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All their riches, honours, pleasures,

Poor unworthy trifles seem,
If comparéd with thy treasures,

And do merit no esteem :
For they true contents provide thee,
But from them can none divide thee.

William Drummond of Hawthornden was about three years older than George Wither, and Drummond's “ Flowers of Zion" appeared in the same year as Wither's “Faire Virtue," 1623. In this collection (of which the poems have no headings given to them by their author) there is also

Whether thralled or exiléd,

Whether poor or rich thou be, Whether praised or reviléd,

Not a rush it is to thee: This nor that thy rest doth win thee, But the mind which is within thee.

Then, oh why, so madly dote we

On those things that us o'erload ? Why no more their vainness note we,

But still make of them a god ? For alas! they still deceive us, And in greatest need they leave us.


Of the true Happiness.
Amidst the azure clear

Of Jordan's sacred streams,
Jordan, of Lebanon the offspring dear,
When zephyrs flow’rs unclose,
And sun shines with new beams,

With grave and stately grace a Nymph arose.
Upon her head she ware

Of amaranths a crown;
Her left hand palms, her right a torch did bear;
Unveiled skin's whiteness lay;
Gold hairs in curls hung down;

Eyes sparkled joy, more bright than star of day. The flood a throne her reared

Of waves, most like that heaven
Where beaming stars in glory turn ensphered.
The air stood calm and clear,
No sigh by winds was given,
Birds left to sing, herds feed,-her voice to hear :

Therefore have the fates provided

Well, thou happy swain, for thee, That may'st here so far divided

From the world's distractions be: Thee distemper let them never, But in peace continue ever.

In these lonely groves enjoy thou

That contentment here begun;
And thy hours so pleas'd employ thou,

Till the latest glass be run:
From a fortune so assuréd,
By no temptings be alluréd.

“ World-wand'ring sorry wights,

Whom nothing can content
Within these varying lists of days and nights; .
Whose life, ere known amiss,
In glitt'ring griefs is spent;

Come learn,” said she, “what is your choicest bliss :
From toil and pressing cares
How ye may respite find,
A sanctuary from soul-thralling snares ;
A port to harbour sure,
In spite of waves and wind,
Which shall, when time's swift glass is run, endure.

Much good do't them with their glories,

Who in courts of princes dwell; We have read in antique stories,

How some rose and how they fell : And 'tis worthy well the heeding, There's like end, where's like proceeding.

Be thou still in thy affection

To thy noble mistress true; Let her never-match'd perfection

Be the same unto thy view :

“ Not happy is that life

Which you as happy hold;
No, but a sea of fears, a field of strife;
Charg'd on a throne to sit
With diadems of gold,
Preserv'd by force, and still observ'd by wit;

“ Who such a life doth live

You happy even may call
Ere ruthless Death a wished end tis ;
And after then when given,
More happy by his fall,
For humanes' earth, enjoying anzes Le

Huge treasures to enjoy,
Of all her gems spoil Ind,
All Seres' silk in garments to employ,
Deliciously to feed,
The phoenix' plumes to find

To rest upon, or deck your purple bed ;
Frail beauty to abuse,

And, wanton Sybarites,
On past or present touch of sense to muse;
Never to hear of noise
But what the ear delights,

Sweet music's charms, or charming flatterer's voice. Nor can it bliss you bring,

Hid Nature's depths to know,
Why matter changeth, whence each form doth spring;
Nor that your fame should range,
And after-worlds it blow

From Tanais to Nile, from Nile to Gange.
All these have not the power

To free the mind from fears,
Nor hideous horror can allay one hour,
When death in stealth doth glance,
In sickness lurks or years,
And wakes the soul from out her mortal trance.

