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twelfth points at the transcendent bliss of the souls About the yea

shortly after white dust tell another's jest, therein
in our history. i sts, which true wit cannot need;
writers of that

les the mirth, but not the sin; Francis Quarles, who was four years younger than

curiosity, rathe

is apple that will cleanly feed. Wither, and in the time of James I. was cupbearer it was the mu

as the virtue of that Name to his daughter Elizabeth before becoming secretary | before the gi

is the best stake when griefs make thee tamo. to Dr. Usher in Ireland, wrote in James's reign some likewise up poems upon the Scripture stories of Jonah, Esther, and

as thy heart be true to God,

passed by t Job, with metrical versions from Jeremiah and King

da to it, thy actions to them both:

she stoppe Solomon, as “Sion's Elegies” and “Sion's Sonnets.”

bes, and those that fear the rod;

is this? But Quarles is best known for his “ Emblems,” which no man 2

-working soul spits lies and froth, were published in the reign of Charles I.

Does be true: nothing can need a lie; the que

it, which needs it most, grows two thereby. We may pass out of the reign of James I. with the I had two brothers Edward and George Herbert, sons of

to make thy son rich is to fill Richard Herbert, Esq., Deputy-Lieutenant of Mont- ingar

d with rest, before his trunk with riches: 20 gomeryshire. Richard Herbert's grandfather, Sir 30 v ath without contentment climbs a hill, Richard Herbert of Colebrook, had been steward

ind those tempests which fly over ditches; of the Welsh Marches in Henry VIII.'s time, and brother to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Richard Herbert, the father of Edward and George, was black-haired, black-bearded, and bold. He and his wife Magdalen, daughter of Sir Richard Newport, had ten children: seven sons and three daughters. Edward, born in 1581, was the eldest son. He became afterwards a Knight of the Bath as Si Edward Herbert, and then Lord Herbert of Cher bury. The second son, Richard, after he had been wel educated, fought in the Low Countries in battles ar duels, and carried scars of four-and-twenty wou with him to his grave in Bergen-op-Zoom. Willie the third son, also well educated, spent his life in wars. Charles, the fourth son, distinguished his at New College, Oxford, and died early. The son was George Herbert, born in 1593, thu whose name remains familiar to his count The other two brothers were Henry, who greatly as a courtier, and Thomas, who dista himself by his skill and courage in the missed the promotion he deserved, and days in discontent.

Sus ar BEMERTON. Edward, the eldest of these sons, was at Eyton, Shropshire, in a house that

But if thy son can make ten pound his measure, family as part of his mother's heritau

Then all thou addest may be called his treasure. have been more discreet as an infantoh for he says in his autobiography, "Th. thing I remember is, that when I

By all means use sometimes to be alone;

Salute thyself ; see what thy soul doth wear; was said by others, I did yet forben

Dare to look in thy chest, for 'tis thine own, should utter something that were

And tumble up and down what thou find'st there : pertinent.” After private teachin

Who cannot rest till he good-fellows find, the age of twelve, to Universit

He breaks up house, turns out of doors his mind. 30 and soon afterwards arrangemen marriage to an heiress in direct the Earl of Pembroke, who was

Be sweet to all. Is thy complexion sour? great-grandfather, Sir Richarrt

Then keep such company; make them thy allay: herited her large estates subjen

Get a sharp wife, a servant that will lour: she should marry a Herbert

A stumbler stumbles least in rugged way. the only Herbert matching her

Command thyself in chief. He life's war knows six years younger, but the

Whom all his passions follow as he goes. Edward Herbert married studies at the University

Laugh not too much; the witty man laughs least; He himself thus tells to

For wit is news only to ignorance. came to London at the

Less at thine own things laugh, lest in the jest made a Knight of the

Thy person share and the conceit advance.
James I.:-

Make not thy sport abuses; for the fly
That feeds on dung is coloured thereby.

