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“None are so gross, as to contend for this,
That Souls from bodies may traducéd be ; Between whose natures no proportion is,
When root and branch in nature still agree.
ference of season, daylight, climate, form of man; she also has a quickening power, and a power also that she sends abroad, her sense, which through five organs “ views and searcheth all things everywhere." The poem dwells on the eyes, guides to the body here “which else would stumble in eternal night,”
“ But many subtile wits have justified,
That Souls from Souls spiritually may spring; Which (if the nature of the Soul be tried)
Will even in nature prove as gross a thing."
“ Yet their best object, and their noblest use,
Hereafter in another world will be, When God in them shall heavenly light infuse,
That face to face they may their Maker see.”
Reasons against this opinion he draws first from nature. All things are made of nothing or of stuff already formed. There is no stuff or matter in the Soul, she must be created out of nothing, “and to create to God alone pertains.” After more reasons drawn from nature, follow others from divinity, which treat of Adam's fall, foreknowledge, freewill, and the grace of God. The next topic is the reason of the union of Soul with Body
It dwells on the other gates of sense by which outward things enter the Soul,-hearing, taste, smelling, feeling, and the common sense by which their several perceptions were brought together for transmission to the brain. Fancy and memory, the passions and affections of the soul are then passed in review; and after them the intellectual powers, wit, reason, understanding, opinion, judgment, and, through knowledge brought by understanding, at last wisdom. The poet then ascribes to the Soul innate ideas,
“ That both of God and of the world partaking,
Of all that is, man might the image bear.”
There was need of a creature to knit into worship the enjoyment of this lower creation, to rule over it, and unite the world to God. How, it is next asked, are Soul and Body joined ?
“ For Nature in man's heart her laws doth pen
Prescribing truth to wit and good to will; Which do accuse or else excuse all men,
For every thought or practice, good or ill."
“ Nor hath He given these blessings for a day,
Nor made them on the body's life depend; The Soul, though made in time, survives for aye;
And though it hath beginning, sees no end."
“ Nor could the world's best spirits so much err,
If death took all, that they should all agree, Before this life, their honour to prefer :
For what is praise to things that nothing be?”
Again, if the Soul stood by the Body's prop,
This passage leads up to the climax of the poem in its closing argument that the Soul is immortal and cannot be destroyed.
“ Her only end is never-ending bliss,
Which is, the eternal face of God to see; Who last of ends and first of causes is :
And to do this, she must eternal be."
“ We should not find her half so brave and bold,
To lead it to the wars, and to the seas, To make it suffer watchings, hunger, cold,
When it might feed with plenty, rest with ease."
The poet bases this upon five reasons. One is man's unlimited desire to learn or know, which springs from the essence of the Soul, and with this desire a power “to find out every truth if she had time."
Another reason is that as the good Soul by scorn of the Body's death shows that she cannot die, the wicked Soul proves her eternity by fear of death.
The Soul's craving for continuance is shown also “by tombs, by books, by memorable deeds,” and by care for posterity ; true notes of immortality written by Nature herself in our heart's tables. Finally, even those who reason against the Soul's immortality use the Soul's power to conceive its immortality, and prove it by the act of reasoning against it.
“ But since our life so fast away doth slide,
As doth a hungry eagle through the wind, Or as a ship transported with the tide,
Which in their passage leave no print behind :
“ Of which swift little time so much we spend,
While some few things we through the sense do strain, That our short race of life is at an end,
Ere we the principles of skill attain :
“ So when we God and angels do conceive,
And think of truth, which is eternal too; Then do our minds immortal forms receive,
Which if they mortal were, they could not do.
“ Or God (which to vain ends hath nothing done)
In vain this appetite and pow'r hath given, Or else our knowledge which is here begun
Hereafter must be perfected in heaven.”
“ And as if beasts conceiv'd what reason were,
And that conception should distinctly show, They should the name of reasonable bear;
For without reason none could reason know.
Another reason is the Soul's aspiration to eternity.
“So when the Soul mounts with so high a wing
As of eternal things she doubts can move, She proofs of her eternity doth bring
Even when she strives the contrary to prove."
“ Water in conduit-pipes can rise no higher
Than the well-head, from whence it first doth spring; Then since to Eternal God she doth aspire,
She cannot be but an eternal thing."
After arguing that the Soul is indestructible, the poet answers objections to faith in her immortality, from the intellectual dotage of old men, idiocy, madness. The defects are in the sense's organs. The Soul does not lose her power to see, “though mists and clouds do choke her window light.”.
Who ever ceased to wish, when he had health, or having wisdom was not vexed in mind ?
“So, when the Soul finds here no true content,
And, like Noah's dove, can no sure footing take, She doth return from whence she first was sent,
And flies to Him that first her wings did make."
“ These imperfections then we must impute
Not to the agent but the instrument: We must not blame Apollo, but his lute,
If false accords from her false strings be sent."