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“ No, but blest life is this:

With chaste and pure desire
To turn unto the load-star of all bliss,
On God the mind to rest,
Burnt up with sacred fire,

Possessing Him to be by Him possest;
When to the balmy east

Sun doth his light impart,
Or when he diveth in the lowly west
And ravisheth the day,
With spotless hand and heart

Him cheerfully to praise, and to Him pray;
To heed each action so

As ever in his sight,
More fearing doing ill than passive woe;
Not to seem other thing
Than what ye are aright;

Never to do what may repentance bring;
Not to be blown with pride,

Nor mov'd at glory's breath,
Which shadow-like on wings of time doth glide;
So malice to disarm
And conquer hasty wrath,

As to do good to those that work your harm;
To hatch no base desires

Or gold or land to gain,
Well pleas'd with that which virtue fair acquires;
To have the wit and will
Consorting in one strain,

Than what is good to have no higher skill ;
Never on neighbour's goods
With cockatrice's eye
To look, nor make another's heaven your hell ;
Nor to be beauty's thrall,
All fruitless love to fly,

Yet loving still a Love transcendent all,
A Love which, while it burns

The soul with fairest beams,
To that increate sun the soul it turns,
And makes such beauty prove,
That, if sense saw her gleams
All lookers on would pine and die for Love.

Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, bz: 1580, was about five years older than Ire He also was a poet, and had been in fruct James VI. before he became James I of E In 1621 he received a grant of Nova Sot he was to colonise at his own expense. He until 1640, was made Secretary of State for Sa and otherwise honoured. As poet, he is fam best known for his four Monarchic Trigens . published at Edinburgh, in 1614, a long pe: octave rhyme, entitled “Doomsday, or the 6*** Day of the Lord's Judgment," of which the London edition in 1637. It is divided in IT: Hours, and was perhaps inspired by the por Bartas on the Seven Days of creation : 00 :? of the beginning of the world, the other of The first hour of Doomsday declares GidTT: His works, tells of the sin of man ani cf* ? plagues and judgments that have been s :

Thus helpful alms, the offering most esteemed,
Doth men on th'earth, the Lord in heaven content,
How many are, if time might be redeemed,
Who wish they thus their revenues had spent ?
If this on th’earth so profitable seemed,
What usurer would for others' gains be bent ?

But would the poor with plenty oft supply,
Though they themselves for want were like to die.

the last. The second hour tells of signs and wonders before the sounding of the last trumpet call. The theme of the third hour is the descent of Christ to judgment and the end of the world. In the fourth hour the trumpet sounds and the dead rise. In the fifth hour trial of souls begins, and in this hour and the sixth and seventh the heathen, the creature worshippers, those whom ambition led through blood, those who lived sensually, the false judges and the learned, above all the Churchmen, who abused their gifts, are accused. With the eighth hour begins the record of the souls who stand in triumph. First come the patriarchs, priests, and prophets, faithful to God, though knowing Christ only in types and figures. Then in the ninth hour come the evangelists, apostles, and those who knew Christ in the flesh; then the first martyrs and early Fathers of the Church. In the tenth hour there is the parting of the evil from the good :-

Those who, affecting vain ambition's end,
To gain opinion muster all in show;
And, prodigal, superfluously spend
All what they have, or able are to owe,
For pleasures frail, whilst straying fancies tend,
As Paradise could yet be found below:

Still pamp'ring flesh with all that th' earth can give,
No happiness more seek but here to live;


Those if not gorgeous who do garments scorn,
And not in warmness but for cost exceed,
Though as of worms they have the entrails worn,
Worms shall at last upon their entrails feed;
Those dainty tastes who, as for eating born,
That they may feast strive appetite to breed,

And, curious gluttons, even of vileness vaunt,
Whilst surfeiting when thousands starve for want.

That happy squadron is not question'd now,
What ill they did, what good they did neglect,
No circumstance is urg'd, when, where, nor how,
They oft had fail'd, in what God did direct ;
He trusts, not tries, not counts, but doth allow;
The Lord in Israel will no fault detect,

But absolutely doth absolve them all,
And from their bondage to a kingdom call.

The world's chief idol, nurse of fretting cares,
Dumb trafficker, yet understood o'er all,
State's chain, life's maintenance, load-star of affairs,
Which makes all nations voluntar'ly thrall,
A subtle sorcerer, always laying snares;
How many, Money, hast thou made to fall !

The general jewel, of all things the price,
To virtue sparing, lavish unto vice.

