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a dedication to Queen Elizabeth. There was another edition of them by Dr. Marshall, rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, published in 1665, with the Gothic version given by Francis Junius; and in 1842 they were produced in a handy edition, carefully re-edited from the original manuscripts by Benjamin Thorpe, who was in his day our most helpful worker at First English. Here is from the sixth chapter of Matthew

4. Hæbbe thæs gefeán

folca æghwylc
and blissien
bealde theóda,
thæs the thu hi on rihtum
rædum démest
and eorthbúende

ealle healdest!
5. Folc the andetten

fælna drihten and the andetten

ealle theóda!
6. Ge him eorthe syleth

æthele wastme:
gebletsige us
blíthe drihten
and usic God
eác bletsige!
habbe his egesan
eall eorthan gemæru !

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN FIRST ENGLISH:

Feder ure, thú the eart on heofenum, si thin nama gehalgod. To-becume thin rice. Geweorthe thin willa on eorthan, swa swa on heofenum. Urne dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-dæg. And forgyf ús úre gyltas, swa swa we forgifath úrum gyltendum. And ne gelede thu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle: Sothlice.

The Gospels were read to the people in their own tongue as part of the Church service in First-English times, and we have seen that Bede, when he died, was busy upon translation of the Gospel of St. John. The First-English Gospels have come down to us in several MSS., and were first printed after the Reformation, at the instance of Archbishop Matthew Parker. They were published in the year 1571, with

Alcuin died in the year 804, and between the years 800 and 815, or about the time of the death of Alcuin, John Scotus Erigena was born. Whether born in Ireland, as is probable, or in Ayrshire as some say, he seems to have had in his veins some of that mixture of Celtic blood which gave audacity to thought. He found his way to the court of Charles the Bald, one of the sons of Alcuin's friend Charlemagne, and was there held in high esteem for wit, wisdom, and learning. He translated from Greek into Latin a book on the “Hierarchies of Heaven,"

-es

Plu,

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inflexion re. (See the form already given to explain “thinne.") Healdan móton, may be able to hold firm, or abide. “Healdan,” to hold, fasten, &c.; “mót," meaning must, ought, can, was inflected thus in the present: "ic mót, thú most, he mot; we móton." In the past, “ic moste, . . . we moston."-Folc the andette, let the people (the folk = German “ Volk") acknowledge thee. “Andetan,” to confess; "andetnes," a confession, a creed; "andettan," to confess, acknowa ledge, thank. – Fæl, true, pure. - Gefea, joy, gladness. – Æghwylc, every one. Æg. as a prefix means “ever, always.” (It is the word in the phrase "ever and aye"). chroyle (Scottish “whilk") means which or what. — Folca, of the peoples (see form of the second declen. sion, given to explain “wegas"). --Blissian, to rejoice, be glad.-Beald and báld, bold, high-spirited.-Theod being feminine, its nominative plural is in a.-Thæs the, for this that; thú, hi, thou, them; "the" here is indeclinable. “He, she, it” was declined

n.
Nom.

he
heo

hit
Gen

his
hire

his
Dat.
him hire

him
Acc.
hine heo

hit

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cenerally all nouns ending in a consonant. The form of inflexion for the second declension is

N.
Sing. Nom,

, (e
Gen.
Dat. & Abl.
Acc.

» (e)
Nom. & Acc.
Gen.
Dat. & Abl. -um

-um

um The as in “wegas" is, it will be seen, the form of the nominative or xcusative plural only in masculines of this declension. It is the vole source of the modern English plural in 8, though coincidence with the Norman French plural in s favoured its extension in modern English to nouns of all classes.-Wide, widely. The common use of • u an adverbial ending in First English, and the subsequent droppring of the final e, causes many of the homely adverbs from the Teatonic side of the language to be now alike in spelling with the rijectives from which they were made, as "hit him hard,” &c.Good thas vertheóde, among this people. “Geond” = yond," the g being softened before the vowels. A g so modified was afterwards represented by a modified letter, like a 3, and this is the origin of the metaken use of z in printing MS. so written. Nobody ever intended to write "ze" or " zour." The modified letter represented a 9, softened sometimes to the sound of y, sometimes to a sound now represented by gh. “Thas wertheode;" “wer" (= Latin “vir"),

an, is ased in combination with “-theod," a people; "theod” coding in a consonant is of the second declension, and it is feminine, therefore (see the table given after the word "wegas"), it has an musative singular in e; “thas," agreeing with its noun, is the Krtesative singular feminine of "this," a pronoun which was thus afected (the second : in “thisse" and "thissa" being a modified r).