6. Think of her worth, and think that God did mean
siderable attainments, and to mistake his own goodThis worthy Mind should worthy things embrace: humoured shrewdness for the statesman's grasp Blot not her beauties with thy thoughts unclean, of thought. He meant well, and sought to deal Nor her dishonour with thy passion base.
wisely with the pressing questions of his day, but
he had no aspiration strong enough to lift him up “ Kill not her quick’ning power with surfeitings; out of himself; he had no motive of action so conMar not her sense with sensuality;
tinuous as a complacent wish to maintain his personal Cast not her serious wit on idle things;
position as a phenix of intelligence, and the supreMake not her free-will slave to vanity.
macy in Church and State of his own office of king,
He did not regard the supremacy of the Crown in And when thou think'st of her eternity,
England as means to an end, but as in itself the end Think not that death against our nature is;
towards which he should shape his policy. He had Think it a birth: And when thou go'st to die,
no wish to oppress subjects who did not thwart him. Sing like a swan, as if thou went'st to bliss.
Though he was bred a Protestant, the Roman Catho
lics might reasonably expect from the son of Mary “ And if thou, like a child, didst fear before,
Queen of Scots relief from a tyranny under which Being in the dark, where thou didst nothing see,
they all incurred the punishment of death for hearing Now I have brought thee torchlight, fear no more;
mass, and priests of theirs who led pure and exemNow when thou diest, thou canst not hoodwinked be.
plary lives, as well as those who plotted the overthrow
of the Protestant rule in England, were sent to the “ And thou, my Soul, which turn'st with curious eye
gallows. James was treated with, before his acces To view the beams of thine own form divine,
sion to the throne, and gave good hope to the Roman Know, that thou canst know nothing perfectly,
Catholics. No quiet subject, he said, should be perseWhile thou art clouded with this flesh of mine.
cuted for his religion. That also was his private pur
pose, though it implied only toleration to the laity. “ Take heed of over-weening, and compare
The Roman Catholic priests being, as he felt, natural Thy peacock's feet with thy gay peacock's train :
enemies to the supremacy of the crown in Church Study the best and highest things that are, But of thyself an humble thought retain.
matters, he meant to send them all abroad if possible.
Desire for the subversion of Protestant rule in England “ Cast down thyself, and only strive to raise
had been, of course, intensified by penalties of death The glory of thy Maker's sacred Name:
for celebrating mass, and fines on recusants. Use all thy powers, that blessed Power to praise,
There were two under-currents of Roman Catholic Which gives thee power to be, and use the same."
plotting when James came to England: one was set in movement by the Jesuits, who looked for help from Spain in setting a Roman Catholic upon the
throne; the other was a wild scheme of a secular CHAPTER VIII.
priest, William Watson, who hated the Jesuits, and
had a plan of his own for carrying the king off to the Reign OF JAMES I.—Donne, ANDREWES, GILES Tower, and there converting him. Discovery of
FLETCHER, QUARLES, WITHER, AND OTHERS.--A.D. Watson's plot implicated other men in suspicions. 1603 ro A.D. 1625.
Lord Cobham was arrested, and from him accusation
passed on to Sir Walter Raleigh, whom James had LA WAMPATIENCE of the Ro- | promptly begun to strip of honour and possessions.
8 man Catholics under laws After a trial, in November, 1603 (at which Raleigh,
that made it high treason of all men in England the one least open to such a for them to come near to charge, had been denounced by the Attorney-General, the Lord's Table in the Sir Edward Coke, as “a monster with an English way their consciences re- face, but a Spanish heart”—Raleigh, whose ruling quired, zeal of the Puri passion might almost be said to be animosity to tans, some resentment also | Spain, and whom James eventually caused to be
among quiet English executed at the wish of Spain), Sir Walter Raleigh INITIAL
Churchmen of the mea was condemned to death as guilty of high treason To Genesis in King James's Autho- sures by which Archbishop rized Version of the Bible (1611).
by sharing in a plot to depose James, and make Whitgift sought through Arabella Stuart queen. Raleigh was respited, but the High Court of Commission to enforce Church detained during the next twelve years as a prisoner unity, made the new sovereign's probable treatment in the Tower of London. It was there that he of religious questions a matter of deep interest when resolved to write a History of England, prefaced by James I. came to the throne.
the story of the four great Empires of the World; The king was a man of thirty-seven, more gifted his design being to take a large view of the life of by education than by nature, though he had much | man upon earth that should set forth the Divine natural shrewdness in dealing with the surfaces | wisdom. In his Preface, Raleigh says—“The exof things to make up for the want of any power amples of Divine Providence everywhere found (the to look far below the surface. It was not bis first divine histories being nothing else but a confault that the base flattery of courts had taught tinuation of such examples) have persuaded me to him from childhood to overestimate his own con- | fetch my beginning from the beginning of all things: shich form the su
published in from the 2014
tion." He does, in fact, in the five books, pleased God to take that glorious Prince out of the the substantial fragment of his work, world to whom they were directed; whose unspeak
1614, carry the History of the World able and never-enough lamented loss hath taught me doniah war 'lation to the end of the second Mace to say with Job, · Versa est in luctum cithara mea, aboulls i As critical history, Raleigh's work et organum meum in vocem flentium' (My harp is of events, whes
4 erudition of his time; but the detail turned to mourning, and my organ into the voice of wn, Wherever the matter commanded Raleigh's them that weep).” The reference is to the death, fullest interest, is, from time to time, kindled with in November, 1612, of the king's popular eldest son, vigorous and noble thought, and flashes out the glory Prince Henry, who had not long before obtained his and the praise of God from depths of the religious father's promise that Raleigh should be set free at life of an Elizabethan hero.