“You whom my Father blessed, no more dismayed, Come, and enjoy that boundless kingdom now, Which, ere the world's foundations first were laid, By heaven's decree hath been prepar'd for you; With rays more bright than are the sun's array'd, Before the throne you shall with reverence bow:

The height of pleasure which you should possess, No tongue of man is able to express.

The fool that is unfortunately rich,
His goods perchance doth from the poor extort,
Yet leaves his brother dying in a ditch,
Whom one excess, if spar'd, would well support;
And, whilst the love of gold doth him bewitch,
This miser's misery gives others sport:

The prodigal God's creatures doth abuse,
And them, the wretch, not necessar'ly use.

“When pressed by famine you me friendly fed,
And did with drink my scorching thirst allay;
You with your garments me, when naked, clad,
Whose kindly visits sickness could not stay;
No, even in prison, they me comfort bred,
Thus charity extended every way:

Your treasures, kept in heaven, for int'rest gain
That you enrich'd eternally remain."

With spiritual joy each one transported sings,
And, lifted up, to heaven in haste would fly,
But yet this speech so great amazement brings,
That modestly they, as with doubt, reply:
"C'nbounded Lord, when didst thou lack such things,
That there was cause our willingness to try?

Who nothing had but what Thou gav'st to us;
How couldst Thou need, or we afford it thus?"

Those roving thoughts which did at random soar,
And, though they had conveniently to live,
Would never look behind, but far before,
And, scorning goodness, to be great did strive;
For, still projecting how to purchase more,
Thus, bent to get, they could not dream to give:

Such minds whom envy hath fill'd up with grudge,
Have left no room, where charity may lodge.

"That which was given, as now I do reveal,
Unto the least of those whom I held dear,"
Saith Christ, “ deep grav'd with an eternal scal
As due by me, I do acknowledge here;
Those were the objects prompted for your zeal,
By which your goodness only could appear:

Best magazines for wealth the poor did prove,
Where, when laid up, no thief could it remove."

Ah! who of those can well express the grief,
Whom once this earth did for most happy hold ?
Of all their neighbours still esteem'd the chief,
Whilst stray'd opinion balanc'd worth by gold :
That which to thousands might have given relief,
Wrong spent or spar'd, is for their ruin told :

Thus pleasures past, what anguish now doth even?
We see how hardly rich men go w heaven.

The eleventh hour of “Doomsday" displays the | suffering of those who are condemned ; and the

twelfth points at the transcendent bliss of the souls About the year of our Lord 1600, I came to London: glorified.

shortly after which the attempt of the Earl of Essex, related in our history, followed, which I had rather were seen in the

writers of that argument than here. Not long after this, Francis Quarles, who was four years younger than

curiosity, rather than ambition, brought me to court; and as Wither, and in the time of James I. was cupbearer it was the manner of those times for all men to kneel down to his daughter Elizabeth before becoming secretary

before the great Queen Elizabeth, who then reigned, I was to Dr. Usher in Ireland, wrote in James's reign some likewise upon my knees in the presence-chamber, when she poems upon the Scripture stories of Jonah, Esther, and passed by to the chapel at Whitehall. As soon as she sw m Job, with metrical versions from Jeremiah and King she stopped, and swearing her usual oath, demanded, “ Wbu Solomon, as “Sion's Elegies” and “Sion's Sonnets.” is this?" Everybody there present looked upon me, but But Quarles is best known for his “Emblems,” which no man knew me, until Sir James Croft, a pensioner, finding were published in the reign of Charles I.

the queen stayed, returned back and told who I was, and that We may pass out of the reign of James I. with the I had married Sir William Herbert of St. Gillian's daughter. two brothers Edward and George Herbert, sons of The queen thereupon looked attentively upon me, and swear. Richard Herbert, Esq., Deputy-Lieutenant of Mont ing again her ordinary oath, said, “It is a pity he was married gomeryshire. Richard Herbert's grandfather, Sir so young," and thereupon gave her hand to kiss twice, both Richard Herbert of Colebrook, had been steward times gently clapping me on the cheek. I remember litil of the Welsh Marches in Henry VIII.'s time, and more of myself, but that from that time until King James's brother to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

coming to the crown, I had a son, which died shortly after. Richard Herbert, the father of Edward and George,

wards, and that I attended my studies seriously, the more I was black-haired, black-bearded, and bold. He and

learnt out of my books adding still a desire to know more. his wife Magdalen, daughter of Sir Richard Newport,