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much welcomed by me; and Monsieur Tieleners also, one of the greatest scholars of his time; who, after they had perused it, and given it more commendations than is fit for me to repeat, exhorted me earnestly to print and publish it. Howbeit, as the frame of my whole book was so different from any thing which had been written heretofore, I found I must either renounce the authority of all that had written formerly concerning the method of finding out truth, and consequently insist upon my own way, or hazard myself to a general censure concerning the whole argument of my book. I must confess it did not a little animate me, that the two great persons above-mentioned did so highly value it, yet, as I knew it would meet with much opposition, I did consider whether it was not better for me a while to suppress it. Being thus doubtful in my chamber, one fair day in the summer, my casement being opened towards the south, the sun shining clear, and no wind stirring, I took my book, De Veritate, in my hand, and kneeling on my knees, devoutly said these words,

“O thou eternal God, author of the light which now shines upon me, and giver of all inward illuminations, I do beseech Thee, of Thy infinite goodness, to pardon a greater request than a sinner ought to make. I am not satisfied enough whether I shall publish this book De l'eritate; if it be for Thy glory, I beseech Thee give me some sign from heaven; if not, I shall suppress it."

I had no sooner spoken these words, but a loud though yet gentle noise came from the heavens (for it was like nothing on earth), which did so comfort and cheer me, that I took my petition as granted, and that I had the sign I demanded, whereupon also I resolved to print my book. This, how strange soever it may seem, I protest before the eternal God is true, neither am I any way superstitiously deceived herein, since I did not only clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest sky that ever I saw, being without all cloud, did to my thinking see the place from whence it came.

and his younger brother George, each thinking for
himself on matters of religion. Edward, who was
made after his return from Paris in 1625 an Irish
baron, and afterwards an English peer as Lord
Herbert of Cherbury, taught forcibly the existence
of a spiritual power within man, supreme over all the
faculties, which draws knowledge from the world
around and reasons upon Revelation. He denied
that the salvation of man could wholly depend on
acceptance of a form of religion revealed only to a
portion of the human race. God as the Father of
mankind could not, he said, condemn a large part of
the human race for ignorance of that which it had
no opportunity of knowing. It has been said that
his refusal to believe in revelation confined to a few
is inconsistent with his belief that a revelation to
himself alone communicated the assent of God to his
diffusion of his book. But this would have only
been inconsistent had he held that God in listening
to him was deaf to the prayers of others. He
believed that every man could, by true worship,
draw near to God and bring God near to him,
receiving aid and comfort. The supposition that
God answered his prayer was, in fact, part of his
supposition that the prayers of all who drew near
to Him with spiritual worship found their way to
heaven. Thus reasoning, Edward Herbert built up
in this treatise upon Truth a creed of his own,
containing the five points that he held to be the
essentials of a true religion. These were belief (1)
in God; (2) in Man's duty to worship Him; (3) in the
Immortality of the Soul; (4) in Future Rewards and
Punishments; (5) in the need of Repentance for Sin.
So taught Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, eldest
brother and head of the house of “holy George
Herbert," who, while the De Veritate was being read,
maintained in his parsonage at Bemerton every
ordinance and doctrine of the English Church, and
quickened all with a pure spirit of devotion.

The book was remarkable for boldness of speculation upon sacred things, and for the difference it shows in bent of thought between Edward Herbert