Christmas. Raleigh was set free in January, 1616, The first chapter of the History opens with argu to prepare for the voyage to Guiana, by which he ment that the Invisible God is seen in His Crea expected to enrich the English Crown with a distures, and ends by saying, “ Let us resolve with covery of gold. The voyage was disastrous, and St. Paul, who hath taught us that there is but one Raleigh, “ with English face and Spanish heart," God, the Father; of whom are all things, and we in could not resist a chance it gave him of again Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are attacking Spain. The King of Spain asked for his all things, and we by Him; there are diversities of head; and James I. decreed his execution, without Operations, but God is the same, which worketh all trial, upon the fifteen-years-old conviction of treason. I al.” The last chapter of Raleigh's History as far Raleigh was executed in October, 1618. as it was written closes with these thoughts on
Raleigh's conviction had arisen from events con
nected with the earliest Roman Catholic plots against THE ELOQUENCE OF DEATH.
Protestant sovereignty in England. They were asso
ciated at the opening of his reign with other incidents Kings and Princes of the World have always laid before
that confirmed James in one of his views of policy, and the in the actions, but not the ends, of those great ones which
on the 22nd of February he issued a proclamation paroled them. They are always transported with the glory
ordering all Jesuits and seminary priests to leave of the one, but they never mind the misery of the other, till
the realm before the 19th of March. But he forgave they find the experience in themselves. They neglect the
the Roman Catholic laity their fines as recusants; he advice of God while they enjoy life, or hope it; but they bollow the counsel of Death, upon his first approach. It is
had placed a Roman Catholic upon his Privy Council ; box that puts into man all the wisdom of the world, without
and he was making peace with Spain. The proDaking a word; which God with all the words of His law,
clamation for expulsion of the priests immediately ftumises, or threats, doth not infuse. Death, which hateth
produced another plot. The day of issue of the and destroyeth man, is believed. God, which hath made him
proclamation was the day after Ash Wednesday, kod loves him, is always deferred. I have considered, saith
1604; and in the beginning of Lent, Robert Catesby Nomoni, all the works that are under the sun, and, behold,
called Thomas Winter to London to join with tl vanity and vexation of spirit: but who believes it, till
himself and John Wright in a plot for blowing up Thath tells it us? It was Death which, opening the con
the Parliament House. At the end of April, an Wince of Charles the Fifth, made him enjoin his son Philip Englishman of known audacity, Guido Fawkes, was to store Navarre; and King Francis the First of France, brought from Flanders. Thomas Percy, who was to cummand that justice should be done upon the murderers related to the Earl of Northumberland, completed of the Protestants in Merindol and Cabrieres, which till then the number of five, who were first bound by an oath bet Derlacted. It is therefore Death alone that can suddenly of secrecy to united effort for attainment of their tsikt man know himself. He tells the proud and insolent, purpose. On the 24th of May, 1604, Percy took a that they are but abjects, and humbles them at the instant; house adjoining the Parliament House, and Guido
aby them cry, complain, and repent; yea, even to hate Fawkes, under the name of John Johnson, lived Bir furepassed happiness. He takes the account of the
| with him as a servant. The house at Lambeth in bh, and proves him a beggar; a naked beggar, which hath
which Catesby lodged was taken for use in storing must in nothing, but in the gravel that fills his mouth.
materials. At the end of the year, Parliament being Le bulds a glass before the eyes of the most beautiful, and
expected to meet in February, 1605, underground muks them see therein their deformity and rottenness; and they acknowledge it.
boring was begun at the wall of the Parliament
House, which was nine feet thick. When Parliament coquat, just, and mighty Death, whom none could
was prorogued until October, the work was relaxed ; Olner, thou hast persuaded; what none hath dared, thou
it was then resumed again under difficulties, till the Pas cone; and whom all the world hath flattered, thou only Pakete rast out of the world and despised. Thou hast drawn
conspirators heard that there ran under the Parlia"Ember all the far-stretched greatness, all the pride, cruelty,
ment House a cellar from which a stock of coals was Red ambition of man; and covered it all over with these two
being sold off, and of which they could obtain a SIT A Words; Hic jacet.
lease. Thomas Percy bought the lease of the cellar,
which he said he needed for his coals. They soon There remains one added paragraph. “ Lastly, | placed in it twenty barrels of powder from the house Bartras this book, by the title it hath, calls itself at Lambeth, and covered them with billets of wood tl First Part of the General History of the World, and fagots. Then they rested till September, when raplying a Second and Third Volume, which I also fresh powder was brought in to make good any
raded and have hewn out; besides many other damage by damp. But Parliament was prorogued csouragements persuading my silence, it hath | to the 5th of November, and they had again leisure