King James being now acknowledged king, and coming had ten children: seven sons and three daughters.

towards London, I thought fit to meet his Majesty at Burley, Edward, born in 1581, was the eldest son. He

near Stamford. Shortly after I was inade Knight of the

Bath, with the usual ceremonies belonging to that ancient became afterwards a Knight of the Bath as Sir Edward Herbert, and then Lord Herbert of Cher

order. I could tell how much my person was commended to

the lords and ladies that came to see the solemnity then und bury. The second son, Richard, after he had been well

but I shall flatter myself too much if I believed it. educated, fought in the Low Countries in battles and

I must not forget yet the ancient custom, being that some duels, and carried scars of four-and-twenty wounds

principal person was to put on the right spur of those tix with him to his grave in Bergen-op-Zoom. William,

king had appointed to receive that dignity: the Earl of the third son, also well educated, spent his life in the

Shrewsbury seeing my esquire there with my spur in his wars. Charles, the fourth son, distinguished himself

hand, voluntarily came to me and said, “Cousin, I bebi te at New College, Oxford, and died early. The fifth

you will be a good knight, and therefore I will put on yor son was George Herbert, born in 1593, the poet spur;" whereupon, after my most humble thanks for whose name remains familiar to his countrymen. great a favour, I held up my leg against the wall, and he praf The other two brothers were Henry, who prospered on my spur. greatly as a courtier, and Thomas, who distinguished There is another custom likewise, that the knights the EN himself by his skill and courage in the navy, but day wear the gown of some religious order, and the mixtu missed the promotion he deserved, and closed his following to be bathed; after which they take an oath nr days in discontent.

to sit in place where injustice should be done, but they shall Edward, the eldest of these sons, was born in 1581, | right it to the uttermost of their power; and particularis at Eyton, Shropshire, in a house that came into the ladies and gentlewomen that shall be wronged in cui family as part of his mother's heritage. He must

honour, if they demand assistance, and many other points. have been more discreet as an infant than as a man,

not unlike the romances of knight errantry. for he says in his autobiography, “ The very farthest

The second day to wear robes of crimson taffety (in whi thing I remember is, that when I understood what

habit I am painted in my study), and so to ride from s. was said by others, I did yet forbear to speak, lest I

James's to Whitehall, with our esquires before us, and the should utter something that were imperfect or im

third day to wear a gown of purple satin, upon the left sleite pertinent.” After private teaching, he was sent, at

whereof is fastened certain strings weaved of white silk and the age of twelve, to University College, Oxford,

gold tied in a knot, and tassels to it of the same, whi h Ji

the knights are obliged to wear until they have done sona. and soon afterwards arrangement was made for his marriage to an heiress in direct descent from William,

thing famous in arms, or until some lady of honour take it

off, and fasten it on her sleeve, saying, “I will answer besti the Earl of Pembroke, who was brother to Edward's great-grandfather, Sir Richard. The young lady in

prove a good knight.” herited her large estates subject to the condition that she should marry a Herbert. Young Edward was Sir Edward Herbert, who had all the faith of his the only Herbert matching her in fortune. He was time in the chivalry of duelling, interpreted his von six years younger, but the match was made, and as a Knight of the Bath in a way that would have Edward Herbert married before he had finished his satisfied his contemporary, Don Quixote, that gud studies at the University.

knight who was first introduced to the world be He himself thus tells in his autobiography how he Cervantes in 1605, about the time when Sir Edward came to London at the age of nineteen, and was Herbert began his career as Knight of the Bath made a Knight of the Bath early in the reign of About the year 1608, when he had a fourth chid James I. :

born, he went abroad. At Paris, soon after his departure, ne made acquaintance with the Duchess of Ventadour, and says :

