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quently it must be yielded without contradiction, that the mission was very large-to “go into all the world, and to temporal magistrate doth exercise therein a part of his preach the gospel unto every creature.” So that in what civil government, in punishing a crime that is of its own part of the world soever they lived, they could not be said nature spiritual or ecclesiastical.

to be out of their charge, their apostleship being a kind of But here it will be said : The words of the Oath being an universal bishopric. If, therefore, the Bishop of Rome general—that the King is the only supreme governor of this can prove himself to be one of this rank, the oath must be realm, and of all other his Highness' dominions and countries amended, and we must acknowledge that he hath ecclesiastical -how may it appear that the power of the civil sword only authority within this realm. is meant by that government, and that the power of the keys True it is, that our lawyers, in their year books, by the is not comprehended therein ? I answer, first, that where a name of the “ Apostle" do usually design the Pope; but civil magistrate is affirmed to be the governor of his own if they had examined his title to that apostleship as they dominions and countries, by common intendment this must would try an ordinary man's title to a piece of land, they needs be understood of a civil government, and may in no might easily have found a number of flaws and main defects reason be extended to that which is merely of another

therein. kind. Secondly, I say that where an ambiguity is conceived For, first, it would be inquired whether the apostleship to be in any part of an oath, it ought to be taken according was not ordained by our Saviour Christ as a special comto the understanding of him for whose satisfaction the oath mission, which, being personal only, was to determine with was ministered. Now in this case it hath been sufficiently the death of the first Apostles. For howsoever, at their declared by public authority, that no other thing is meant by first entry into the execution of this commission, we find the government here mentioned, but that of the civil sword that Matthias was admitted to the apostleship in the room of only.

Judas, yet afterwards, when James the brother of John was For in the book of Articles agreed upon by the archbishops, slain by Herod, we do not read that any other was substituted and bishops, and the whole clergy, in the Convocation holden in his place. Nay, we know that the apostles generally left at London, anno 1562, thus we read: “Where we attribute no successors in this kind ; neither did any of the bishops (he to the Queen's Majesty the chief government (by which titles of Rome only excepted), that sat in those famous churches we understand the minds of some slanderous folks to be wherein the apostles exercised their ministry, challenge offended), we give not to our princes the ministering either of an apostleship or an universal bishopric by virtue of that God's word or of the sacraments (the which thing the injunc succession. tions also, lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen, doth most It would, secondly, therefore, be inquired, what sound plainly testify), but that only prerogative which we see to have evidence they can produce to show that one of the company been given always to all godly princes, in Holy Scriptures, by was to hold the apostleship, as it were, in fee, for him and God himself; that is, that they should rule all estates and his successors for ever, and that the other eleven should hold degrees committed to their charge by God, whether they be the same for term of life only. ecclesiastical or temporal, and restrain with the civil sword Thirdly, if this state of perpetuity was to be cast upon the stubborn and evil-doers."

one, how came it to fall upon St. Peter, rather than upon If it be here objected that the authority of the Convocation St. John, who outlived all the rest of his fellows, and so as a is not a sufficient ground for the exposition of that which was surviving feoffee had the fairest right to retain the same in enacted in Parliament, I answer, that these Articles stand himself and his successors for ever? confirmed, not only by the royal ansent of the prince (for the | Fourthly, if that state were wholly settled upon St. establishing of whose supremacy the oath was framed), but Peter, seeing the Romanists themselves acknowledge that also by a special Act of Parliament, which is to be found he was Bishop of Antioch before he was Bishop of Rome, among the statutes in the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, we require them to show why so great an inheritance chap. 12. Seeing, therefore, the makers of the law have as this should descend unto the younger brother as it full authority to expound the law, and they have sufficiently were by borough English) rather than to the elder, accord. manifested that, by the supreme government given to the ing to the ordinary manner of descents; especially seeing prince, they understand that kind of government only which Rome hath little else to allege for this preferment, but only is exercised with the civil sword, I conclude that nothing can that St. Peter was crucified in it, which was a very slender be more plain than this: that without all scruple of con reason to move the apostle so to respect it. science, the King's Majesty may be acknowledged in this Seeing, therefore, the grounds of this great claim of the sense to be the only supreme governor of all his Highness' Bishop of Rome appear to be so vain and frivolous, I may dominions and countries, as well in all spiritual or ecclesi. safely conclude that he ought to have no ecclesiastical or astical things or causes as temporal. And so have I cleared spiritual authority within this realm, which is the principal the first main branch of the oath.

