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For these at least no terror could compel
To turn from being comrades on my way; The glory once of green and joyous youth,
They comfort now my sad days of decay. For hasting Age, unlooked for, comes with ills,
And Grief has claimed her turn of rule within ; Gray hairs, too soon, are scattered on my head,
On the spent frame quivers the wrinkled skin. Happy the Death that breaks not on man's years
Of joy, and hastens when the mourner cries : Alas, his ears are deaf to the distressed !
Cruel, he will not close the weeping eyes! When fickle Fortune blessed me with light good,
Hardly a sad hour passed over my head; Now that her cloud has changed its doubtful face
Unkindly life delays me from the dead. Why did you, friends, so often boast my bliss ?
He who has fallen, always stood amiss.
heora bacu bitere and heora blisse from! Forhwam wolde ge weoruldfrýnd mine, secgan oththe singan, thet ic gesellic mon wäre on weorulde ? Ne synt tha word soth, nu tha gesåltha ne magon simle gewunigan.
This is the version in First English :
Hwat ic lióda fela lustlice geó sang on säelum! nu sceal siófigende wópe gewæged wreccea giómor singan sárcwidas. Me thiós siccetung hafath agwled, thes geocsa, that ic tha ged ne mæg gefégean swa fægre, theah ic fela gió tha sette sothcwida, thonne ic on sælum was. Oft ic nu miscyrre cuthe spráce and theáh uncuthre ær hwílum fond ! Me thas woruld saltha welhwæs blindne on this dimme hol dysigne forlæddon and me berypton rædes and frofre for heora untreówum, the ic him æfre betst truwian sceolde : hi me to wendon
King Alfred died at the beginning of the tenth century, and not long after his time there was a remarkable effort for the revival of a strict monasticism, led by two men of like age, born in or about the year 925—Æthelwold and Dunstan. Dunstan in the year 947, twenty-two years old, became Abbot of Glastonbury, and Æthelwold joined his establishment until he received charge over the small ruined Abbey of Abingdon, with means for its re-establishment. In the year 953, Æthelwold was consecrated Bishop of Winchester by Dunstan, who had become Archbishop of Canterbury. Æthelwold rebuilt his cathedral at Winchester, and Archbishop Dunstan dedicated the new structure to St. Swithin, who had been Bishop of Winchester between the years 852 and 862, and who had been buried, by his own desire, outside his old church of St. Peter and St Paul, where “the feet of passengers and droppings from the eaves " should beat upon his grave. The removal of his relics into the cathedral consecrated in his name was preceded by miracles, of which an account, written about the year 985, appears upon three old leaves preserved in the library of Gloucester Cathedral. These and three other old leaves of First English on the story of Saint Maria Egyptiaca, which are also at Gloucester, have been copied by photo-zincography, and published, with elaborate elucidations and appendices, by the Rev. John Earle, under the name of “ Gloucester Fragments." This is the record on the leaves detailing
Ecce mihi laceræ dictant scribenda Camenæ,
Et veris elegi fletibus ora rigant.
Ne nostrum comites prosequerentur iter;
Solantur mästi nunc mea fata senis. Venit enim properata malis inopina senectus,
Et dolor ætatem jussit inesse suam. Intempestivi funduntur vertice cani,
Et tremit effeto corpore laxa cutis. Mors hominum felix, quæ se nec dulcibus annis
Inserit, et mæstis sæpè vocata venit. Eheu, quam surdå miseros avertitur aure,
Et flenteis oculos claudere sæva negat! Dum levibus maletida bonis fortuna faveret,
Pæne caput tristis merserat hora meum. Nunc, quia fallacem mutavit nubila vultum,
Protrahit ingratas impia vita moras. Quid me felicem toties jactastis amici?