cution. When Harmensen, aged fifteen, was with his teacher at There was still, with many Reformers, dread of the student who had Utrecht, Æmilius died; but the boy was immediately cared for by gone so near to Antichrist, but when Harmensen began to preach he another earnest Dutch Reformer, also a native of Oudewater, Rudolph won golden opinions. At this time a book was in circulation written Snell. Snell became Professor of Hebrew and Mathematics at by some brethren of the church of Delft, called "An Answer to some Leyden, before his death in 1613. This learned fellow-townsman took Arguments of Beza and Calvin out of a Treatise concerning Predesti. young Harmensen away with him, but soon hurried back to Oudewater nation, on the 9th chapter to the Romans." Martin Lidyus, formerly upon hearing of the cruelties of the Spaniards, who had sacked the a pastor in Amsterdam, but then a Professor in Friesland, sent the town and slain most of the inhabitants, including his mother, his book to Harmensen, because he was able, and fresh from Beza's sisters, his brothers, and his kindred. The sudden desolation is said teaching at Geneva, requesting him to defend Beza by answering the to have caused him to spend fourteen days in passion of weeping. brethren of Delft. But Harmensen was converted by their bouk, and Snell with the boy left the scene of massacre on foot for Marburg, in he was led to join in argument against Calvin's form of the doctrine Hesse Cassel; then, having heard of the opening (in 1575) of the of predestination and election. His ability and piety soon made hin University of Leyden by the Prince of Orange, he went to Rotterdam, a leader of the growing reaction among Dutch Reforiners against and thence sent Harmensen to Leyden. The youth excelled among what they took to be an unjust view of God's providence in Calvin's the students, and in 1582 was sent, at expense of the Senate of doctrine. The name of Arminian was then given to these disaeuters Amsterdam, to Geneva, where he became a zealous admirer of Theo. from Calvinism. Arminius was, in September, 1603, when James I. dore Beza, who was expounding the Epistle to the Romans. But was newly become King of England, joined with Francis Gomur, Harmensen's regard for the philosophy of Peter Ramus stood in strict Calvinist, in the Professorship of Theology at Leyden. His his way at Geneva, and he went to Basle, where he was soon predecessor in the chair was Francis Junius, the elder. Then followed thoroughly at home. At Basle he was offered the title of Doctor by bitterness of controversy, troubling a very gentle spirit, then disease, the theological faculty before his return to Geneva, but declined it and in October, 1609, Arminius died, leaving a widow and nine chili. because he felt himself unripe. From Geneva he went with a Dutch ren. In the year after his death, his followers set forth, in tive fellow-student to Paudun, for the benefit of the teaching of Giacopo articles, the opinions for which they were attacked. These articles Zabarella, then in the fulness of his fame there as Professor of Philo they specified in a “Remonstrance to the Estates of Holland," and sophy. The two young Dutchmen then travelled together for eigh from it the Arminians came to be called “the Remonstrants." and months in Italy, carrying the Greek Testament and Hebrew Psalter their church at Amsterdam the Church of the Remonstrants. The in their pockets. In the course of their travel they saw Rome, but five opinions were :--1. Of Election; that God from all eternits de the Senate of Amsterdam, with pious horror of Rome, was greatly termined the salvation of those in whom He foresaw that they woali displeased with Harmensen for going there. The young theologian, persevere to the end in their faith in Jesus Christ, and the etern! however, returned to Geneva, and thence carried to his patrons at punishment of those in whom he foresaw continued unbeliet and non Amsterdam clear testimony of his fitness for the reformed ministry. | sistance of His aid; so that Election depended on the acts of mea,

George Herbert, the fifth of Richard Herbert's | But the commodiousness is beyond the revenue, for the seven sons, was born at Montgomery Castle on the Orator writes all the University letters, be it to the 3rd of April, 1593, and was in his fourth year whenking, prince, or whoever comes to the University.” his father died. He was educated at home by his The commodiousness of the office was, that it enabled mother for the next eight years, and then sent to a man who sought advancement at court to show Westminster School. In his fifteenth year, being a his ability to the king, and make himself agreeable. king's scholar, he was sent on to Trinity College, Public orators before him had used the post as a Cambridge, and, young as he was, he had already stepping-stone to court preferment, and during the entered into controversy on church questions of the rest of the reign of James I. George Herbert waited day. When, after the accession of James to the upon his Majesty, a courtly and a witty fortuneEnglish throne, the Millenary Petition represented | hunter. He got in 1623—as a layman—the sinecure the desire of many of the clergy for further reforma rectory of Whitford in Flintshire, which was worth tion in the Church, the Universities signified their £120 a year, and had once been given to Philip displeasure. Cambridge passed a grace that who Sidney when he was a boy of ten. But the death soever opposed by word or writing or any other way of James I. on the 27th of March, 1625, put an the doctrine or discipline of the Church of England, end to all George Herbert's further hopes in that or any part of it, should be suspended, ipso facto, | direction. from any degree already taken, and be disabled from taking any degree for the future. Oxford published a formal answer to the petition and condemnation of