point contained in the second part of the oath. I come now unto the second, which is propounded negatively, “ That no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, King James wrote with his own hand the followor potentate, hath, or ought to have, any jurisdiction, power, ing acknowledgment of this loyal address :superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm." The foreigner that challenges

JAMES REX. this ecclesiastical or spiritual jurisdiction over us is the Bishop of Rome; and the title whereby he claimeth this power Right Reverend Father in God, and right trusty and over us is the same whereby he claimeth it over the whole well-beloved Counsellor, we greet you well. You have not world-because he is St. Peter's successor, forsooth. And deceived our expectation, nor the gracious opinion we erer indeed, if St. Peter himself had been now alive, I should conceived, both of your abilities in learning, and of your freely confess that he ought to have spiritual authority and faithfulness to us and our service. Whereof, as we have superiority within this kingdom. But so would I say, also, received sundry testimonics, both from our precedent if St. Andrew, St. Bartholomew, St. Thomas, or any of the deputies, as likewise from our right trusty and well. other apostles had been alive. For I know that their com- | beloved cousin and counsellor the Viscount Falkland, our present deputy of that realm ; so have we now of late, in Bentworth, near Alton, in Hampshire, collected his one particular, had a further evidence of your duty and | earlier poems as “ Juvenilia,” and published a new affection well expressed by your late carriage in our Castle poem called “Faire-Virtue, the Mistress of Philarete.”! Chamber there, at the censure of those disobedient magistrates | Philarete is Greek for a lover of Virtue, and the who refused to take the Oath of Supremacy. Wherein your

poem is a love poem, with Virtue personified as the zeal to the maintenance of our just and lawful power,

fair object of desire. A characteristic tone of liberty defended with so much learning and reason, deserves our

and independence runs through all the verse of princely and gracious thanks, which we do by this our letter

George Wither. To the critics he says :unto you, and so bid you farewell. Given under our signet, at our Court at Whitehall, the eleventh of January, 1622,

“ If the verse here used be in the 20th year of our reign of Great Britain, France, and

Their dislike, it liketh me. Ireland.

If my method they deride, To the Right Reverend Father in God, and our right

Let them know, Love is not tied
trusty and well-beloved Counsellor, the Bishop of

In his free discourse to chuse

Such strict rules as arts-men use.

These may prate of Love, but they The King lost no time in making Usher a Privy

Know him not; for he will play Councillor for Ireland. Dr. Usher directed also

From the matter now and then, against the unreformed Church a treatise on the

Off and on and off again. Religion of the ancient Irish and Britons, and in 1624 was combating on the ground of Church anti

“ If this prologue tedious seem, quities an Irish Jesuit, William Malone, who had

Or the rest too long they deem, adverted to the doctrine and practice of the primitive

Let them know my love they win Christians. Usher had fitted himself for this kind

Though they go ere I begin, of controversy. In his youth, a Roman Catholic

Just as if they should attend me book called “ The Fortress of Faith" had been put

Till the last, and there commend me: into his hands. It appealed continually to the

For I will for no man's pleasure writings of the early Fathers of the Church. Usher

Change a syllable or measure, had then at once set himself a complete course of

Neither for their praises add reading in the Fathers, took a fixed portion every

Aught to mend what they think bad; day, and read them through in eighteen years. He

Since it never was my fashion thus qualified himself, like Lancelot Andrewes, to

To make work of recreation. meet the arguments of his opponents in the only

“Pedants shall not tie my strains way that they could recognise as sufficient. In

To our antique poet's veins, Usher's answer to Malone, he dealt in successive

As if we in latter days sections with the chief points in dispute between

Knew to love, but not to praise : the churchesnamely, traditions, the real presence,

Being born as free as these, confession, the priest's power to forgive sins, purga

I will sing as I shall please, tory, prayer for the dead, limbus patrum, prayer to

Who as well new paths may run saints, images, free-will and merits ; the treatise

As the best before have done. extending to nearly six hundred pages. When Dr.