n.
Sing.
Nom.

thes theóg this
Gen.

thises thisse thises Dat.

thisum thisse thisum
Acc.

thisne thás this
thise thisse thise

Sing.

Plu.

the

Nom. & Acc.

hi, hig Gen.

hira (heora) Dat, & Abl.

him (heom) Ge-usic. These were inflexions of "thou" and "I"Sing. Nom.

ic

thú Gen

min

thin
Dat, & Abl. me
Acc.

me (mec) the (thee)
Dual (used only in First-English for these pronouns)-
Nom.

wit

git Gen.

uncer incer Dat. & Abl.

unc Acc.

unc

inc Plu. Nom.

we

ge Gen.

úre

eówer Dat. & Abl. ús

eów Acc.

ús (usic) eów Syllan, to give; æthel, noble; westm, fruit ; egesa, awe; gemaru, boundaries.-As to verbs, it may be added that -ian or -an is the sign of the infinitive present. That the three conjugations are marked by the way of making the past tense, the first by addition of -ode, .de, or -te, with or without change of the root-vowel, the second and third by change of the root-vowel always without addition of .de or -te.

X.

inc

Abi.

Plu, Nom. & Acc.

thás Gen.

thissa Dat. & Abl.

thisum in thiare nolo, in thy health. “Hælo," or "hælu," is indeclinable. Being feminine the pronoun-inflected like an adjective-takes the

ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite, who was supposed to have been converted by St. Paul, and afterwards to have become first bishop of the Christians at Athens. Erigena had already incurred suspicion of heresy when he produced his Latin work, in five parts, on “ The Division of Nature," a dialogue between pupil and master, which was the startingpoint of a new school of philosophy. In this book he gave mystical interpretations of Scripture, and otherwise excited a very warm antagonism. After the death of Charles the Bald, John Scotus Erigena is said to have come to England, allured by the munificence of King Alfred, and at Malmesbury to have been stabbed to death by the styles of his pupils, about the year 875.

King Alfred had succeeded Ethelred in the year 871, being then twenty-two years old. There was confusion in the land from inroads of the Danes ; many monasteries and their schools were broken up, and learning had decayed. When Alfred had cleared the way for labour towards the re-establishment of knowledge and religion, he produced or caused to be produced English versions of books suitable for his purpose. The History of Orosius, which had been the Latin text-book for a history of the world in the monastery schools, he restored to the schools in English, with much abridgment of its theological element, and addition of fresh knowledge. There was added an original detail of the geography of Germany in Alfred's time, and the record of two coasting voyages in the north of Europe. Alfred provided also a translation into English of Bede's History of England. For the instruction of the clergy, he issued an English version of the Pastoral Care of Pope Gregory the Great.

The opening sentences of King Alfred's translation of this book have an interest that has caused them to be often quoted.'

