prince Constantine, of august memory, who set forth no laws, before he had submitted them to the free judgment of the priests.”
• To judge of faith within the palace.
7 “If a bishop be to be taught by a layman, what will follow? Let the layman then dispute, and the bishop hear: let the bishop learn of the layman. But certainly, if we have recourse either to the order of the Holy Scriptures or to ancient times, who is there that can deny, that in the cause of faith, I say, in the cause of faith, bishops were wont to judge concerning Christian emperors, not emperors concerning bishops?"
* As if by authority.
9 So I will have it; so I command: let my will stand for a reason.
10 “Before the fearful judgment-seat of the Crucified, to receive there according as you have done in the body, whether it be good or evil?”
in “Terrible, and he who taketh away the spirit of princes, and is terrible above all the kings of the earth."
Wherefore I do beseech you, Madam, in ruceribus C'hristi,* when you deal in these religious causes, set tho majesty of God before your eyes, laying all earthly majesty aside: determine with yourself to obey His voice, and with all humility say unto Him, Non tnea, sed tua voluntas fiat? God hath blessed you with gTeat felicity in your reign, now many years; beware you do not impute the same to your own deserts or policy, but give God the glory. And as to instruments and means, impute your said felicity, first, to the goodness of the cause which ye have set forth (I mean Christ's true religion); and, secondly, to tho sighs and groanings of tho godly in their fervent prayer to God for you; which have hitherto, as it were, tied and bound the hands of God, that He could not pour His plagues upon you and your people, most justly deserved.
Take heed, that ye never once think of declining from God, lest that be verified of you, which is written of Ozeas [Joash], who continued a prince of good and godly government for many years together; and afterwards cum roboratus esset (saith tho text), elevatum est cor ejus in interitum suum, et neghxit Dominion.3 Ye have done many things well; but except ye persevere to the end, ye cannot be blessed. For if ye turn from God, then God will turn away his merciful countenance from you. And what remaineth then to be looked for, but only a terrible expectation of God's judgments, and an heaping up of wrath against the day of wrath P
But I trust in God, your Majesty will always humblo yourself under His mighty hand, and go forward in the zealous setting forth of God's true religion, always yielding due obedience and reverence to the Word of God, the only rule of faith and religion. And if ye so do, although God hath just cause many ways to be angry with you and us for our unfaithfulness, yet I doubt nothing, but that for His own name's sake, and for His own glory's sake, He will still hold His merciful hand over us, shield and protect Ub under the shadow of His wings, as He hath done hitherto.
I beseech God, our heavenly Father, plentifully to pour His principal Spirit upon you, and always to direct your heart in His holy fear. Amen.
Queen Elizabeth met this letter by causing others to issue her command that "prophesyings" should be discontinued. Grindal was confined to his house, and, by order of the Star Chamber, sequestered for six months, during which he might retain the name of Archbishop, but all duties of the office were discharged by others, of whom Aylmer, Bishop of London, was the chief. As Grindal, at the end of the six months, remained of the same mind, this state of things continued, and such was Archbishop Grindal's position in 1579, when young Edmund Spenser published his "Shepherd's Calendar," and, honouring the disgraced primate by the name of the wise Algrind, openly declared sympathy with him, and want of sympathy with Aylmer, who figured in the calendar as Morrel. "a goat-herd proud."4 Bishop
1 In the bowels of Christ.
1 "Not mine, but thine be done." (Luke xxii. 42.)
• "When he was atronK, hia heart waa lifted up to hia deatrnction, for he tranairresaed against the Lord." (2 Chronicles xxvi. 16.)
* The volume of tbia Library containing " Shorter English Poenia," pages 205—200, contains the eclogue of tbe "Shepherd's Calendar" irhich especially illustrates Edmund Spenser's sympathy with Edmnnd QrindaL
Aylmer, carrying out the Queen's policy and his own, repressed extremes on either side of the Established Church. He dealt severely with Roman Catholics, and on the opposite side was described as "a man of most intemperate heat, who persecuted Puritans with the utmost rage, and treated ministers with such virulent and abusive language as a man of sense and indifferent5 temper would scorn to use towards porters and cobblers." During these days of his trouble, Edmund Grindal became blind. He died in 1583.