Qui cecidit, stabili non erat ille gradu,
MIRACLES OF ST. SWITHIN. Three years before the saint was brought into the church from the stone coffin, which now stands within the net building, came the venerable Swithin to an aged smith, appearing in dream worthily apparelled, and spoke these words to him : “Knowest thou the priest who is called Eadsig, who was driven out of the old minster with other prieste for their misconduct by Bishop Athelwold ?" The smith answered the venerable Swithin thus: “Sir, I knew him long ago, but he went hence, and I am not quite sure whert he lives now.” Then said again the holy man to the old smith: “Verily, he is now settled at Winchelcombe, and I now entreat, in the Lord's name, that you quickly deliver to him my message, and say to him, forsooth, that Bishop Swithin bade him go to Bishop Athelwold and say that he is himself to open my tomb and bring my bones within the church, because it is granted to him that in his time I be manifested to men." And the smith said to him, “O, sir, be will not believe my words." Then said the bishop again. “Let him go to my tomb, and pull a ring out of my coiffin: and if the ring follow him at the first pull, then will he know for truth that I send you to him; if the ring will not up with his one pull, then shall he in no wise believe what you tell him. Tell him, furthermore, to put himself right in his acts and manners, according to his Lord's will, and hasten with a single mind towards eternal life. Also tell all men that as soon as ever they open my tomb, they will find there such a precious hoard that their dear gold is worth naught as against the foresaid treasures.” The holy Swithin then went up from the smith. And the smith durst not tell any man the vision, for he would not be known as a false-speaking messenger, so that the holy man spoke to him again, and yet the third time, and chid him severely, because he would not actively obey his orders. The smith next went to his tomb, and took a ring, though but timidly; and called to God speaking in words thus: “O thou Lord God, Creator of all creatures, grant to me sinful that I pull the ring up from this lid, if he lie here within who spoke to me three times in dream.” He then drew the ring up from the stone as easily as if it were in sand, and he greatly wondered at that. He then set it again in the same hole and pressed it with his feet, and it stood so firm again that no man could pull it thence. Then the smith went from that place in awe, and met Eadsige's inan in the inarket-place, and told him exactly what Swithin bade him, and earnestly begged that he would report it to him. He said that he would tell it to his master, and nevertheless durst not tell him at first, before he bethought him that it was not necessary for him to hide from his master the saint's command. He then told to the end what Swithin commanded him. At that time Eadsige shunned Bishop Athelwold, and all the monks that had been in the minster, because of the driving out that he had executed against them; and he would not obey the saint's bidding, though after the flesh he was related to him. Nevertheless, he turned back within two years to that same minster, and became a monk, by God's means, and dwelt there till he departed from life. Blessed be the Almighty who humbles the proud, and lifts up the lowly to high honours.
at Abingdon. Certain it is that when he produced the work by which he is especially remembered—the last important contribution to religious literature in First-English times—Ælfric was Abbot of Cerne.
He completed, in the year 990, a series of forty Homilies, forming a harmony of the doctrinal opinions of the Fathers, as the English Church in his time accepted them, set forth in sermons, addressed to the understandings of the people. Sigeric, then Archbishop of Canterbury, issued these Homilies for general use, and Ælfric compiled a second series of forty Sermons on the Saints, whose days were kept by the First-English Church.
One of the most interesting of the sermons in the first series is that on Easter Day, for the great prominence given to it early in Elizabeth's reign as evidence that upon one main point then in dispute, the ancient Church of England agreed with the Reformers. Ælfric based the doctrinal part of this sermon on a treatise by Ratramnus,' a monk of the abbey of Corbie, who was contemporary with John Scotus Erigena in the time of Charles the Bald. The Queen's first archbishop, the learned Matthew Parker, sought to revive the study of First English, chiefly that men might find in Ælfric's Homilies what opinions were really ancient in the English Church. John Day, the printer through whom the archbishop worked in such matters, had a fount of
By report of this and other miracles honour was added to the name of Swithin when it was proposed to remove his bones and enshrine them in the new cathedral. The sick were said to be healed at the rate of from three to eighteen a day, and it was not easy to get into the new minster for the press of diseased people in the burial-ground