KING ALFRED'S INTRODUCTION TO HIS TRANSLATION

OF POPE GREGORY'S “REGULA PASTORALIS.” King Alfred bids greet bishop Wærferth with his words lovingly and with friendship; and I let it be known to thee that it has very often come into my mind, what wise men there formerly were throughout England, both of sacred and secular orders; and how happy times there were then throughout England; and how the kings who had power over the nation in those days obeyed God and his ministers; and they preserved peace, morality, and order at home, and at the same time enlarged their territory abroad; and how they prospered both with war and with wisdom ; and also the sacred orders how zealous they were both in teaching and learning, and in all the services they owed God; and how foreigners came to this land in search of wisdom and instruction, and how we should now have to get them from abroad if we were to have them. So general was its decay in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English, or translate a letter from Latin into English ; and I believe that there were not many beyond the Humber. There were su few of them that I cannot remember a single one south of the Thames when I came to the throne. Thanks be to God Almighty that we have any teachers among us now. And therefore I command thee to do as I believe thou art willing, to disengage thyself from worldly matters as often as thou canst, that thou mayest apply the wisdom which God has given thee wherever thou canst. Consider what punishments would come upon us on account of this world, if we neither loved it (wisdom) ourselves nor suffered other men to obtain it: we should love the name only of Christian, and very few of the virtues. When I considered all this I remembered also how I saw, before it had been all ravaged and burnt, how the churches throughout the whole of England stood filled with treasures and books, and there was also a great multitude of God's servants, but they had very little knowledge of the books, for they could not understand anv. thing of them, because they were not written in their own language. As if they had said: “Our forefathers, who formerly held these places, loved wisdom, and through it they obtained wealth and bequeathed it to us. In this we can still see their tracks, but we cannot follow them, and therefore we have lost both the wealth and the wisdom, because we would not incline our hearts after their example."

There is a single change of the root-vowel in the second declension, and there is a double change in the third. The past tenses are formed in the first conjugation (a) by adding -ode, (b) by adding -de or -te simply, (c) by adding - de or -te with a change also of the root-vowel. In the second conjugation the root-vowel is changed - as in “eat” to "ate"=**æt”-in one of three ways: to (a) æ', (b) e, (c) ó. In the third conjugation it is changed (a) to a with a second change to u, (b) to á with a second change to i, (c) to ea with a second change to u. The second change occurs in the second person singular and whole plural of the indicative and throughout the subjunctive. It is the origin of such double forms as "sang" and "sung." In reading First English aloud pronounce a like the a in "path" or "father;" æ like the a in “pat” or “ pate" (this mark over a vowel' indicates longer and broader sound); pronounce, therefore, Cædmon not Seedman, but Cadmon, and the vowels and letters generally more after the manner of northern than of southern English as now spoken; slightly roughen the aspiration of the h, and sound ther.

I The standard edition of this work of King Alfred's has been produced by one of the best living First-English scholars, Mr. Henry Sweet, for “the Early English Text Society:"-"King Alfred's West. Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care. With an English Translation, the Latin Text, Notes, and an Introduction." The passage above quoted is given from the Translation added by Mr. Sweet to his text. A word may here be said of “the Early English Text Society," to which English students are indebted for this and much other valuable work. We owe its existence to the enthusiastic energy of Mr. F.J. Furnivall, who set it up in the year 1864, and has himself edited many interesting texts for it. The self-denial of the editors, and fellowship of many in the work, has enabled this society to secure an unusually large return of valuable publications for the annual guinea of each of its members. In the first ten years of its life the society produced more than 16,000 pages of edited texts. Some of

the publications, not in themselves works of genius, are included in the series for help they may give to philological research, some for their lively illustration of manners and customs, or of phases of opinion, but not a few are the only printed editions of texts of the highest literary interest. It is for this society that Mr. Skeat has produced such an edition of several texts of “The Vision of Piers Plowman" as we should have had otherwise no hope of possessing, a study that no German could surpass in thoroughness, and very fruit. ful indeed in its results. Among other works edited by him are Barbour's “Bruce" and " Havelok” and “ William of Palerne.** Dr. Richard Morris has not only edited for the Early English Test Society such important works as the thirteenth century poem exn the Story of Genesis and Exodus, the “Cursor Mundi," * The Avenbite of Inwit.” &c., but he has been the first to develop in the introductions to such works that more critical study of old Emlish Dialects which now has the attention of all students. Mr. Furni all has worked indefatigubly, and has been particularly happy in his lively illustration of old social conditions, by help of "The Book of Curtasye," “ The Book of Demeanour,” Andrew Boorde's “ Intro duction and Dyetary," &c., besides contributing to a series of alitions of the old Arthurian Romances. There is an edition of the Works of Sir David Lindsay, by Mr. J. A. H. Murray, who edits also an interesting poem of the year 1549, “ The Complaynt of Scotland.“ But a chronicle of good work done by “The Early English Text Society” is more than can be here set down in a note. Its pub lishers are Messrs. Trubner and Co., 57 and 59, Ludgate Hill,