(from the First Edition of Spenser's " Complaints," 1591.)
Reign Of Elizabeth.—Francis Bacon, EdmundSpenser, Richard Hooker, And Others.—A.d. 1577 To A.d. 1603.
is a name hardly suggestive of Religion, for it recalls chiefly the bitterness of a zeal that cast out charity. It was the assumed name under which many earnest Puritans, who endangered their lives by plain speaking, published unlicensed pamphlets against those signs of an im[>erfect Reformation which they thought they found in prelacy. Martin Marprelate "pistled the Bishops" in earnest and violent tracts, printed by a secret press, which the Government fiercely hunted out of one hiding-place into another. One of the Marprelate writers, John Penry, was caught and hanged. He wrote before his execution, "I never did anything in this cause for contention, vainglory, or to draw disciples after me. Great things in this life I never sought for: sufficiency I had with great outward trouble; but most content I was with my lot, and content with my untimely death, though I leave l>ehind me a friendless widow and four infante." John Udall, another of the Marprelate writers, was left to die in prison. When he was tried for the authorship of a book, and offered witnesses in his defence, they were refused a hearing on the plea that witnesses for the prisoner would be against the Queen. But he said, and said in vain, " It is for the Queen to hear all things when the life of any of her subjects is in question." The pamphlets written against the Puritans in this quarrel, not clandestinely, because authority was with them, were chiefly by wits and playwrights, as violent as those which they opposed, and not so earnest. The most temperate of all these writers was one of the impugned bishops, Thomas Cooper, Bishop of Winchester. This controversy was at its height in 1589, and Francis Bacon, then twenty-nine years old, wrote of it wisely thus :—
» Indifferent, unprejudiced. (See Note 1, p. 180.)
AN ADVERTISEMENT TOUCHING THE CONTROVERSIES OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
It is but ignorance if any man find it strange that the state of Religion (especially in the days of peace) should bo exercised and troubled with controversies. For as it is the condition of the Church Militant to be ever under trials, so it cometh to pass that when the fiery trial of persecution ceaseth there succeedeth another trial, which as it were by contrary blasts of doctrine doth sift and winnow men's faith, and proveth them whether they know God aright, even as that other of afflictions discovereth whether they love Him better than the "World. Accordingly was it foretold by Christ, saying, That in the latter times it should be said, Lo here, lo there is Christ: which is to be understood, not as if the very person of Christ should be assumed and counterfeited, but his authority and pre-eminence (which is to bo Truth itself) that should be challenged and pretended. Thus have we read and seen to be fulfilled that which followeth, Ecce in deserto, ecce in penetralibus;' while some have sought the truth in the conventicles and conciliables of heretics and sectaries, and others in the extern face and representation of the Church, and both sorts been seduced. Were it then that the controversies of the Church of England were such as did divide the unity of the spirit, and not such as only do unswathe her of her bonds (the bonds of peace), yet could it be no occasion for any pretended Catholic to judge us, or for any irreligious person to despise us. Or if it be, it shall but happen to us all as it hath used to do; to them to be hardened, and to us to endure the good pleasure of God. But now that our contentions are such, as we need not so much that general canon and sentence of Christ pronounced against heretics, Erratis, nescitntes Scriptural, ncc potestatem Dei,2 as wo need the admonition of St. James, "Let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath;" and that the wound is no way dangerous, except we poison it with our remedies; as the former sort of men have less reason to make themselves music in our discord, so I have good hope that nothing shall displease ourselves which shall be sincerely and modestly propounded for the appeasing of theso dissensions. For if any shall be offended at this voice, Vos cstisfratrcs (ye arc brethren, why strive ye P), he shall give a great presumption against himself, that he is the party that doth his brother wrong.
