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sun enlighteneth it and heateth it according to his seasons. in the general belief of Christ (which is a greater The earth nourisheth the plants, the plants feed the beasts, | matter in this incredulous age), and desire of the the beasts serve man. Again, nothing is seen here to be union of His Church you agree with me, as in the made for itself. The sun shineth and heateth; but not for love of my country I protest I consent with you." itself: tho carth beareth, and yet hath no benefit thereby :

Loving his country, Henry Constable sought leave the winds blow, and yet they sail not : but all these things

to return, and failing in that, towards the end of redound to the glory of the Maker, to the accomplishment of Elizabeth's reign he returned clandestinely, but was the whole, and to the benefit of man. To be short, the

discovered and committed to the Tower. One of his noblest creatures have need of the basest, and the basest are

“Spiritual Sonnets" may be taken as an example of served by the noblest ; and all are so linked together from

the purity of aspiration that could be associated with the highest to the lowest, that the ring thereof cannot be

the worship of the Virgin ; something far higher broken without confusion. The sun cannot be eclipsed, the

than the idolatries from which he vrays that it may plants withered, or the rain want, but all things feel the hurt

save him :thereof. Now then, can we imagine that this world which consisteth of so many and so divers pieces, tending all to one

TO OUR BLESSED LADY. end, so coupled one to another, making one body, and full of

Sovereign of queens! if vain Ambition move so apparent consents of affections, proceedeth from elsewhere

My heart to seek an earthly prince's grace, than from the power of one alone? When in a field we see

Shew me thy Son in His imperial place many battles, divers standards, sundry liveries, and yet all

Whose Servants reign our Kings and Queens above; turning head with one sway; we conceive that there is one

And if alluring passions I do prove general of the field, who commandeth them all. Also when

By pleasing sighs, shew me Thy lovely face, in a city or a realm we see an equality of good behaviour in

Whose beams the angels' beauty do deface, an unequality of degrees of people, infinite trades which serve

And even inflame the seraphim with love. one another, the smaller reverencing the greater, the greater

So by Ambition I shall humble be, serving to the benefit of the smaller, both of them made equal

When in the presence of the Highest King in justice, and all tending in this diversity to the common

I serve all His that He may honour me; service of their country: we doubt not but there is one law,

And Love my heart to chaste desires shall bring, and a magistrate which by that law holdeth the said diversity

When Fairest Queen looks on me from her throne, in union. And if any man tell of many magistrates, we will

And, jealous, bids me love but her alone. by and by inquire for the sovereign. Yet notwithstanding all this is but an order set among divers men, who ought even naturally to be united, by the community of their kind. But when things as well light as heavy, hot as cold, moist as dry, living as unliving, endued with sense as senseless, and each of infinite sorts, do so close in one composition as one of them cannot forbear another; nay rather, to our seeming, the worthiest do service to the basest, the greatest to the smallest, the strongest to the weakest, and all of them together are disposed to the accomplishment of the world, and to the contentment of man who alonely is able to consider it : ought we not forth with to perceive, that the whole world and all things contained therein do by their tending unto us teach us to tend unto one alone? And seeing that so many things tend unto man, shall man scatter his doings unto divers ends? Or shall he be so wretched as to serve many masters ? Nay further, to knit up this present point withal, seeing that all things the nobler they be the more they do close into one unity (as for example, we see that the things which have but mere being are of infinite kinds, the things that have life are of infinite sorts, the things that have sense are of many sorts, howbeit not of so many; and the things that have reason are many only in particulars :) doth it not follow also that the Godhead from whence they have their reason, as nobler than they is also much more One than they, that is to say, only

RICHARD HOOKER. One, as well in particularity and number as in kind ?

From the Portrait by Faithorne, engraved in his Works (1723).