these were not given in English verse when Alfred's translation was produced, though extant renderings of the “Metra” of Boëthius into First-English verse have been ascribed to Alfred. In one passage of the prose translation Alfred expanded a short sentence into contemplations of his own upon the duty of a king. The sentence in Boëthius (lib. ii., prosa vii.) is only this :-“Tum ego, Scis, inquam, ipsa minimum nobis ambitionem mortalium rerum fuisse dominatam : sed materiam gerendis rebus optavimus, quo ne virtus tacita consenesceret." In Alfred's version two sentences represent this passage, and they are then amplified by original reflections that seem to have arisen in the king's mind as he thought of his own work and his own ambition in it:

When I remembered all this, I wondered extremely that the good and wise men who were formerly all over England, and had perfectly learnt all the books, did not wish to translate them into their own language. But again I soon answered rayself and said: “They did not think that men would ever be so careless, and that learning would so decay; through that desire they abstained from it, and they wished that the wisdom in this land might increase with our knowledge of languages.” Then I remembered how the law was first known in Hebrew, and again, when the Greeks had learnt it, they translated the whole of it into their own language, and all other books besides. And again the Romans, when they had learnt it, they translated the whole of it through learned interpreters into their own language. And also all other Christian nations translated a part of them into their own language. Therefore it seems better to me, if ye think so, for us also to translate some books which are most needful for all men to know into the language which we can all understand, and for you to do as we very easily can if we have tranquillity enough, that is, that all the youth now in England of free men, who are rich enough to be able to devote themselves to it, be set to learn as long as they are not fit for any other occupation, until that they are well able to read English writing: and let those be afterwards taught more in the Latin language who are to continue learning and be promoted to a higher rank. When I remembered how the knowledge of Latin had formerly decayed throughout England, and yet many could read English writing, I began, among other various and manifold troubles of this kingdom, to translate into English the book which is called in Latin Pastoralis, and in English Shepherd's Book, sometimes word by word and sometimes according to the sense, as I had learnt it from Plegmund my archbishop, and Asser my bishop, and Grimbold my mass-priest, and John my masspriest. And when I had learnt it as I could best understand it, and as I could most clearly interpret it, I translated it into English; and I will send a copy to every bishopric in my kingdom; and on each there is a clasp worth fifty mancus. And I command in God's name that no man take the clasp from the book or the book from the minster: it is uncertain how long there may be such learned bishops as now, thanks be to God, there are nearly everywhere; therefore I wish them always to remain in their place, unless the bishop wish to take them with him, or they be lent out anywhere, or any one make a copy from them.

KING ALFRED ON KING-CRAFT. The Mind then answered, and thus said: O Reason, indeed thou knowest that covetousness and the greatness of this earthly power never well pleased me, nor did I altogether very much yearn after this earthly authority. But nevertheless I was desirous of materials for the work which I was commanded to perform ; that was, that I might honourably and fitly guide and exercise the power which was committed to me. Moreover, thou knowest that no man can show any skill, nor exercise or control any power, without tools and materials. There are of every craft the materials without which man cannot exercise the craft. These, then, are a king's materials and his tools to reign with: that he have his land well peopled; he must have prayer-men, and soldiers, and workmen.? Thou knowest that without these tools no king can show his craft. This is also his materials which he must have besides the tools ; provisions for the three classes. This is, then, their provision ; land to inhabit, and gifts and weapons, and meat, and ale, and clothes, and whatsoever is necessary for the three classes. He cannot without these preserve the tools, nor without the tools accomplish any of those things which he is commanded to perform. Therefore I was desirous of materials wherewith to exercise the power, that my talents and power should not be forgotten and concealed. For every craft and every power soon becomes old, and is passed over in silence, if it be without wisdom : for no man can accomplish any craft without wisdom. Because whatsoever is done through folly, no one can ever reckon for craft. This is now especially to be said ; that I wished to live honourably whilst I lived, and after my life, to leave to the men who were after me, my memory in good works.