Ælfric, the son of a Kentish earl, was one of the first who had entered the monastic school at Abingdon when Æthelwold re-established it, and the reconstruction was complete, in the year 950. When
Ethelwold went to Winchester, Ælfric, who from pupil had become a teacher, went with him, managed the cathedral school, and laid foundations of the fame of the town as a place of education. He wrote for use of his school and of other schools, a LatinEnglish Dictionary and a book of Latin “Colloquies.” He also translated into First English most of the books of the Old Testament. When the Abbey of Cerne, in Dorsetshire, was founded, Æthelmer, its founder, strongly desired the famous Ælfric for its abbot, and he left Winchester to become Abbot of Cerne. In this office probably he died; though some have identified him with that Ælfric who in the year 995 passed from the bishopric of Wilton to the archbishopric of Canterbury, and died in the year 1006 ; while others make him the Ælfric who died Archbishop of York in the year 1051, though Abbot Ælfric could hardly have been born later than A.D. 930, if he was one of Æthelwold's first monks
1 Ratramnus, or Bertram, a French monk of Corbie, who died soon after the year 868, took active part in the discussions of his time, and acquired great reputation for his learning and his lively style. They won from him no promotion in the Church, and he had no very good will either to his own abbot, Paschasius Radbertus, or to Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims. He argued against Hincmar on the subject of predestination, and against Radbert upon transubstantiation, His argument, “De Corpore et Sanguine Domini," was in the of a letter to Charles the Bald, said in the first printed edition of the work (at Cologne in 1532) to be Charlemagne, who had asked the monk for his opinion on the mystery of the sacrament. The doctrine of this little work is precisely followed by Ælfric when he speaks of the mystery of the housell, and in some parts the English Homilist is little more than a translator ; but of that considerable part of the English sermon which treats of the Paschal Lamb there is, of course, nothing in the treatise of Ratramnus, and when Ælfric comes to take the argument of Ratramnus on the real presence he is repeating it in his own way more briefly, and with freshness of manner. Ratramnus quoted authorities in some detail — Augustine, Isidore, Ambrose, Jerome; thus sheltering himself against attack on the ground of heresy, and so effectually, that-although afterwards assailed-he was in his own time appointed by the French Church to reply to the attacks of Photius upon the Catholic faith. Ælfric, exposed to no such danger, simply adopted the view of the French monk, and gave in a homily the pith of the treatise of Ratramnus as the doctrine of the English Church upon the Eucharist. It may be added that this treatise of Ratramnus, “De Corpore et Sanguine Domini,” first printed in 1532, had attracted the attention of English reformers before Matthew Parker caused the translation of Ælfric's Easter. Day Sermon. An English translation of Ratramnus, by Sir Hum. phrey Lynde, was "Imprynted at London in saynt Andrewes parysbe in the waredropt, by Thomas Raynalde and Anthony Kyngstone," entitled “The Boke of Barthram Priest intreatinge of the bodye and bloude of Christ, wryten to greate Charles the Emperour, and set forth vii.C. years agoo, and Imprinted An. dni. M.D.XLvii." When the argument between the Churches was again pressing, in the reign of James II., two years before the English Revolution, there was produced by William Hopkins, Prebend of Worcester, "The Book of Bertram, or Ratramnus, Priest and Monk of Corbey, concerning the Body and Blood of the Lord, in Latine: With a New English Trans. lation, more exact than the former. Also, An Historical Dissertation concerning the Author and this Work ; wherein both are vindicated from the Exceptions of the Writers of the Church of Rome." This version was made by Hopkins in 1681. It was published in 1686. The Dissertation was by Dr. Peter Allix.
Saxon types, and this Easter sermon of Ælfric's should now go unto, and instruct your understanding about having been translated was printed by him, the this mystery, both after the old covenant, and also after the original text and translation upon opposite pages, new, that no doubting may trouble you about this lively in the year 1567, with a preface by J. Josseline,
food. which dwelt on the archbishop's reason for giving it
The Almighty God bade Moses, his captain in the lan! publicity. The preface, in supplying some account
of Egypt, to command the people of Israel to take for every of Ælfric, distinguishes the author of the Grammar
family a lamb of one year old, the night they departed out and of the Homilies, whom he finds always called
of the country to the Land of Promise, and to offer the lamb “ Abbot," from Ælfric, Archbishop of Canterbury,
to God, and after to kill it, and to make the sign of the
cross with the lamb's blood upon the side-posts and the while admitting that they might be the same person.
