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rashly of that deep secretneas above the measure of our resurrection to Christ. He brings us to his everlasting understanding. They did eat the lamb's flesh with their Father, who gave him to death for our sins. To Him be loins girt. In the loins is the lust of the body. And he honour, and praise of well doing, worid without end. which shall receive the housell, shall restrain that concupi. Amen!! scence and take with chastity that holy receipt. They were also shod. What be shoes but of the hides of dead beasts?
Of Ælfric's other series of Homilies, written to We be truly shod if we follow in our steps and deeds the life
explain what was celebrated on the saints' days, one of those pilgrims which please God with keeping of his com
of the most interesting is that for St. Gregory's Day, mandments. They had staves in their hands when they ate.
the 12th of March, an old telling of the old tale of This staff signifieth a carefulness and a diligent overseeing. And all they that best know and can, should take care of
the manner in which missionaries from Rome came other men, and stay them up with their help. It was
to convert the English. A translation of this sermon enjoined to the eaters that they should eat the lamb in was published in 1709, by Elizabeth Elstob, who, haste. For God abhorreth slothfulness in his servants. And at the suggestion of Dr. Hickes, began a complete those he loveth that seek the joy of everlasting life with translation of the Homilies of Ælfric, which was quickness and haste of mind. It is written: Prolong not to
stopped by private troubles. Unpublished sheets turn unto God, lest the time pass away through thy slow
of it are in the British Museum. She had become tarrying. The eaters mought not break the lamb's bones. learned that she might be companion in his studies No more mought the soldiers that did hang Christ break his to her brother, who was of weak health, his comholy legs, as they did of the two thieves that hanged on panion and helper even when he was student at either side of him. And the Lord rose from death sound | Oxford, and afterwards in his City parsonage. He without all corruption : and at the last judgment they shall died in 1714, and in the same year she lost a see him, whom they did most cruelly hang on the cross. friend also in Queen Anne; but in the following This time is called in the Hebrew tongue Pasca, and in Latin year she published an Anglo-Saxon Grammar. Miss Transitus, and in English Passover : because that on this day Elstob was very poor, and set up a little school at the people of Israel passed from the land of Egypt over the Evesham. At last she became governess in the Red Sea ; from bondage to the land of promise. So also did family of the Duchess of Portland, who gave ease to
her old age. This is Elizabeth Elstob's version of
ÆLFRIC'S HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY'S DAY.
Gregory the Holy Father, the apostle of the English nation, on this present day, after manifold labours and divine studies, happily ascended to God's kingdom. He is rightly called the apostle of the English people, inasmuch as he through his counsel and commission rescued us from the worship of the devil, and converted us to the belief of God. Many holy books speak of his illustrious conversation and his pious life; among these the History of England, which King Alfred translated from the Latin into English. This book speaketh plainly enough of this holy man. Nevertheless we will now say something in few words concerning him ; because the aforesaid book is not known to you all, although it is translated into English. This blessed Father Gregory was born of noble and religious parents. His ancestors were of the Roman nobility, his father called Gordianus, and Felix that pious bishop was his fifth father. He was, as we have said, in respect of the world, nobly descended : but he adorned, and exceeded his high birth, with a holy conversation and good works. Gregory is a Greek name, which signifies in the Latin tongue Vigilantius, that is in English Watchful. He was very diligent in God's commandments, while he himself lived most devoutly, and he was earnestly concerned for promoting the advantage of many nations, and made known unto them the way of life. He was from his childhood instructed in the knowledge of books, and he so prosperously succeeded in his studies, that in all the city of Rome there was none esteemed to be like him. He was most diligent in following the example of his teachers, and not forgetful, but fixed his learning in a retentive memory. He sucked in with a thirsty desire the
AN EVANGELIST. (From the Cotton. ils., Tiberius, C. vi.)
our Lord at this time depart, as sayeth John the Evangelist, from this world to his heavenly Father. Even so we ought to follow our head, and to go from the devil to Christ; from this unstable world to his stable kingdom. Howbeit we should first in this present life depart from vice to holy virtue, from evil manners to good manners, if we will after this corruptible life go to that eternal life, and after our
e life go to that eternal life, and after our
1 “This sermon is found in diverse bookes of sermon written in the Olde Englishe or Saxon tounge; whereof two bookes bee nowe in the handes of the most reverend father the Archbishop of Canterburye." - Appended Note of the Elizabethan Translator,
flowing learning, which he often, after some time, with a throat sweeter than honey, and with an agreeable eloquence, poured out. In his younger years, when his youth might naturally make him love the things of this world, then began he to dedicate himself to God, and with all his desires to breathe after the inheritance of a heavenly life. For after his father's departure he erected six monasteries in Sicily; and the seventh he built in the city of Rome; in which he himself lived as a regular, under the government of the abbot. These seven monasteries he adorned with his own substance, and plentifully endowed them for their daily subsistence. The remainder of his estate he bestowed on God's poor; and he exchanged his nobility of birth for heavenly glory. He was used before his conversion to pass ulong the city of Rome in garments of silk, sparkling with gems, and adorned with rich embroidery of gold and red. But after his conversion he ministered to God's poor, and himself took upon him the profession of poverty in a mean habit. So perfectly did he behave himself at the beginning of his conversion, that he might hereafter be reputed in the number of perfect saints. He observed much abstinence in meat and drink, in watching, and in frequent devotions. He suffered, moreover, continual indisposition of body, and the inore severely he was oppressed with his present infirmities, the more earnestly did he desire eternal life. Then the Pope which at that time sat in the Apostolic See, when he perceived that the holy Gregory was greatly increased in spiritual virtues, he took him from conversing with monks, and appointed him to be his assistant, having ordained him a deacon.