“Four Books of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Politie" Henry Constable, whose few poems and extant | were first published by Richard Hooker, then rector letters indicate much sweetness of character, was in | of Boscombe, Wiltshire, in 1594. The fifth book, 1595 driven into exile for his fidelity to Roman longer than all those four, followed in 1597, when Catholic opinions. There was some close association, he was rector of Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury. perhaps tie of blood, between Henry Constable and Hooker died in 1600, and left notes which were Anthony and Francis Bacon, and to Anthony he taken, not always rightly, as the rough draught of wrote, in 1595, “I have a marvellous opinion of your the remaining three books. These were not pubvirtues and judgment, and therefore, though in par- | lished until eighteen years after his death. ticulars of religion we may be differing, yet I hope that Richard Hooker was born at Heavitree, a suburb of Exeter. Like Spenser, from whom he differed away with good advice and benediction. Rememberin views of Church polity, he was wholly an | ing after they left that he had omitted the help of a Elizabethan writer ; each was born about 1553, and little money, the good bishop sent a servant to bring they died, before Elizabeth, within a year of each Hooker back, and when he returned, said, “ Richard, other. In literature Spenser is the greatest repre I sent for you back to lend you a horse which hatlı sentative of Elizabethan Puritanism, and Hooker carried me many a mile; and, I thank God, with wrote the wisest and best argument against it. much ease.” The horse was a walking-stick that Both were true men who sought to serve God faith- Jewel had brought from Germany. “And, Richard, fully with all their powers; and they agreed more I do not give but lend you my horse : be sure you be than they differed. Spenser, indeed, differed so honest and bring my horse back to me at your return much from the narrower Puritanism of his time, and this way to Oxford. And I do now give you ten was so fully in accord with Hooker's religious spirit, groats to bear your charges to Exeter; and here is ten that we cannot think of them as in opposite camps. groats more, which I charge you to deliver to your When different tendencies of thought lead men to mother, and tell her I send her a bishop's benedic. seek one great end by different ways, and great tion with it, and beg the continuance of her prayers parties are formed, it is between the lesser comba for me. And if you bring my horse back to me, I tants--who confound accident with substance and will give you ten groats more to carry you on foot to give themselves up to fierce contention about phrases, the college; and so God help you, good Richard.” words, and outward shows-that the distance seems Thus the loan of the walking-stick pledged Richard most wide. Between the best and purest upon to call on his way back. He did call, and then saw each side, who are one in aim, and who both look for the last time his kindly patron. John Jewel to essentials, the accord is really greater than the died in September of the same year, 1571, and discord.

Hooker would have been unable to remain at Oxford Richard Hooker's parents were poor, but his uncle if the president of his college, Dr. Cole, had not at John was chamberlain of Exeter, and the boy's school once bidden him go on with his studies, and undermaster, who found in him an actively inquiring taken to see that he did not want. After about nine mind, and, under a slow manner, a quiet eagerness months also Hooker was aided by a legacy from the for knowledge, urged upon this richer uncle that bishop, a legacy of love, not of money. there ought to be found for such a nephew, in some Not long before his death Jewel had been talking way, at least a year's maintenance at one of the to his friend Edwin Sandys, who had newly succeeded Universities. John Jewel, who was also a Devon Edmund Grindal in the bishopric of London. In his shire man, had been sent into his own county and the talk he had said much of the pure nature and fine West of England as a visitor of churches, upon his | intellect and studious life of young Richard Hooker. return to England after the death of Queen Mary. The Bishop of London resolved, as he heard this, Thus he had established friendly acquaintance with that when he should send Edwin his son to college, John Hooker, and presently afterwards he was made though he was himself a Cambridge man, he would Bishop of Salisbury. John Hooker then visited the choose Oxford, and send him to Corpus Christi, that Bishop in Salisbury, and talked about his nephew. he might have Hooker for a tutor. This he did about Jewel said he would judge for himself, and offered to nine months after Bishop Jewel's death. Hooker see the boy and his schoolmaster. When he saw | was then nineteen, and his pupil--afterwards Sir them he gave a reward to the schoolmaster, and a small pension to Richard's parents, in aid of the education of their son. In 1567, when Richard Hooker was a boy of fifteen, Bishop Jewel sent him to Oxford, placing him by special recommendation under the oversight of Dr. Cole, then President of Corpus Christi College. Dr. Cole provided Hooker with a tutor, and gave him a clerk's place in the college, which yielded something in aid of his uncle's contribution and the pension from the bishop. In this way Richard Hooker's education was continued for about three years, and then, when he was eighteen, he had a dangerous illness which lasted for