I disdain to make my song Usher had finished his argument against Malone,

For their pleasure short or long; he visited England again. He was there studying

If I please, I'll end it here; ecclesiastical antiquities, when the death of the Arch

If I list, I'll sing this year : bishop of Armagh enabled King James to nominate

And though none regard of it, his bishop to the primacy of Ireland. Illness delayed

By myself I pleas'd can sit, Usher's return; he was not installed as Archbishop

And with that contentment cheer me until 1626.

As if half the world did hear me."

After singing in this measure of the birth and beauty of Fair-Virtue, George Wither interpolates a little group of the love-songs he made for her, and then resumes her praises, dwelling upon every charm :

George Wither's satires against the passions, published in 1613, at the age of twenty-five, as "Abuses Stript and Whipt,” and his “Shepheard's Hunting," written when imprisoned in the Marshalsea for his bold speech, have been referred to in another volume of this Library. In 1618 appeared “Wither's Motto,” “Nec habeo, nec careo, nec curo” (I have not, want not, care not), in which those thoughts are amplified into expression of a spirit of honest independence so far as man is concerned, and dependence only upon God : “He that supplies my want hath took my care." In 1622 George Wither, who after education at Oxford had been attending to his father's farm at

“In the motion of each part

Nature seems to strive with art,
Which her gestures most shall bless
With the gifts of pleasingness.

“When she sits, methinks I see
How all virtues fixéd be
In a frame, whose constant mould
Will the same unchangéd hold.

1 See “Shorter English Poems," pages 288–291.

- Wither pronounces the name both Philaret and Philáreté.

If you note her when she moves, Cytherea drawn with doves May come learn such winning motions As will gain to Love's devotions More than all her painted wiles, Such as tears, or sighs, or smiles.

Than will suit with her perfection; 'Tis the loadstone of affection. And that man whose judging eyes Could well sound such mysteries, Would in love make her his choice, Though he did but hear her voice; For such accents breathe not whence Beauty keeps non-residence. Never word of hers I hear But 'tis music to mine ear, And much more contentment brings Than the sweetly-touchéd strings Of the pleasing lute, whose strains Ravish hearers when it plains.

“ Some, whose bodies want true graces,

Have sweet features in their faces; Others that do miss them there, Lovely are some other where, And to our desires do fit In behaviour or in wit Or some inward worth appearing To the soul, the soul endearing : But in her your eye may find All that's good in womankind. What in others we prefer Are but sundry parts of her, Who most perfect doth present What might one and all content. Yea, he that in love still ranges And each day or hourly changes, Had he judgment but to know What perfections in her grow, There would find the spring of store, Swear a faith, and change no more."

“ Raised by her discourse I fly
In contented thoughts so high,
That I pass the common measures
Of the dulléd sense's pleasures,
And leave far below my flight
Vulgar pitches of delight.

“If she smile and merry be,

All about her are as she;
For each looker-on takes part
Of the joy that's in her heart.
If she grieve, or you but spy
Sadness peeping through her eye,
Such a grace it seems to borrow,
That you'll fall in love with sorrow,
And abhor the name of mirth
As the hatefull'st thing on earth.

After every outward feature has been celebrated, there is again rest with an interlude of pastoral songs, after which the strain is resumed with

“ Boy, have done,-for now my brain

Is inspired afresh again,
And new raptures pressing are
To be sung in praise of her,
Whose fair picture lieth nigh
Quite unveiled to every eye.
No small favour hath it been.
That such beauty might be seen:
Therefore ever they may rue it
Who with evil eyes shall view it."