It happened at some time, as it often doth, that some English merchants brought their merchandizes to Rome: and Gregory passing along the street to the Englishmen taking a view of their goods, he there beheld amongst their merchandizes slaves set out to sale. They were white complexioned, and men of fair countenance, having noble heads of hair. And Gregory, when he saw the beauty of the young men, enquired from what country they were brought; and the men said from England, and that all the men in that nation were as beautiful. Then Gregory asked them whether the men of that land were Christians, or heathens; and the men said unto him they were heathens. Gregory then fetching a long sigh from the very bottom of his heart, said, Alas! alas! that men of so fair a complexion should be subject to the prince of darkness. After that, Gregory enquired how they called the nation from whence they came. To which he was answered, that they were called Angle (that is, English). Then said he, Rightly they are called Angle, because they have the beauty of angels, and therefore it is very fit that they should be the companions of angels in heaven. Yet still Gregory enquired what the shire was named from which the young men were brought. It was told him that the men of that shire were called Deiri. Gregory answered, Well they are called Deiri, because they are delivered from wrath and called to the mercy of Christ. Yet again he enquired what was the name of the king of their province ; he was answered, that the king's name was Ælla. Therefore Gregory playing upon the words in allusion to the name, said, It is fit that Hallelujah be sung in that land in praise of the Almighty Creator. Gregory then went
to the bishop of the apostolical see, and desired him that he would send some instructors to the English people, that they might be converted to Christ by the grace of God: and said that he himself was ready to undertake that work, if the Pope should think it fit. But the Pope could not consent to it, although he altogether approved of it; because the Roman citizens would not suffer so worthy and learned a doctor to leave the city quite, and take so long a pilgrimage. .
After this it happened that a great plague came upon the Roman people, and first of all seized upon Pope Pelagius, and without delay took him off. Moreover, after the death of this Pope, the destruction was so great among the people, that everywhere throughout the city the houses stood desolate, and without inhabitants. Nevertheless it was not fit that the Roman city should be without a bishop. But all the people unanimously chose the holy Gregory to that honour, although he with all his power opposed it. Then Gregory sent an epistle to Mauricius the emperor, to whose child he had stood godfather, and earnestly desired and beseeched him, that he would never suffer the people to exalt him to the glory of that high promotion, because he feared that he, through the greatness of the charge and the worldly glory which he had some time before renounced, might again be ensnared. But the emperor's high marshal Germanus intercepted the letter and tore it in pieces, and afterwards told the emperor that all the people had chosen Gregory to be Pope. Then Mauricius the emperor returned thanks to Almighty God for this, and gave orders for his consecration. But Gregory betook himself to flight, and lay hid in a cave. Nevertheless they found him out, and carried him by force to St. Peter's Church, that he might there be consecrated to the popedom. Then Gregory, before his consecration, by reason of the increasing pestilence, exhorted the Roman people to repentance in these words : “My most beloved brethren, it behoveth us, that that rod of God which we ought to have dreaded, when we only expected it would be laid upon us, should now at least raise in us some concern when it is present and we have felt it. Let our grief open us a way to a true conversion, and let that punishment which we endure break the hardness of our hearts. Behold now this people is slain with the sword of heavenly anger, and each of them one by one is destroyed by a sudden slaughter. For the disease does not go before death, but you see that each man's death prevents the lingering of a disease. The slain art seized by death before they can have an opportunity of sighing and lamentation, to express their sincere repentance. Wherefore let each man take care how he comes into the presence of the mighty Judge, who will not bewail the evil which he has performed. (Almost) all the dwellers upon earth are taken away, and their houses stand empty. Fathers and mothers stand over the dead bodies of their children, and their heirs step before them to death. Let us carnestly betake ourselves to lamentation with true repent. ance now while we may, before this dreadful slaughter strike us. Let us call to mind whatever errors we have been guilty of, and oh! let us do penance with tears for that which we have done amiss. Let us reconcile God's favour to us by confessing our sins, as the prophet warneth us, “Let us lift up our hearts with our hands unto God;' that is, that we ought to lift up (or present the sincerity of our devotions with an earnest of good works. He giveth you confidence in your fear, who speaks to you by his prophet: I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked should turn from his way and live.' Let not any man despair of hims lf for the greatness of his sin, forasmuch as the old guilt of the people of Nineveh was expiated by their three days' repente ance: and the penitent thief by his dying words attained to
1 Conversion from life in the world to life in the monastery. Conversion simply means a change from one state to another. We can Convert gold into paper; and here a Roman prætor with money at command is converted into a monk vowed to poverty. Conversion from one form of religious belief to another, though the sense in which the word is commonly used by writers on religion, is by no means the one sense to which the word is limited,