CHAPTER IX. the petitioners. Andrew Melville, Rector of St. Andrews, a leading minister of the Scottish Church, UNDER CHARLES I. AND. THE COMMONWEALTH.then satirised the Universities (in 1604) in a Latin GEORGE HERBERT, RICHARD SIBBES, Thomas poem entitled “Anti-Tami-Cami-Categoria," that is, FULLER, JOHN Howe, GEORGE Fox, RICHARD accusation against Thames and Cam–Oxford and BAXTER, JEREMY Taylor, John Milton, AND Cambridge. George Herbert, as a schoolboy, retorted OTHERS. —A.D. 1625 TO A.D. 1660. with “Epigrams Apologetical,” which were not printed

GEORGE HERBERT, still a layman, was in July, 1626, until 1662. They could only have been published

year of the death of Francis Bacon, made a prebenby one who shared the unwisdom of a boyish partisan.

dary of Leighton Ecclesia or Leighton Bromswald, George Herbert went to Cambridge in May, 1609,

in Huntingdonshire, with a stall in Lincoln. He graduated as B.Ą. early in 1613, and as M.A., at the

repaired the church of the place. In 1627 his mother age of twenty-three, in 1616, year of the death of

died, and George Herbert retired from his office of Shakespeare. In January, 1620, George Herbert was

Public Orator. He left Cambridge, weak in health, elected Public Orator, and thus obtained what he said

for he was consumptive, and stayed for a time with was “the finest place in the University, though not

his brother, Sir Henry Herbert, at Woodford, in the gainfullest, yet that will be about £30 per annum.

Essex. In 1629 he was at Dauntsey, in Wiltshire, the seat of the Earl of Danby, with whom he was

connected by his mother's second marriage. She had free, though foreseen, and predestined only through foreknowledge. 2. Of Redemption; that Christ atoned for the sins of all men and of

married Sir John Danvers. At Dauntsey his health each man, though none but those who believe in Him can be partakers improved. In March, 1629, he married Jane Danof the benefit. 3. Of Original Sin ; that true faith cannot come to the vers, a kinswoman of his stepfather and of Lord natural man without help of the Grace of God--that is, regeneration

Danby. George Herbert had resolved now to take by the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God through Christ. 4. Of Effectual Grace; that this Divine Grace begins, advances, and per

holy orders. His kinsman Philip, Earl of Pembroke, fects whatever is good in man; wherefore every good work proceeds obtained for him the living of Bemerton, with a little from God alone, but His Grace, offered to all, does not force men to

| church within a mile or two of the great house at act against their inclinations, and may be resisted by the impenite

Wilton, half way between Wilton and Salisbury. sinner. 5. Of Perseverance; that God helps the truly faithful to remain so, though-and upon this at first opinion among Arminians

George Herbert found Charles l. and his Court differed--the regenerate may lose true justifying faith, fall from a with the Earl, at Wilton, when he went there, and state of Grace, and die in their sins. These opinions were, it will be

on the 26th of April, 1630, the Bishop of Salisseen, mainly protests against Calvin's views of Predestination. The Remonstrants were left free to hold their opinions until 1618, when the

bury inducted him into his living. George Herbert's States General convoked at Dort a Synod of thirty-eight Dutch and church at Bemerton supplied the needs of a thinlyWalloon divines, five professors from different universities, and

scattered population, though it would perhaps have twenty-one lay elders, with ecclesiastical deputies from most of the States of the United Provinces, and from the churches of the Pala.