SAN two months. His mother prayed continually for the life of her promising son, who used afterwards to

ning LL pray in his turn “that he might never live to occa

|| Bi্যালান্নায় sion any sorrow to so good a mother ; of whom he would often say, he loved her so dearly, that he would endeavour to be good even as much for hers as for his own sake." Being recovered at Oxford,

Old St. Paul's, WITH THE SPIRE. Richard Hooker went home to Exeter on foot, with

(From Dugdale's History of St. Paul's," 1658.) another student from Devonshire, and took Salisbury upon his way, that he might pay his respects to Edwin Sandys, author of the “Speculum Europa" Bishop Jewel. The bishop invited Richard and his --not very much younger ; but the bishop wisely companion to dinner, and after dinner sent them | sought for his boy a tutor and friend who, as he


said, “shall teach him learning by instruction and while he remained at Oxford. In 1581 he was orvirtue by example : and my greatest care shall be of | dained priest, and soon afterwards appointed to the last." George Cranmer (nephew's son to the preach one of the sermons at Paul's Cross. This archbishop) and other pupils soon joined Sandys, appointment led indirectly to his marriage. and found in Hooker a tutor with a rare power of The first stone of St. Paul's, as we have it now, communicating what he knew, and a life unostenta was not laid until nearly a hundred years later, in tiously devout that stirred their affections. His 1675, and the new building was raised in accordane health was not vigorous, and weakened by a seden with the classicism of that later time. The old tary life of study. He was short, stooping, very cathedral, ruined by the Fire of London, was, like short-sighted, and subject to pimples : so shy and other English cathedrals, Gothic, and had, until 1561, gentle that any pupil could look him out of coun- a spire. But in that year there broke over London tenance. He could look no man hard in the face, but a great storm, that struck with lightning first the had the habitual down look that Chaucer's host in Church of St. Martin upon Ludgate Hill, and son the Canterbury Tales is made to ascribe to the poet. afterwards the spire of St. Paul's, a structure of When Hooker was a rector, he and his clerk never | wood covered with lead, which it set on fire. The talked but with both their hats off together. He fire burned downwards for four hours, melted the was never known to be angry, never heard to repine, ! church bells, and then ran along the roof, which

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OLD ST. PAUL'S, FROM THE East, AFTER THE Loss OF THE STEEPLE. (From Dugdale's “ History of St. Paul's," 1658.)

could be witty without use of an ill word, and by his fell in. There were collections in all dioceses for the presence restrained what was unfit, without abating restoration of the church, and it was roofed again. what was innocent, in the mirth of others. In but the steeple never was rebuilt. December of the year 1573, in which the Bishop of Paul's Cross stood in the churchyard on the north London's son became his pupil, Hooker became one side of the cathedral, towards the east end. A cross of the twenty foundation scholars of his college, who in that place is said to have been first erected by were, by the founder's statutes, to be natives of Goodrich, abbot of Peterborough, to remind passer Devonshire or Hampshire. Hooker became Master by to pray for the souls of certain monks of Peter of Arts in 1577, and in the same year Fellow of his borough there buried, who had been massacred bo College. His first pupils, Edwin Sandys and George the Danes in the year 870. There was already a Cranmer, remained the attached friends of Richard custom of preaching at this cross in the latter years of Hooker, who worked on at Oxford, devoting himself Edward III. The cross preached from in Elizabeth's much to study of the Bible, which was written, he reign had been built on the old site by Thomas said, “not to beget disputations, and pride, and Kempe, who was Bishop of London from A.D. 145 opposition to government; but charity and humility, to A.D. 1490. moderation, obedience to authority, and peace to Careful choice was made of the preachers who mankind ;" qualities of which “no man did ever yet were invited to deliver sermons at St. Paul's Ch repent himself on his death-bed.”