upper posts of their door, and afterwards to cat the lamb's He says-—“ Truly this Ælfric we here speak of was
flesh roasted, and unleavened bread with wild lettuce. God equal in time to Elfric, Archbishop of Canterbury,
saith unto Moses, Eat of the lamb nothing raw, nor sodden als may certainly appear to him that will well con
in water, but roasted with fire. Eat the head, and the feet, sider, when Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, and
and the inwards, and let nothing of it be left till the mornWulfsine, Bishop of Sherborne, lived, unto whom
ing: if anything thereof remain, that shall you burn with Ælfric writeth the Saxon epistles from which the
fire. Eat it in this wise. Gird your loins, and do your words concerning the Sacrament hereafter following
shoes on your feet, have your staves in your hands, and eat be taken.' And the certainty of this consideration
it in haste. This time is the Lord's passover. And there may well be had out of William of Malmesbury •De was slain on that night in every house throughout Pharaoh's Pontificibus,' and out of the subscription of bishops reign, the firstborn child : and God's people of Israel were to the grants, letters patents, and charters of Æthel delivered from the sudden death through the lamb's offering, rede, who reigned king of England at this time. How | and his blood's marking. Then said God unto Moses, Keep beit whether this Ælfricke and Ælfricke Archbishop this day in your remembrance, and hold it a great feast in of Canterbury was but one and the same man, I your kindreds with a perpetual observation, and eat unleave it to other men's judgments further to consider: leavened bread always at this feast. After this deed God for that, writing here to Wulfstane, he nameth him- led the people of Israel over the Red Sea with dry foot, self but Abbot, and yet Alfricke, Archbishop of Can
and drowned therein Pharaoh, and all his army, together terbury, was promoted to his archbishop's stole six
with their possessions, and fed afterwards the Israelites forty years before that Wulfstane was made Archbishop
years with heavenly food, and gave them water out of the of York." It is evident that Archbishop Matthew
hard rock, until they came to the promised land. Part of Parker separated Abbot Ælfric, the author, gram
this story we have treated in another place, part we shall marian, and homilist, from that ·Ælfric who was in
now declare, to wit, that which belongeth to the holy housell. the abbot's time Archbishop of Canterbury. The
Christian men may not now keep that old law bodily; but preface to the translation of Ælfric's “Sermon on
it behoveth them to know what it ghostlyé signifieth. That
innocent lamb which the old Israelites did then kill, had the Sacrament” was followed by a warranty for it, signed by the two archbishops and thirteen bishops
signitication after ghostly understanding of Christ's suffering,
who unguilty shed his holy blood for our redemption. Hereof of the English Church, “ with divers other person
sing God's servants at every mass: ages of honour and credit subscribing their names, the record whereof remains in the hands of the most
“Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis." reverend father Matthew, Archbishop of Canter That is in our speech, Thou Lamb of God, that takest away bury.”
the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Those Israelites This is the sermon :
were delivered from that sudden death, and from Pharaoh's
bondage, by the lamb's offering, which signified Christ's sufferEASTER-DAY.
ing: through which we be delivered from everlasting death,
and from the devil's cruel reign, if we rightly believe in the SERMON of the Paschal Lamb, and of the
true redeemer of the whole world, Christ the Saviour. That Sacramental Body and Blond of Christ our
lamb was offered in the evening, and our Saviour suffered Sariour, written in the old Saxon Tongue
in the sixth age of this world. This age of this corruptible before the Conquest, and appointed in
world is reckoned unto the evening. They marked with the reign of the Sarons to be spoken
the lamb's blood upon the doors, and the upper posts Tau, unto the People at Easter before they
that is the sign of the cross, and were so defended from the should recrire the Communion, and now I first translated into our common English speech.
angel that killed the Egyptians' first-born child. And we
ought to mark our foreheads and our bodies with the token of Men beloved, it hath been often said unto you about our Saviour's Resurrection, how he on this present day, after heathen sacrifices. The Morsogothic in Ulfilas is "hunsl," an offer. his suffering, mightily rose from death. Now will we open
ing; “hunsljan," to offer; "hunslastaths,” the altar. The wori
"housell " is used in “Hamlet," act i., sc. 5:unto you through God's grace, of the holy housell,3 which ye
" Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, - -- -- -- - - --
Inhousel'd, disappointed, unaneled." These passages, with “the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Ghostly, spiritually; First-English, "gást," the breath, a spirit. Commandments, in the Saxon and English Tongue," were given as an So the Holy Ghost the Holy Spirit. appendix to the Sermon.
5 Here Matthew Parker's translator of Elfric's sermon adds a side ? Initial from a MS. of Bede's History. Cotton. MSS., Tiberius, note-"No such sign commanded by God in that place of Scripture, C. ii.
but it was the blood that God did look upon." - Exod. xi. 23. 3 Hlousell (First-English "húsl ;" Icelandic "húsl "), the sacrament. 6 "Understand this as that of St. Paul (Ephe. 2). Christ recoder The word was disused after the Reformation, but was familiar until both to God in one body through his cross." Side-note of the Elza. then, and althongh of Tentonic origin, had never been applied to bethan translator.
