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Searcheth into his friend's designs, and foes :
But subjects most he fears, for well he knows This tower's most like to fall if treason 'mongst them rose.
But the Island, not content with its own happiness, “ would try whate'er is in the continent, and seek out ill and search for wretchedness," allured by the serpent from the peaceful shore. The first canto Phineas ends with loving reference to his brother Giles, and allusion to his own youth, from which it must be inferred that the Purple Island, although not published until 1633, was written in the reign of James I. In the second, third, fourth, and fifth cantos Man's Body is described as geography and economy of an island with over-elaborate allegory. Spenser, in the second book of the “ Faerie Queene,” had described the Body as a castle, the castle of the Soul, and Du Bartas had been ingeniously descriptive. Then in the sixth canto Justice and Mercy plead in heaven against and for the rebellious Island, and this gives Phineas occasion again to refer lovingly to his brother Giles's poem. Within the Purple Island there is fierce dissension. The Prince of the Island is allseeing Intellect.
“ Therefore while yet he lurks in earthly tent,
Disguised in worthless robes and poor attire,
For when away from this sad place he flies,
And in the skies abides, more bright than skies; Too glorious is his sight for our dim mortal eyes."
Then we have pictured allegorically the inmates of the Castle of Intellect, in a way suggested by Spenser's description of the Castle of Alma (the Soul).
The seventh and eighth cantos set forth the enemies by whom the Prince is besieged, “ the enraged Dragon and his serpents bold,” with him Caro (the Flesh), " accursed dam of sin," and the chief ills personified that are at war with the true life of man. The ninth and tenth cantos set forth, as warriors ranged to “beat back these hellish sprites,” the several parts of the true spiritual life; and the two remaining cantos then set forth, as war for and against the Dragon, the long contest between good and evil in the Purple Island. It is ended by the help of the Saviour at the prayer of Electa (the chosen), and is heralded by King James I. in the form of an angel.
“He knows nor death, nor years, nor feeble age;
But as his time, his strength and vigour grows :
And battered sconce now flat and even lies;
Sooner than thought to that Great Judge he flies, Who weighs him just reward of good, or injuries.
“For he the Judge's viceroy here is placed ;
Where if he lives as knowing he may die, He never dies, but with fresh pleasures graced, Bathes his crowned head in blessed eternity;
Where thousand joys and pleasures ever new,
And blessings thicker than the morning dew, With endless sweets rain down on that immortal crew.
“And straight an Angel full of heavenly might
(Three several crowns adorn'd his royal head). From northern coast raising his blazing light, Through all the earth his glorious beams dispread,
And open lays the beast's and Dragon's shame:
For to this end, th' Almighty did him frame, And therefore from supplanting gave his ominous name.
“Hence while unsettled here he fighting reigns,
Shut in a tower where thousand enemies Assault the fort; with wary care and pains
He guards all entrance, and by divers spies
1 James = Jacob, supplanter or begniler. King James interpreted the Book of Revelations.
if God convey so much good by other men that are good, let servant, Joseph, Potiphar's house was blessed. Naaman had us make much of them, as public persons, as instruments of a poor maid-servant that was the occasion of his conversion. our good ; take away malice, and pride, and a poisonful Grace will set anybody a-work; it puts a dexterity into any, spirit, and all their good is ours. What hinders that we though never so mean; they carry God's blessing wheresoever have no good by them? Pride, and an envious spirit, &c. they go, and they bethink themselves when they are in any
A second thing that I observe hence is this: holy and condition to do good, as he saith in Hester, God hath called gracious men, that are led by the Spirit of God, can deny me to this place, perhaps for this end. We should often themselves and their own best good for the Church's benefit. put this query to ourselves : Why hath God called me to this They know that God hath appointed them as instruments to place? for such and such a purpose. convey good to others, and knowing this, they labour to come Now that we may be fruitful as Paul was, let us labour to to Paul's spirit here, to desire to live, to have life in patience | have humble spirits. God delights in an humble spirit, and and death in desire in regard of themselves; for it were much not in a proud spirit, for that takes all the glory to itself; better for a good man to be in heaven out of misery, out of
God delights to use humble spirits that are content to stoop this conflicting condition with the devil and devilish-minded to any service for others, that think no office too mean. men.