“Should I see her shed a tear,
My poor eyes would melt, I fear;
For much more in hers appears
Than in other women's tears,
And her look did never feign
Sorrow where there was no pain.

Of the face and voice of Fair-Virtue Wither sings:-

“ Seldom hath she been espied

So impatient as to chide;
For if any see her so,
They'll in love with anger grow.
Sigh or speak, or smile or talk,
Sing or weep, or sit or walk,
Everything that she doth do
Decent is and lovely too."

“ If you truly note her face,

You shall find it hath a grace Neither wanton, nor o'er serious, Nor too yielding, nor imperious: But with such a feature blest It is that which pleaseth best, And delights each several eye That affects with modesty. . Lowliness hath in her look Equal place with greatness took, And if beauty anywhere Claims prerogatives, 'tis there : For at once thus much 'twill do, Threat, command, persuade, and woo.

After like praise of her behaviour, her dress, and other aids to Virtue's prevailing charm, Wither continues :

“ Though sometime my song I raise

To unusual heights of praise,
And break forth as I shall please
Into strange hyperboles,
'Tis to shew, conceit hath found
Worth beyond expressions bound.
Though her breath I do compare
To the sweet'st perfumes that are ;
Or her eyes, that are so bright,
To the morning's cheerful light;
Yet I do it not so much
To infer that she is such,
As to shew that being blest
With what merits name of besi,

“In her speech there is not found

Any harsh, unpleasing sound, But a well-beseeming power, Neither higher, neither lower

1 “ The Manly Heart," on page 291 of the volume of “Shorter Poems," was given as an example of these lyrics in “Faire-Virtue.”

She appears more fair to me Than all creatures else that be.

“ Whilst most lovers pining sit,
Robbed of liberty and wit,
Vassalling themselves with shame
To some proud imperious dame ;
Or in songs their fate bewailing,
Shew the world their faithless failing,
I, enwreath'd with boughs of myrtle,
Fare like the belovéd turtle.

“ Yea, while most are most untoward,

Peevish, vain, inconstant, froward;
While their best contentments bring
Nought but after-sorrowing;
She, those childish humours slighting,
Hath conditions so delighting,
And doth so my bliss endeavour,
As my joy increaseth ever.

“Her true beauty leaves behind

Apprehensions in my mind
Of more sweetness than all art
Or inventions can impart;
Thoughts too deep to be express'd,
And too strong to be suppress'd;
Which oft raiseth my conceits
To such unbelieved heights,
That I fear some shallow brain
Thinks my Muses do but feign.
Sure he wrongs them if he do:
For could I have reached to
So like strains as these you see
Had there been no such as she,
Is it possible that I,
Who scarce heard of poesy,
Should a mere idea raise
To as true a pitch of praise
As the learned poets could
Now, or in the times of old,
All those real beauties bring,
Honour'd by their sonneting;
Having arts and favours too,
More t' encourage what they do?
No, if I had never seen
Such a beauty, I had been
Piping in the country shades
To the homely dairy-maids,
For a country fiddler's fees,
Clouted cream, and bread and cheese.

“By her actions, I can see

That her passions so agree Unto reason, that they err Seldom to distemper her.

“ Love she can, and doth, but so

As she will not overthrow
Love's content by any folly,
Or by deeds that are unholy.
Doatingly she ne'er affects,
Neither willingly neglects
Her honest love, but means doth find
With discretion to be kind.
'Tis not thund'ring phrase nor oaths,
Honours, wealth, nor painted clothes,
That can her good-liking gain,
If no other worth remain."

“I no skill in numbers had
More than every shepherd's lad,
Till she taught me strains that were
Pleasing to her gentle ear.
Her fair splendour and her worth
From obscureness drew me forth ;
And because I had no Muse,
She herself deigned to infuse
All the skill by which I climb
To these praises in my rhyme."

Then follow characters of a virtuous mind, until the poem is again interrupted by a group of songs. Philarete pauses to hear the music of a swain who comes day by day to sing and play in the groves, where he is praising his mistress Fair-Virtue to the shepherds. For the swain, who has entered an arbour,

“He so bashful is, that mute
Will his tongue be and his lute
Should he happen to espy
This unlooked-for company."