Besides his fee, each minister who was not residui In 1579, when he and Edmund Spenser were in London had right of board and lodging for to about twenty-six years old, and Spenser published days before and one day after his sermon, in a INGS his first book, “ The Shepherd's Calendar," Richard kept for the purpose, which was known as the Hooker was appointed to read the public Hebrew | Shunamite's House. A friend had persuaded Richard lecture in the University, and continued to do so Hooker not to make the journey from Oxford to

London on foot, but to go on horseback; the weather formed at Wandsworth. The Puritan element was being wet, and he no rider, he arrived at the Shuna- strong even in this society of lawyers, and many mite's House soaking, and sore, with a very bad cold, thought that Walter Travers should have been apand loubt whether the two days' rest would so far pointed to the place given to Richard Hooker. recover him that he could preach. But the mistress | Hooker preached in the morning, Travers in the of the house, a Mrs. Churchman, paid such exemplary evening : so it was said that “the forenoon sermon attention to him, that when Sunday came he was spake Canterbury; and the afternoon Geneva.” equal to his duty. Then the good woman advised | Then Archbishop Whitgift prohibited the preaching her grateful guest that, as he was of a tender con- of Travers. The prohibition was appealed against in stitution, he should take a wife who could nurse him, vain. Whitgift's policy was the Queen's; he sought prolong his life, and make it comfortable. To this to compel unity. The Queen trusted him as she had counsel the simple-hearted scholar duly assented, and trusted Archbishop Parker, practically transferred to asked Mrs. Churchman to find for him such a wife. | him her supremacy over the Church of England, and She found him her own daughter Joan, whose chance of called him “her little black husband.” This treata husband seemed otherwise, perhaps, not of the best, ment of Walter Travers raised a bitter controversy. since she had no money, and was neither good-looking | Richard Hooker sought in his gentle way to mainnor good-tempered. Her father was a pious man, tain himself against it; the hardest thing said by who had failed in business as a draper in Watling him in the matter, being in reply to the accusations Street, and had been made keeper of the Shunamite's | against him, “ that he prayed before and not after his House because he was fit for the office, and in need sermons; that in his prayers he named bishops ; that of help to live. Hooker's marriage drew him from he kneeled both when he prayed and when he rehis quiet student life at Oxford. A small living was ceived sacrament: and," he said, “ other exceptions given to him near Aylesbury, at Drayton-Beauchamp, so like these, as but to name I should have thought in December, 1584, and he had lived for about a year a greater fault than to commit them." in his country parsonage when he was visited by his The bitterness of personal contention pained old pupils, Edwin Sandys and George Cranmer. Hooker acutely. He could not take part in it, and They found him reading Horace in a field, and mind- | it distracted him when he would give pure thought ing a few sheep while the servant was gone to his to the principles involved in the dispute. There was dinner and to help in household work. They sat a great controversy within the Church, a desire for with him until the man returned, then went with truth and right was at the heart of it on both sides, him into the house, but lost his company when but on each side, as usual, blind passion was eloquent, Richard was called to rock the cradle of his first and there were many partisans who never looked born. They left next day with no flattering opinion below the surface. Hooker desired escape out of the of Mrs. Hooker, but with increased reverence for noise, that he might make a right use of his powers their old tutor, whom they saw gently bearing a life | in God's service, and at last he wrote this letter to of poverty in a home where there was no sympathy to the Archbishop :cheer it. When Cranmer glanced at this on leaving, Hooker is said to have replied, “ My dear George, if saints have usually a double share in the miseries of