Christ's rood, that we may be also delivered from destruction, therein, and that it giveth immortality to them that eat it when we shall be marked both on forehead and also in heart with belief. with the blood of our Lord's suffering. Those Israelites ate! Much is betwixt the invisible might of the holy housell the lamb's flesh at their Easter time, when they were deli- , and the visible shape of his proper nature. It is natuvered, and we receive ghostly Christ's body, and drink his rally corruptible bread and corruptible wine, and is by blood, when we receive with true belief that holy housell. might of God's word, truly Christ's body and his blood : That time they kept with them at Easter seven days with not so notwithstanding bodily, but ghostly. Much is great worship, when they were delivered from Pharaoh and betwixt the body Christ suffered in, and the body that went from that land. So also Christian men keep Christ's is hallowed to housell. The body truly that Christ suffered resurrection at the time of Easter these seven days, because in was born of the flesh of Mary, with blood and with bone, through his suffering and rising we be delivered, and be made with skin and with sinews, in human limbs, with a reasonclean by going to this holy housell, as Christ saith in his able soul living; and his ghostly body, which we call the gospel, Verily, verily, I say unto you, ye have no life in you housell, is gathered of many corns: without blood and bone, except ye eat my flesh and drink my blood. He that eateth without limb, without soul. And therefore nothing is to be my flesh and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him, understand therein bodily, but all is ghostly to be underand hath that everlasting life: and I shall raise him up in the stand.? Whatsoever is in that housell, which giveth sublast day. I am the lively bread, that came down from stance of life, that is of the ghostly might and invisible heaven, not so as your forefathers ate that heavenly bread doing. Therefore is that holy housell called a mystery, in the wilderness, and afterward died. He that eateth this because there is one thing in it seen, and another thing bread, he liveth for ever. He blessed bread before his suffer understanded. That which is there seen hath bodily shape, ing, and divided it to his disciples, thus saying, Eat this and that we do there understand hath ghostly might. Cerbread, it is my body, and do this in my remembrance. Also tainly Christ's body, which suffered death and rose from he blessed wine in one cup, and said, Drink ye all of this. death, never dieth henceforth, but is eternal and unpassible. This is my blood, that is shed for many, in forgiveness of That housell is temporal, not eternal. Corruptible, and sins. The Apostles did as Christ commanded, that is, they dealed between sundry parts. Chewed between teeth, and blessed bread and wine to housell again afterwards in his sent into the belly : howbeit nevertheless, after ghostly remembrance. Even so also since their departure all priests might, it is all in every part. Many receive that holy body : by Christ's commandment do bless bread and wine to housell and yet, notwithstanding, it is so all in every part after in his name with the Apostolic blessing.
ghostly mystery. Though some chew less deal,yet is there Now men have often searched, and do yet often search, no more might notwithstanding in the more part than in the how bread that is gathered of corn, and through fire's heat less : because it is in all men after the invisible might. This baked, may be turned to Christ's body; or how wine that is mystery is a pledge and a figure: Christ's body is truth pressed out of many grapes is turned through one blessing itself. This pledge we do keep mystically, until that we to the Lord's blood.