And still the praise runs on in a strain of pleasant music, until it represents all outward charm that has been dwelt upon as but

“ An incomparable shrine

Of a beauty more divine;”.

They are all silent, therefore, and draw quietly near to listen to the singing.

After the songs, the praise of Fair-Virtue runs on ; for the swain espied the listeners, who were ill-hidden by the trees, and fled the place. Philarete says then to the shepherds :-.

and sings the praises of the mind of Fair-Virtue:-

“ To entreat him back again
Would be labour spent in vain.
You may therefore now betake ye
To the music I can make ye."

“Let no critic cavil then

If I dare affirm again
That her mind's perfections are
Fairer than her body's far;
And I need not prove it by
Axioms of Philosophy,
Since no proof can better be
Than their rare effects in me;
For, whilst other men complaining
Tell their mistresses' disdaining,
Free from care I write a story

Only of her worth and glory.

Happy the woman who shall be thought one with Fair-Virtue :

" Yet, that I her servant am,

It shall more be to my fame

nymphs, so that Wither's little volume was rich in the grace of lyric verse with wisdom in its underthought. The last of the songs before the rustic company broke up, after Philarete had separated, was:

In praise of the Lover of Virtue.

Than to own these woods and downs, Or be lord of fifty towns ; And my mistress to be deem'd Shall more honour be esteem'd, Than those titles to acquire Which most women most desire. Yea, when you a woman shall Countess or a duchess call, That respect it shall not move, Neither gain her half such love, As to say, lo! this is she, That supposéd is to be Mistress to Phil'areté. And that lovely nymph, which he, In a pastoral poem famed, And Fair Virtue, there hath named. Yea, some ladies (ten to one) If not many, now unknown, Will be very well apaid, When by chance, she hears it said, She that fair one is whom I Here have praised concealedly.

Gentle swain, good speed befall thee;

And in love still prosper thou! Future times shall happy call thee,

Tho' thou lie neglected now: Virtue's lovers shall commend thee, And perpetual fame attend thee.

Happy are these woody mountains,

In whose shadow thou dost hide ; And as happy are those fountains,

By whose murmurs thou dost bide: For contents are here excelling, More than in a prince's dwelling.

These thy flocks do clothing bring thee,

And thy food out of the fields ; Pretty songs the birds do sing thee;

Sweet perfumes the meadow yields: And what more is worth the seeing, Heaven and earth thy prospect being !

“ And though now this age's pride
May so brave a hope deride ;
Yet, when all their glories pass
As the thing that never was,
And on monuments appear,
That they e'er had breathing here
Who envý it; she shall thrive
In her fame, and honour'd live,
Whilst Great Britain's shepherds sing
English in their sonneting.
And whoe'er in future days,
Shall bestow the utmost praise
On his love, that any man
Attribute to creature can;
'Twill be this, that he hath dared
His and mine to have compared.”

None comes hither who denies thee

Thy contentments for despite ; Neither any that envíes thee

That wherein thou dost delight: But all happy things are meant thee, And whatever may content thee.

Thy affection reason measures,

And distempers none it feeds; Still so harmless are thy pleasures,

That no other's grief it breeds: And if night beget thee sorrow, Seldom stays it till the morrow.


Why do foolish men so vainly

Seek contentment in their store, Since they may perceive so plainly.

Thou art rich in being poor : And that they are vex'd about it, Whilst thou merry art without it?

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Why are idle brains devising,

How high titles may be gain'd, Since by those poor toys despising,

Thou hast higher things obtained? For the man who scorns to crave them, Greater is than they that have them.

GEORGE WITHER. (From the Portrait prefired to his Emblems," 1635.)

If all men could taste that sweetness,

Thou dost in thy meanness know, Kings would be to seek where greatness

And their honours to bestow, For if such content would breed them, As they would not think they need them

When the strain was at last ended, still there was dance and song among the shepherds and the

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