I translate the opening metre from Boëthius into modern English, giving the original belov, and add the version of the First-English translator as a last example of that stage of the language :

Because the monasteries had used (on account of its religious tone) the book on the “ Consolation of Philosophy," written in prison by Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boëthius, the last of the old Latin philosophers, King Alfred translated also that. Boëthius, in the prison from which he was taken to execution, about the year 825, imagined himself lamenting the worldly estate from which he had fallen, and visited by Philosophy, who held discourse with him upon the vanity of such regrets, since all substantial good was of the mind, and beyond reach of fortune. The book was philosophical, not Christian ; but was in such wide request among the Christians, that they made a saint of its author, by fabling that he died a martyr. Small pieces of Latin versification“ Metra ” — were interspersed by Boëthius, and

FIRST METRE OF BOETHIUS.” I who once finished verse with happy toil

Am forced now to begin a mournful strain ; See, the torn Muses tell me what to write,

Elegy sets their lips with a true pain.

· King Alfred's classification of a people corresponds with that of Plato, of whose Republic he assuredly knew nothing. Plato's three orders in a State were the guardians, auxiliaries, and producers. See Note 1, page 12. 3 This is the original :

METRUM I.
Carmina qui quondam studio florente peregi,

Flebilis, heu, maestos cogor inire modos.

1 Fifty mancus = 300 shillings. There were thirty pence in a mancus and five pence in a shilling.

ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite, who was sup

KING ALFRED'S INTRODUCTION TO HIS TRANSLATION posed to have been converted by St. Paul, and after

OF POPE GREGORY'S “ REGULA PASTORALIS." wards to have become first bishop of the Christians at Athens. Erigena had already incurred suspicion

King Alfred bids greet bishop Warferth with his words

lovingly and with friendship; and I let it be known to the of heresy when he produced his Latin work, in five

that it has very often come into my mind, what wise men parts, on “The Division of Nature," a dialogue

there formerly were throughout England, both of sacred between pupil and master, which was the starting

and secular orders; and how happy times there were then point of a new school of philosophy. In this book

throughout England; and how the kings who had power he gave mystical interpretations of Scripture, and

over the nation in those days obeyed God and his ministers; otherwise excited a very warm antagonism. After

and they preserved peace, morality, and order at home, and the death of Charles the Bald, John Scotus Erigena

at the same time enlarged their territory abroad; and how is said to have come to England, allured by the

they prospered both with war and with wisdom; and also munificence of King Alfred, and at Malmesbury to

the sacred orders how zealous they were both in teaching have been stabbed to death by the styles of his

and learning, and in all the services they owed God; and pupils, about the year 875.

how foreigners came to this land in search of wisdom and King Alfred had succeeded Ethelred in the year

instruction, and how we should now have to get them from 871, being then twenty-two years old. There was abroad if we were to have them. So general was its decay confusion in the land from inroads of the Danes; | in England that there were very few on this side of the many monasteries and their schools were broken up, | Humber who could understand their rituals in English, or and learning had decayed. When Alfred had cleared translate a letter from Latin into English ; and I believe that the way for labour towards the re-establishment of there were not many beyond the Humber. There were so knowledge and religion, he produced or caused to be few of them that I cannot remember a single one south of produced English versions of books suitable for his the Thames when I came to the throne. Thanks be to God purpose. The History of Orosius, which had been Almighty that we have any teachers among us now. And the Latin text-book for a history of the world in

therefore I command thee to do as I believe thou art willing, the monastery schools, he restored to the schools in to disengage thyself from worldly matters as often as thou English, with much abridgment of its theological canst, that thou mayest apply the wisdom which God has element, and addition of fresh knowledge. There

given thee wherever thou canst. Consider what punishments was added an original detail of the geography of

would come upon us on account of this world, if we neither Germany in Alfred's time, and the record of two

loved it (wisdom) ourselves nor suffered other men to obtain coasting voyages in the north of Europe. Alfred

it: we should love the name only of Christian, and very few provided also a translation into English of Bede's

of the virtues. When I considered all this I remembered History of England. For the instruction of the

also how I saw, before it had been all ravaged and burnt,

how the churches throughout the whole of England stood clergy, he issued an English version of the Pastoral

filled with treasures and books, and there was also a great Care of Pope Gregory the Great.