be come to the truth itself : and then is this pledge ended. Now say we to such men, that some things be spoken of Truly it is so, as we have before said, Christ's body and his Christ by signification, some thing by thing certain. True blood-not bodily, but ghostly. And ye should not search thing is and certain, that Christ was born of a maid, and how it is done, but hold it in your belief that it is so done. suffered death of his own accord, and was buried, and on We read in another book called Vitæ Patrum,* that two this day rose from death. He is said bread by signification, monks desired of God some demonstration touching the holy and a lamb, and a lion, and a mountain. He is called bread, I housell, and after as they stood to hear mass, they saw it because he is our life and angels' life. He is said to be a child lying on the altar, where the priest said mass, and lamb for his innocency, a lion for strength, wherewith he God's angel stood with a sword, and abode looking until overcame the strong devil. But Christ is not so, notwith-| the priest brake the housell. Then the angel divided the standing, after true nature; neither bread, nor a lamb, nor a child upon the dish, and shed his blood into the chalice. lion. Why is then that holy housell called Christ's body or | But when they did go to the housell, then it was turned to his blood, if it be not truly that it is called ? Truly the bread bread and wine, and they did eat it, giving God thanks for and the wine, which by the mass of the priest is hallowed, that shewing. Also St. Gregory desired of Christ that he shew one thing without to human understanding, and another would shew to a certain woman, doubting about his mystery, thing they call within to believing minds. Without they some great affirmation. She went to housell with doubting be seen bread and wine, both in figure and in taste: and mind, and Gregory forth with obtained of God, that to them they be truly after their hallowing, Christ's body, and his both was shewed that part of the housell which the woman blood through ghostly mystery. An heathen child is chris should receive, as if there lay in a dish a joint of a finger tened, yet he altereth not his shape without, though he be all be-blooded, and so the woman's doubting was then forthchanged within. He is brought to the font-stone sinful with healed. through Adam's disobedience. Howbeit he is washed from all sin within, though he hath not changed his shape without. 1 * No transubstantiation." Side-note of the Elizabethan translator. Even so the holy font-water, that is called the well-spring of
who to the following sentences joins these side-notes: "Differences
betwixt Christ's natural body and the sacrament thereof." 1. "Dif. life, is like in shape to other waters, and is subject to corrup
ference. Not the body tbat sutfered is in the housell.” 2. “ Differtion; but the Holy Ghost's might cometh to the corruptible ence." 3. “Difference.” 4. “ Difference.” 5. “Difference." water, through the priest's blessing, and it may after wash 2 To be understand. This is equivalent to understanded, the form the body and soul from all sin through ghostly inight.
used four lines lower. Final cd in verbs ending with a root-vowel in
dort was commonly unpronounced, and then often omitted in Behold now we see two things in this one creature. After
writing. The translator uses also in a later passage the past form true nature that water is corruptible water, and after ghostly “understood ” (page 24, just below the middle of col. 1.) mystery, hath hallowing might. So also if we behold that 3 Less deal = less part. First-English “dæ'l,” a part, or portion, holy housell after bodily understanding, then see we that
as in the deal” at cards, from “ dæ'lan," to divide, or portion out.
4 "These tales seem to be inforced." Note of Elizabethan transit is a creature corruptible and mutable; if we acknowledge
lator. (Inforced = stuffed in; from French "farcer," whence force. therein ghostly might, then understand we that life is meat-stuffing.)
But now hear the apostle's words about this mystery. Paul of them were one soul and one heart. Christ hallowed on his the apostle speaketh of the old Israelites thus, writing in his table the mystery of our peace, and of our unity: he which epistle to faithful men : All our forefathers were baptised in receiveth that mystery of unity, and keepeth not the bond the cloud and in the sea, and all they ate the same ghostly meat of true peace, he receiveth no mystery for himself, but a and drank the same ghostly drink. They drank truly of the witness against himself. It is very good for Christian men stone that followed them, and that stone was Christ. Neither that they go often to housell, if they bring with them to was that stone then from which the water ran bodily Christ, the altar unguiltiness and innocency of heart. To an evil but it signified Christ, that calleth thus to all believing and man it turneth to no good, but to destruction, if he receive faithful men: Whosoever thirsteth let him come to me, and unworthily that holy housell. Holy books command that drink: and from his bowels floweth living water. This he water be mingled to that wine which shall be for housell : said of the Holy Ghost, whom he receiveth which believeth because the water signifieth the people, and the wine Christ's on him. The apostle Paul saith that the Israelites did eat blood. And therefore shall neither the one without the other the same ghostly meat, and drink the same ghostly drink: / be offered at the holy mass : that Christ may be with us, and because that heavenly meat that fed them forty years, and we with Christ: the head with the limbs, and the limbs with that water which from the stone did flow, had signification of the head. Christ's body, and his blood, that now be offered daily in God's We would before