been overcrowded by a congregation of fifty. There tinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Bremen, England, and Scotland. The he laboured for not quite three years, marked for Synod of Dort condemned the Arminians, banished their ministers, death by consumption, lodged in a slight hollow of and submitted to trial their ablest defenders, Barnevelt, Grotius, and Hoogarbetz. Barnevelt was executed ; Grotius and Hoogarbetz were

pleasant but over-watered meadow-land, most favourcondemned to perpetual imprisonment. Arminian opinion spread

able to the growth of his disease. The supreme through the Reformed Churches of Europe, and was favoured hy beauty of George Herbert's life was in its close at James I. and Charles I. because they looked upon the Calvinistic Bemerton from the beginning of his ministration Puritans as enemies, and had more trust in a body of Reformers who had parted from them and were persecuted by them. The strict

there in April, 1630, when he was thirty-seven years Calvinist disliked an Arminian almost as much as a Roman Catholic. old, to his death at the age of forty. He was buried Under the Stuarts royal preference of a divine tinged with Arminian under the altar of his church on the 3rd of March, opinions was so marked, that when Bishop George Morley was asked ** what the Arminians held," his answer was, “ All the best bishoprics

1633. According to his wish, no word of inscription and deaneries in England.”

| marks his resting-place. The little church remains,

When thou dost tell another's jest, therein

Omit the oaths, which true wit cannot need:
Pick out of tales the mirth, but not the sin;
He pares his apple that will cleanly feed.

Play not away the virtue of that Name
Which is the best stake when griefs make thee toes

and is still used for week-day prayers, but near it there has been built a handsome memorial church.

For his own use he set down in a little book his view of the duties of “the Country Parson,” treating of his knowledge; the parson on Sundays; his praying; his preaching ; his charity; his comforting the sick; his arguing; his condescending; the parson in his journey; the parson in his mirth ; the parson with his churchwardens; the parson blessing the people. “His chiefest recreation,” says Izaak Walton, “was music, in which heavenly art he was a most excellent master, and composed many divine hymns and anthems, which he set and sung to his lute or viol; and though he was a lover of retiredness, yet his love to music was such that he went usually twice every week, on certain appointed days, to the cathedral church in Salisbury, and at his

Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God,

Thy mouth to it, thy actions to them both:
Cowards tell lies, and those that fear the rod;
The stormy-working soul spits lies and froth.

Dare to be true: nothing can need a lie;
A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby.

The way to make thy son rich is to fill

His mind with rest, before his trunk with riches: 30 For wealth without contentment climbs a hill,

To feel those tempests which fly over ditches;

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But if thy son can make ten pound his measure, Then all thou addest may be called his treasure

return would say, that his time spent in prayer and cathedral music elevated his soul, and was his heaven upon earth.' But before his return thence to Bemerton he would usually sing and play his part at an appointed private music-meeting; and to justify this practice he would often say, 'Religion does not banish mirth, but only moderates and sets rules to it.'” George Herbert's sacred poems, expressing a pure spirit of worship that shone in these last years of his life through all his actions, were published under the title of “ The Temple" in 1633, soon after his death. The opening verses, entitled “ The Church Porch," are counsels as to the mind with which the temple should be entered, of which these are a few examples that may serve as an abridgment of the whole :

By all means use sometimes to be alone;

Salute thyself; see what thy soul doth wear: Dare to look in thy chest, for 'tis thine own, And tumble up and down what thou find'st there: Who cannot rest till he good-fellows find, He breaks up house, turns out of doors his mind. 31

Be sweet to all. Is thy complexion sour?

Then keep such company; make them thy allar:
Get a sharp wife, a servant that will lour :
A stumbler stumbles least in rugged way.

Command thyself in chief. He life's war knows
Whom all his passions follow as he goes.

FROM GEORGE HERBERT'S CHURCH PORCH. Thou whose sweet youth and early hopes inhance

Thy rate and price, and mark thee for a treasure,
Hearken unto a Verser, who may chance
Rhyme thee to good, and make a bait of pleasure:

A verse may find him who a sermon flies,
And turn delight into a sacrifice.

Laugh not too much; the witty man laughs least.

For wit is news only to ignorance.
Less at thine own things laugh, lest in the jest
Thy person share and the conceit advance.
Make not thy sport abuses ; for the fly
That feeds on dung is coloured thereby.

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