My Lord,—When I lost the freedom of my cell, which this life, I that am none ought not to repine at what

was my college, yet I found some degree of it in my quiet

country parsonage: but I am weary of the noise and opposimy wise Creator has appointed for me, but labour, as

tions of this place; and indeed God and Nature did not intend indeed I do daily, to submit mine to His will, and

me for contentions, but for study and quietness. My lord, possess my soul in patience and peace.”

my particular contests with Mr. Travers here have proved The consequence of this visit was that Edwin

the more unpleasant to me, because I believe him to be a good Sandys strongly represented to his father, who was

man; and that belief hath occasioned me to examine mine then Archbishop of York, Hooker's desert and need.

own conscience concerning his opinions; and to satisfy that, The next opportunity was therefore taken of using

I have consulted the Scripture, and other laws, both human patronage for the substantial improvement of his

and divine, whether the conscience of him and others of his fortunes, and in March, 1585, Richard Hooker, then

judgment might be so far complied with‘as to alter our frame only thirty-four years old, was made Master of the

of church-government, our manner of God's worship, our Temple. Walter Travers, who had the Earl of praising and praying to Him, and our established cereinonies, Leicester for patron, had been appointed Evening as often as his and other tender consciences shall require us. Lecturer at the Temple. We have already spoken And in this examination I have not only satisfied myself, but of him as a friend of Thomas Cartwright, and one have begun a treatise in which I intend a justification of the of the leaders of the Furitan cause in the Church of Laws of our Ecclesiastical Polity; in which design God and England; the same who had been busy about the first | His holy angels shall at the last great day bear me that witness parate Presbyterian congregation when that was which my conscience now does, that my meaning is not to

provoke any, but rather to satisfy all tender consciences; and

I shall never be able to do this but where I may study, and 1 wer's rife. These details are from Izaak Walton's life of l pray for God's blessing on my endeavours, and keep myself Esker, and represent, perhaps too unfavourably, what friends said in peace and privacy, and behold God's blessings spring out about Mr. Hooker. She was very soon married again after Richard's

of my mother earth, and eat my own bread without opposifound deart in her bed, and the second husband-to whom she was

tions; and therefore, if your grace can judge me worthy of tbea aireadiy joined--fell under unjust suspicion of having poisoned

such a favour, let me beg it, that I may perfect what I have begun.


Pour months after the death of her first husband she was

The result of this pleading was that, in the year 1591, Richard Hooker resigned the more lucrative and, in a worldly sense, important office of Master of the Temple, and was presented to the living of Boscombe in Wiltshire, about six miles from Salisbury, and to a prebend of small value-NetherAvon-in Salisbury Cathedral. At Boscombe he was remote enough from strife of cities, and would be free to use his pen while doing his duty to his parishioners; for the whole population of his parish was scarcely above a hundred. Richard Hooker lived four years at Boscombe—from 1591 to 1595— and there he completed by March, 1593, the first four of the eight books which he had planned as the natural division of his work. They were first published in 1594. The spirit and plan of the whole work are thus expressed by Hooker himself in his “Preface to them that seek (as they term it) the Reformation of Laws and Orders Ecclesiastical in the Church of England.” First, as to its spirit, let this passage testify :

Amongst ourselves, there was in King Edward's days some question moved, by reason of a few men's scrupulosity, touching certain things. And beyond seas, of them which fled in the days of Queen Mary, some contenting themselves abroad with the use of their own service book at home, authorised before their departure out of the realm; others liking better the Common Prayer Book of the Church of Geneva translated; those smaller contentions before begun were by this mean somewhat increased. Under the happy reign of her Majesty which now is, the greatest matter a while contended for was the wearing of the cap and surplice, till there came Admonitions directed unto the High Court of Parliament, by men who, concealing their names, thought it glory enough to discover their minds and affections, which now were universally bent even against all the orders and laws wherein this church is found unconformable to the platform of Geneva. Concerning the defender of which Admonitions, all that I mean to say is but this :-There will come a time when three words uttered with charity and meekness, shall receive a far more blessed reward than three thousand volumes written with disdainful sharpness of wit. But the manner of men's writing must not alienate our hearts from the truth, if it appear they have the truth: as the followers of the same defender doth think he hath, and in that persuasion they follow him, no otherwise than himself doth Calvin, Beza, and others, with the like persuasion that they in this cause had the truth. We being as fully persuaded otherwise, it resteth that some kind of trial be used to find out which part is in error.