The controversies themselves I will not enter into, as judging that the disease requireth rather rest than any other cure. Thus much we all know and confess, that they be not of the highest nature; for they are not touching the high mysteries of faith, such as detained the churches after their first peace for many years; what time the heretics moved curious questions, and made strange anatomies of the natures and person of Christ; and the Catholic fathers were compelled to follow them with all subtility of decisions and determinations, to exclude them from their evasions and to take them in their labyrinths; so as it is rightly said, Hits temporibus tngeniosa ret fuit esse Christianum (in those days it was an ingenious and subtle matter to be a Christian). Neither are they concerning the great parts of the worship of God, of which it is true that non servatur tuiitas in credendo, nisi tadem adsit in colendo (there will be kept no unity in believing, except it be entertained in worshipping); such as were the controversies of the east and west churches touching
images; and such as are many of those between the Chores of Home and us; as about the adoration of the Sacrament, and the like. But we contend about ceremonies and thino indifferent; about the extern policy and government of the Church. In which kind, if we would but remember that the ancient and true bonds of unity are one faith, one baptism, and not one ceremony, one policy; if we would observe the league amongst Christians that is penned by our Saviour." He that is not against us is with us:" if we could but comprehend that saying, differentia rituum eommendat unitatem doetrmt (the diversity of ceremonies doth set forth the unity of doctrine); and that habet rcligio quit sunt ceternitatu, kthtt qua sunt temporit (Religion hath parts which belong to eternity, and parts which pertain to time): and if we did but know the virtue of silence and slowness to speak, commended by St. James; our controversies of themselves would close oj and grow together. But most especially, if we would leave the over-weening and turbulent humours of these times, and revive the blessed proceeding of the Apostles and Fathers of the primitive Church, which was, in the like and greater cases, not to enter into assertions and positions, but to deliver counsels and advices, we should need no other remedy at aJL Si eadem consutis, /rater, qute ajlirmas, debetur cotsuleati reverentia, cum non debcatur Jides ajirmanti (Brother, if that which you set down as an assertion, you would deliver >y way of advice, there were reverence due to your counsel whereas faith is not due to your affirmation). St. Paul To content to speak thus, Ego, non Domains (I, and not th* Lord): Et, secundum consilium meum (according to my conn.".) But now men do too lightly say, yon ego, sed Dqmxiou at I, but the Lord): yea, and bind it with heavy denunciation of His judgments, to terrify the simple, which have n-i sufficiently understood out of Salomon, that the causelHi curse shall not come.
Therefore seeing the accidents are they which breed tk peril, and not the things themselves in their own nature, it« meet the remedies be applied unto them, by opening; wast it is on either part that keepeth the wound green, ani formalizeth both sides to a further opposition, and worketl an indisposition in men's minds to be reunited. "Wherein Cj accusation is pretended; but I find in reason, that pcac* a best built upon a repetition of wrongs: and in example, that the speeches which have been made by the wisest men it concordia ordinum3 have not abstained from reducing to memory the extremities used on both parts. So as it is trf which is said, Qui pacein tractat non repetitit eonditwmi*' dissidii, is magis amnios hominum dulcedinc pacit fallit, qin* tequitate componit.*
And first of all, it is more than time that there were sa end and surseance made of this immodest and deformed manner of writing lately entertained, whereby matters- d Religion are handled in the style of the stage. Indeed, titter and earnest writing may not hastily be condemned; for met cannot contend coldly and without affection about thins which they hold dear and precious. A politic man may «r.V from his brain, without touch and sense of his heart. a» is a speculation that pertaineth not unto him; but a fwlinr Christian will express in his words a character either of a J or love. The latter of which as I could wish rathtT embraced, being more fit for these times, yet is the foror warranted also by great examples. But to leave all imioi and religious compassion towards evils, or indigsacc
* On concord of arrangements.
4 Whoever seeks treaty of peace without re-stating th* cusss sJ dissension, rather beguiles men's minds with the sweetness of pav* than brings them into accord by equity.