multitude of God's servants, but they had very little knowThe opening sentences of King Alfred's translation

ledge of the books, for they could not understand ans. of this book have an interest that has caused them

thing of them, because they were not written in their own to be often quoted.'

language. As if they had said: “Our forefathers, who

formerly held these places, loved wisdom, and through it There is a single change of the root-vowel in the second declension, they obtained wealth and bequeathed it to us. In this we and there is a double change in the third. The past tenses are can still see their tracks, but we cannot follow them, and formed in the first conjugation (a) by adding -ode, (b) by adding .de or

therefore we have lost both the wealth and the wisdom, te simply, (c) by adding -de or te with a change also of the root-vowel. In the second conjugation the root-vowel is changed--as in “eat” to

because we would not incline our hearts after their example." "ate"="æt"-in one of three ways: to (a) «', (b) e, (c) . In the third conjugation it is changed (a) to a with a second change to u, (b) the publications, not in themselves works of genius, are included in to á with a second change to i, (c) to ra with a second change to u. the series for help they may give to philological research, some for The second change occurs in the second person singular and whole their lively illustration of manners and customs, or of phases of plural of the indicative and throughout the subjunctive. It is the opinion, but not a few are the only printed editions of texts of the origin of such double forms as " sang" and "sung." In reading First highest literary interest. It is for this society that Mr. Skeat him English aloud pronounce a like the a in "path" or "father;" & like produced such an edition of several texts of "The Vision of Pier the a in pat" or " pate" (this mark over a vowel indicates longer Plowman” as we should have had otherwise no hope of possessing, and broader sound); pronounce, therefore, Cadmon not Seedman, but study that no German could surpass in thoroughness, and very irunt Cadmon, and the vowels and letters generally more after the manner ful indeed in its results. Among other works edited hy him ar of northern than of southern English as now spoken; slightly roughen Barbour's " Bruce" and “Havelok" and " William of Palerne." D the aspiration of the h, and sound the r.

Richard Morris has not only edited for the Early English Tea The standard edition of this work of King Alfred's has been pro. Society such important works as the thirteenth century poem dnced by one of the best living First-Euxlish scholars, Mr. Henry the Story of Genesis and Exodus, the “Cursor Mundi," "TI Sweet, for "the Early Euglish Text Society :"-"King Alfred's West Avenbite of Inwit." &e., but he has been the first to develop in tl Suxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Cure. With an English Trans. | introductions to such works that more critical study of old Engl lation, the Latin Text, Notes, and an Introduction." The passare Dialects which now has the attention of all students. Mr. Furnis. above quoted is given from the Translation added by Mr. Sweet to his has worked indefatigably, and has been particularly happy in text. A word may here be said of “the Early English Text Society," lively illustration of old social conditions, by help of " The Book to which English students are indebted for this and much other Curtasye," " The Book of Demeanour," Andrew Boorde's * Iut. valuable work. We owe its existence to the enthusiastic energy of duction and Dyetary," &c., besides contributing to a series of eliti Mr. F. J. Furnivall, who set it up in the year 1864, and has himself of the old Arthurian Romances. There is an edition of the Wor edited many interesting texts for it. The self-denial of the editors, of Sir David Lindsay, by Mr. J. A. H. Murray, who edits also and fellowship of many in the work, has enabled this society to secure interesting poem of the year 1519, “ The Complaynt of Scotlan an unusually large return of valuable publications for the anni But a chronicle of good work done by “The Early English T kuipea of each of its members. In the first ten years of its life the Society" is more than can be here set down in a note. Its a society produced more than 16,000 pages of edited texts. Some of lishers are Messrs. Trubner and Co., 57 and 59, Ludgute Hill.

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