that laws and ordinances in particular, whether such as we observe, or such as yourselves would have established, when the mind doth sift and examine them, it must Deeds have often recourse to a number of doubts and questions about the nature, kinds, and qualities of laws in general, whenoi, unless it be thoroughly informed, there will appear no cet. tainty to stay our persuasion upon:, I have for that cause set down in the first place an introduction on both sides needful to be considered : declaring therein what law is, how different kinds of laws there are, and what force they are of according unto each kind. This done-because ye suppose the laws for which ye strive are found in Scripture, but those not for which we strive, and upon this surmise are dran to hold it as the very main pillar of your whole cause, that Scripture ought to be the only rule of all our actions, an: consequently that the Church orders which we observe being not commanded in Scripture are offensive and displeasant unto God I have spent the second book in sifting of this point, which standeth with you for the first and chietest principle whereon ye build. Whereunto the next in degree is, that as God will have always a Church upon earth while the world doth continue, and that Church stand in need of government, of which government it behoveth Himself to be both the author and teacher; so it cannot stand with duty, that man should ever presume in any wise to change and alter the same; and therefore, that in Scripture there must of necessity be found some particular form of Ecclesiastical Polity, the laws whereof admit not any kind of alteration. The first three books being thus ended, the fourth proceed th from the general grounds and foundations of your cause, unto your general accusations against us, as having in the orders of our Church (for so you pretend) corrupted the rigt: form of Church Polity with manifold Popish rites and cutmonies, which certain Reformed Churches have banished frui amongst them, and have thereby given us such example is (you think) we ought to follow. This your assertion bath herein drawn us to make search, whether these be just erede tions against the customs of our Church, when ye plead that they are the same which the Church of Rome hath, or that they are not the same which some other Reformed Churcbus have devised. Of those four books which remain and are bestowed about the specialties of that cause which lieth in controversy, the first examineth the causes by you allegd, wherefore the Public Duties of Christian religion, as ou prayers, our sacraments, and the rest, should not be order in such sort as with us they are; nor that power wherebr the persons of men are consecrated unto the ministry, be dispod of in such manner as the Laws of this Church do allow. The second and third are concerning the power of Jurisdicticethe one, whether laymen, such as your governing elders are ought in all congregations for ever to be invested with that power; the other, whether bishops may have that we over other pastors, and therewithal that honour which with us they have. And because, besides the power of order wat all consecrated persons have, and the power of jurisdictira which neither they all, nor they only have, there is a thirt power—a power of ecclesiastical dominion-communicable. » we think, unto persons not ecclesiastical, and most fit to be restrained unto the Prince our sovereign commander over the whole body politic: the eighth book we have allotted into this question, and have sifted therein your objertion agur those Pre-eminences Royal which thereunto appertain.

Thus have I laid before you the brief of these my trurzus and presented under your view the limbs of that cause litignies between us; the whole entire body whereof being the air pact, it shall be no troublesome thing for any man to :: each particular controversy's resting place, and the cohen

The plan of the work is in the same preface thus sketched by its author :

Nor is mine own intent any other in these several books of discourse, than to make it appear unto you that for the Ecclesiastical Laws of this land we are led by great reason to observe them, and ye by no necessity bound to impugn them. It is no part of my secret meaning to draw you hereby into hatred, or to set upon the face of this cause any fairer gloss than the naked truth doth afford; but my whole endeavour is to resolve the conscience, and to show as near as I can what in this controversy the heart is to think, if it will follow the light of sound and sincere judgment, without either cloud of prejudice or mist of passionate affection. Wherefore, seeing

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