Secondly, get loving hearts. Love is full of inventionThe reason is, because a good man, as soon as he is a good How shall I glorify God ? How shall I do good to others? man, hath the spirit of love in him; and love seeketh not its How shall I bring to heaven as many as I can? Love is a own, but the good of another; and as the love of Christ and sweet and boundless affection, full of holy devices. the love of God possesseth and seizeth upon the soul, so self. Thirdly, labour to have sufficiency in our places, that you love decays. What is gracious love but a decay of self-love ? may have ability to do good. Oh, when these meet together, The more self-love decays the more we deny ourselves. ability and sufficiency, and a willing, a large, and gracious
Again, God's people have the Spirit of Christ in them, who heart, and a fit object to do good to, what a deal of good is minded not His own things. If Christ had minded His own done then! things, where had our salvation been ? Christ was content Fourthly, and when we find opportunity of doing any to leave heaven, and to take our nature upon Him, to be good let us resolve upon it--resolve to honour God and serve Emanuel, God with us, that we might be with God for ever him in spite of flesh and blood. For we must get every good in heaven. He was content not only to leave heaven, but to work that we do out of the fire, as it were; we must get it be born in the womb of a virgin ; He was content to stoop to out with travail and pains. We carry that about us that will the grave; He stooped as low as hell in love to us. Now | hinder us, let us; therefore labour to have sincere aims in where Christ's Spirit is, it will bring men from their altitudes that we do to please God, and then resolve to do all the good and excellences, and make them to stoop to serve the Church, we can. and account it an honour to be an instrument to do good. To stir us up to be more and more fruitful in our places, Christ was content to be accounted not only a servant of | let us consider we live for others, and not for ourselves, when God, but of the Church's: “My righteous servant,” &c. we are good Christians once. It was a good speech of that Those that have the Spirit of Christ have a spirit of self. godly Palsgrave, great-grandfather to him that is (Frederick denial of their own; we see the blessed angels are content to the Godly they called him), when he was to die,“ Satis robis," be ministering spirits for us; and it is thought to be the sin of saith he, “I have hitherto lived for you, now let me live for the devil, pride, when he scorned to stoop to the keeping of | myself.” We live here all our life for others, therefore let man, an inferior creature to himself. The blessed angels dous think while we live how we may do most good in the not scorn to attend upon a poor child, little ones. A Christian Church of God. is a consecrated person, and he is none of his own; he is a For encouragement hereunto, consider God will undertake sacrifice as soon as he is a Christian-he is Christ's—he gives to recompense all the good we do, to a cup of cold water; we himself to Christ; and as he gives himself, so he gives his life shall not lose a sigh, a groan, for the Church; God would and all to Christ, as Paul saith of the Corinths they gave | account himself dishonoured if it should not be rewarded, he themselves and their goods to Him. When a Christian gives hath pawned his faithfulness upon it. He is not unfaithful himself to Christ, he gives all to Christ-all his labour and to be unmindful of your good works. pains, and whatsoever he knows that Christ can serve him Nay, we have a present reward and contentment of con. self of him for His Church's good, and His glory; he knows science; as light accompanies fire, so peace and joy accom. that Christ is wiser than he, therefore he resigns himself to pany every good action. All is not reserved for heaven; a His disposal, resolving, if he live, he lives to the Lord; and Christian hath some beginnings of happiness here; when he if he die, he dies to the Lord ; that so, whether he live or doth that that is contrary to the flesh and blood. How full of die, he may be the Lord's.
sweet joy is a fruitful soul! Those that are fruitful in their O beloved, that we had the spirit of St. Paul and the places never want arguments of good assurance of salvation. Spirit of Christ to set us a-work to do good while we are here, | It is your lazy lukewarm Christian that wants assurance. to deny ourselves; oh, it would be meat and drink, as it was Therefore I beseech you be stirred up, to live desired in the to our blessed Saviour Christ, to do good all kind of ways. world, and die lamented. Labour to be useful in your places Consider all the capacities and abilities we have to do good, all you can; to be as the olive and fig-tree, delighting God this way and that way, in this relation and that relation, that | and man, and not to cumber the ground of the Church with we may be trees of righteousness, that the more we bear the barrenness; sins of omission, because men were not fruitful more we may bear. God will mend His own trees, He will in their places, was a ground of damnation : “(ast the unpurge them and prune them to bring forth more fruit. God profitable servant into utter darkness." Put case he did no cherisheth fruitful trees. In the law of Moses, when they be- 1 harm; ay, but he was unprofitable. Such was the cursei sieged any place, he commanded them to spare fruitful trees. disposition of Ephraim; he brought forth fruit to himself. God spares a fruitful person till he have done his work: we Oh this looking to ourselves! When we make ourselves know not how much good one man may do, though he be a mean person; sometimes one poor wise man delivereth the city, and the righteous delivereth the island. We see for one
1 Let, delay, hinder.
TO A.D. 1635.)
the beginning and the end of all the good we do, it is an argument of a barren person. None ever came to heaven but those that denied themselves.