have intreated of the lamb which the old Church. It was the same which we now offer; not bodily, Israelites offered at their Easter time, but that we desired but ghostly. We said unto you crewhile, that Christ hal first to declare unto you of this mystery, and after how we lowed bread and wine to housell before his suffering, and should receive it. That signifying lamb was offered at the said : This is my body and my blood. Yet he had not then Easter. And the apostle Paul sayeth in the epistle of this suffered; but so notwithstanding he turned through invisible present day, that Christ is our Easter, who was offered for might that bread to his own body, and that wine to his blood, us, and on the third day rose from death. The Israelites did as he before did in the wilderness before that he was born to eat the lamb's flesh as God commanded with unleavened bread men, when he turned that heavenly meat to his flesh, and the and wild lettuce: so we should receive that holy housell of flowing water from that stone to his own blood. Very many Christ's body and blood without the leaven of sin and ate of that heavenly meat in the wilderness, and drank that iniquity. As leaven turneth the creatures from their nature: ghostly drink, and were nevertheless dead, as Christ said. so doth sin also change the nature of man from innocency to And Christ meant not that death which none can escape: but foul spots of guiltiness. The apostle hath taught how we that everlasting death, which some of that folk deserved for should feast not in the leaven of evilness, but in the sweet their unbelief. Moses and Aaron, and many other of that dough of purity and truth. The herb which they should eat people which pleased God, ate of that heavenly bread, and with the unleavened bread is called lettuce, and is bitter in they died not that everlasting death, though they died the taste. So we should with bitterness of unfeigned weeping common death. They saw that the heavenly meat was visible, purify our mind, if we will eat Christ's body. Those and corruptible, and they ghostly understood by that visible Israelites were not wont to eat raw flesh, although God forbad thing, and ghostly received it. The Saviour sayeth: He them to eat it raw, and sodden in water, but roasted in fire. that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting He shall receive the body of God raw that shall think without life. And he bade them not eat that body which he was reason that Christ was only man, like unto us, and was not going about with, nor that blood to drink which he shed for God. And he that will after man's wisdom search of the us: but he meant with those words that holy housell, which mystery of Christ's incarnation, doth like unto him that ghostly is his body and his blood : and he that tasteth it doth seethe lamb's flesh in water: because that water in this with believing heart, hath that eternal life. In the old law same place signifieth man's understanding: but we should faithful men offered to God divers sacrifices that had fore understand that all the mystery of Christ's humanity was signification of Christ's body, which for our sins he himself ordered by the power of the Holy Ghost. And then eat we to his heavenly Father hath since offered to sacrifice. Cer- his body roasted with fire; because the Holy Ghost came in tainly this housell which we do now hallow at God's altar is a fiery likeness to the apostles in diverse tongues. The remembrance of Christ's body which he offered for us, and of Israelites should eat the lamb's head, and the feet, and the his blood which he shed for us : so he himself commanded, purtenance: and nothing thereof must be left overnight. If Do this in my remembrance. Once suffered Christ by him. | anything thereof were left, they did burn that in the fire: self, but yet nevertheless his suffering is daily renewed at | and they brake not the bones. After ghostly understanding the mass through mystery of the holy housell. Therefore we do then eat the lamb's head, when we take hold of that holy mass is profitable both to the living and to the dead, Christ's divinity in our belief. Again, when we take hold as it hath been often declared.
of his humanity with love, then eat we the lamb's feet; We ought also to consider diligently how that this holy because that Christ is the beginning and end, God before housell is both Christ's body and the body of all faithful men all world, and man in the end of this world. What be the after ghostly mystery.
lamb's purtenance, but Christ's secret precepts, and these As the wise Augustine sayeth of it, If ye will understand we eat when we receive with greediness the Word of Life. of Christ's body, hear the apostle Paul thus speaking: Now There must nothing of the lamb be left unto the morning. is your mystery set on God's table, and ye receive your because that all God's sayings are to be scarched with great inystery, which mystery ye yourselves be. Be that which ye carefulness : so that all his precepts may be known in under. see on the altar, and receive that which ye yourselves be. standing and deed in the night of this present life, before Again the apostle Paul saith by it: We many be one bread that the last day of the universal resurrection do appear. If and one body. Understand now and rejoice, many be one we cannot search out thoroughly all the mystery of Christ's bread and one body in Christ. He is our head, and we be his incarnation, then ought we to betake the rest unto the might limbs. And the bread is not of one corn, but of many, Nor of the Holy Ghost with true humility: and not to search the wine of one giape, but of many. So also we all should have one unity in our Lord, as it is written of the faithful
I Betake (First-English, "betæcan"), to commit, assign, put in army, how that they were in so great an unity: as though all trust.