Passing two or three days here, it happened one evening that a daughter of the duchess, of about ten or eleven years of age, going one evening from the castle to walk in the meadows, myself, with divers French gentlemen, attended her and some gentlewomen that were with her. This young lady wearing a knot of riband on her head, a French chevalier took it suddenly, and fastened it to his hatband: the young lady, offended herewith, demands her riband, but he refusing

that I did not constrain him to give it, I will fight with him." The French gentleman answered nothing thereunto for the present, and so conducted the young lady again to the castle. The next day I desired Mr. Aurelian Townsend to tell the French cavalier, that either he must confess that I constrained him to restore the riband, or fight with me; but the gentleman seeing him unwilling to accept of this challenge, went out from the place, whereupon I following him, some of the gentlemen that belonged to the constable taking notice hereof, acquainted him therewith, who sending for the French cavalier, checked him well for his sauciness, in taking the riband away from his grandchild, and afterwards bid him depart his house; and this was all that I ever heard of the gentleman, with whom I proceeded in that manner, because I thought myself obliged thereunto by oath taken when I was made Knight of the Bath, as I formerly related upon this occasion.

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But with the weakness of his time and of his blood, amusingly illustrated by the simple self-revelation of his autobiography, there was strength; and his other works bear witness to the scholarly side of Edward Herbert's character. When next in Paris he lodged with Casaubon. When home again after adventures in the wars, “ I passed,” he says, “ some time, partly in my studies, and partly riding the great horse, of which I had a stable well furnished." He was sent as ambassador to Paris, but it was not long before he was anxious to fight a duel with the French Minister, the Duc de Luynes, for which reason he had to be recalled in 1620, but afterwards he was sent again. While in Paris on his second embassy, he published, in 1624, a book in Latin, which he had begun in England, “on Truth as it is distinguished from Revelation that is like the truth, or possible, and from the false." Of the publication of this remarkable book Edward Herbert writes in his autobiography as follows:

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My book, De Veritate prout distinguitur à Revelatione veri. simili, possibili, et à falso, having been begun by me in England, and formed there in all its principal parts, was about this time finished; all the spare hours which I could get from my visits and negotiations being employed to perfect this work: which was no sooner done, but that I communicated it to Hugo Grotius, that great scholar, who, having escaped his prison in the Low Countries, came into France, and was

(From the Picture once in his Study.)

i Hugo Grotius, the chief Dutch scholar of his time, had been condemned at the Synod of Dort, in November, 1618, to perpetual im.

prisonment for supporting the Arminians. In his prison at Louvestein to restore it, the young lady addressing herself to me, said,

he continued his studies, and after two years' confinement his wife “ Monsieur, I pray get my riband from that gentleman;" obtained leave to remove an accumulation of books on the plea that hereupon going towards him, I courteously, with my hat in they reduced space in his cell. This enabled her, instead of the books, my hand, desired him to do me the honour, that I may deliver

to carry off her husband, in a box three feet and a half long. When the lady her riband or bouquet again; but he roughly

freed from the box Grotius crossed the frontier in disguise as a mason,

with rule and trowel. He found his way to Paris, and there received answering me, “Do you think I will give it you, when I have

a pension. It was there that Edward Herbert met with him. In refused it to her?" I replied, “ Nay then, sir, I will make 1622 Grotius published his Apology, which the States-General forbade you restore it by force;" whereupon also, putting on my hat his countrymen to read, on pain of death. The Arminians, whom and reaching at his, he to save himself ran away, and, after a

Grotius had favoured, began also from this time to add freedom to

English thought, religious and political. They derived their name long course in the meadow, finding that I had almost over

from Jacob Harmensen, Latinized Arminius. Harmensen was born in took him, he turned short, and running to the young lady, was 1560, a: Oudewater, a small town on the Yssel, in Holland, about about to put the riband on her hand, when I, seizing upon eighteen miles from Rotterdam. His father died when Jacob Har. his arm, said to the young lady, “ It was I that gave it."

mensen was an infant in the arms of a mother left with poor means,

and two elder children to support. The fatherless child was edu. * Pardon me," quoth she, “it is he that gives it me:" I said

cated and the foundation of his religious life was laid by a reformed then, “ Madam, I will not contradict you, but if he dare say | priest named Theodore Æmilius, who was a wanderer through perse.

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