Lest for our fruitlessness Thy light of grace
In 1635, year of the death of Richard Sibbes, George Wither and Francis Quarles each followed a fashion of the time, and published a book of Emblems. Wither's book was a handsomne folio, with a good selection of emblem pictures, well engraved, and a fine portrait of the author. Quarles's volume was in 12mo, with somewhat rudely-executed woodcuts of emblems, usually ill-drawn. Quarles's book has been often reproduced with improved pictures, but there has been neglect of Wither's work, which is not inferior in merit. It is divided into four books, each containing fifty-six Emblems followed by a “Lottery,” that ingeniously sums up their teaching in fifty-six stanzas. This is George Wither's Emblem of
I am in a strait betwixt two, haring a desire to depart, and to be with
Christ.-PHILIPPIANS I, 23.
This modern Emblem is a mute expressing
What mean these liv'ries and possessive keys?
What mean these bargains and these needless sales ? What mean these jealous, these suspicious ways
Of law-devised and law-dissolved entails?
Estates of high-prized land; no need to tie
1 This honest line recalls the wholesome answer of Orlando to the sickly Jaques, whom Shakespeare represents as seeing in the seven ages of man only occasion for a sneer at each
“Jaques. Will you sit down with me, and we two will rail against our mistress the world and all our misery.
“Orlando. I will chide no breather in the world but myself, against whom I know most fanlts."
“So he arose upon his outstretched sails,
Fearless expecting his approaching death; So he arose, that th' air both starts and fails, And over-presséd, sinks his load beneath :
So he arose, as doth a thunder-cloud,
Which all the earth with shadows black doth shroud: So he arose, and through the weary air he rowed.
“Soon at this fight the Knights revive again,
As fresh as when the flowers from winter's tomb, When now the sun brings back his nearer wain Poep out again from their fresh mother's womb:
The primrose, lighted new, her flame displays,
And frights the neighbour hedge with fiery rays: And all the world renew their mirth and sportive plays.
“Now his Almighty Foe far off he spies;
Whose sun-like arms eclipsed the brightest day, Confounding with their beams less glittering skies, Firing the air with more than heavenly ray,
Like thousand suns in one:—such is their light,
A subject only for immortal spright,
“The Prince, who saw his long imprisonment
Now end in never ending liberty,
Pours out deserved thanks in grateful praise :
But him the heavenly Saviour soon doth raise, And bids him spend in joy his never-ending days."
4 His threat'ning eyes shine like that dreadful flame,
With which the thunderer arms his angry hand : Himself had fairly wrote His wondrous Name, Which neither earth nor heaven could understand:
A hundred crowns, like towers, beset around
His conquering head: well may they there abound, When all his limbs, and troops, with gold are richly crown'd.
Then the poem ends with the marriage joy of Electa to whom the Saviour is bridegroom, she a glaelsone bride.
“His armour all was dyed with purple blood;
In purple blood of thousand rebel kings; In vain their stubborn powers His arm withstood: Their proud necks chained, He them in triumph brings, And breaks their spears, and alltheir trait'rous swords;
Upon whose arms and thigh in fairest words Was written, The King of kings, and Lord of lords.
George Sandys, younger brother of Richari Hooker's pupil, Edwin Sandys, and son to the Anda bishop of York, was born in 1577, and died in 1614. He travelled in the East, translated Ovid's - Metamorphoses," and in 1636 published a “ Paraphrase of the Psalms,” with music by Henry Lawes, the coast composer of the day. In the same volume were bis paraphrases of Job, of the Lamentations of Jert minh, and of other songs out of the Old and New Testallerts This is George Sandys's version of
ON MR. G. HERBERT'S BOOK. Know you, fair, on what you look: Divinest love lies in this book, Expecting fire from your eyes, To kindle this His sacrifice. When your hands untie these strings, Think you've an angel by the wings;
1" For the word of the Lord is quick and powerful, sharper than iany two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of the soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart." (Heb. iv. 12.)
1 The towers of Westminster Abbey in the time of Charles I. were not raised above the level of the roof. We see them in modern London as completed-not in best accordance with the architecture of the building-by Sir Christopher Wren.
Robert Herrick, ejected from his parsonage at Dean Prior, came to London, and published, in 1648, not only his “ Hesperides,” but his more sacred thoughts in a separate book, as “Noble Numbers,” of which these are some :