the reward of eternal life. O let us then turn our hearts to English people, and he persuaded them to the voyage in God; speedily is the Judge inclined to our petitions, if we these words : “Be not ye afraid through the fatigue of so from our perverseness be set straight. O let us stand with long a journey, or through what wicked men may discourse carnest lamentations against the threatening sword of so concerning it: but with all stedfastness and zeal, and earnest great a judgment. Certainly perseverance is pleasing to the affection, by the grace of God, perfect the work ye have just Judge, although it is not grateful to men: because the begun; and be ye assured, that the recompense of your righteous and merciful God will have us with earnest petitions eternal reward is so much greater, by how much the greater to request his mercy, and he will not so much as we deserve difficulties you have undergone in fulfilling the will of God. be angry with us. Of this he speaketh by his prophet: Be obedient with all humility in all things to Augustine, 'Call upon me in the day of thy trouble, and I will deliver whom we have set over you to be your abbot. It will be thce, and thou shalt glorify me.' God himself is his own for your souls' health, so far as ye fulfil his admonitions. witness, that he will have compassion on him that calleth on Almighty God through his grace protect you, and grant that him; who admonishes us, that it is our duty to call upon him. I may behold the fruit of your labour in the eternal reward, For this cause, my most dearly beloved brethren, let us come and that I may be found together with you in the joy of together on the fourth day of this week early in the morning, your reward. Because although I cannot labour with you, and with a devout mind, and with tears, sing seven Litanies, yet I have a goodwill to share with you in your labour." that our angry Judge may spare us, when he seeth that we Augustine then with his companions, which are reckoned ourselves take vengeance on our sins.” So that whilst the to be about forty, that journeyed with him by Gregory's whole multitude, as well of the priestly order, and of the command, proceeded on their journey until they arrived monastic, as of the laity, according to the command of the prosperously in this island. In those days reigned king holy Gregory, were come on the Wednesday to the seven Æthelbyrht in the city of Canterbury, whose kingdom was fold Litany, the aforesaid pestilence raged so fast, that four stretched from the great river Humber to the south sea.
Augustine had taken interpreters in the kingdom of the Franks, as Gregory had ordered him; and he, by the mouths of the interpreters, preached God's word to the king and his people, viz., how our merciful Saviour by his own sufferings redeemed this guilty world, and to all that believe hath opened an entrance into the kingdom of heaven. Then king Æthelbyrht answered Augustine, and said, that those were fair words and promises which he gave him : but that he could not so suddenly leave the ancient customs which he and the English people had held. He said, he might freely preach the heavenly doctrine to his people, and that he would allow maintenance to him and his companions : and gave him a dwelling in the city of Canterbury, which was the head city in all his kingdom. Then began Augustine with his monks to imitate the life of the apostles, with frequent prayers, watchings and fastings, serving God, and preaching the word of life with all diligence; despising all earthly things as unprofitable to them, providing only so much as was necessary for their common subsistence, agreeable to what they taught living themselves, and for the love of the
truth which they preached being ready to suffer persecution, DEATH AND BURIAL)
and death itself, if it were necessary. Therefore very many From a MS. of Ælfric's Paraphrase of the Pentateuch and Joshrua.
believed, and were baptised in the name of God, admiring the Cotton. MSS., Claudius, B. iv.
simplicity of their innocent course of life, and the sweetness of score men departed this transitory life at the very instant the
their heavenly doctrine. Afterwards king #thelbyrht was people were singing the Litany. But the holy priest did not
much pleased with the purity of their lives, and their delightful cease to advise the people not to desist from their supplica
promises, which were indeed confirmed by many miracles. tions, until that God's mercy should assuage the raging plague.
And he believing was baptised, and he reverenced the In the meantime Gregory, since he took upon him the
Christians, and looked upon them as men of a heavenly polity. popedom, called to mind what he formerly had thought
Nevertheless he would not force any one to receive Chrisof, concerning the English nation, and finished that most
tianity, because he had found upon enquiry from the ministers beloved work. Nevertheless he might not on any ac
of his salvation, that the service of Christ ought not to be count be altogether absent from the Roman bishop's see.
forced, but voluntary. Then began very many daily to Whereupon he sent other messengers, approved servants of
hearken to the divine preaching, and leave their heathenism, God, to this island, and he himself, by his manifold prayers
and to join themselves to Christ's church, believing in him. and exhortations, brought it to pass, that the preaching of
In the meantime Augustine went over sea to Etherius these messengers went abroad, and bore fruit to God.
Archbishop of Arles, by whom he was consecrated Archbishop The messengers were thus named : Augustinus, Mellitus,
of the English, as Gregory before had given him direction. Laurentius, Petrus, Johannes, Justus. These doctors the
Augustine being consecrated, returned to his bishopric, and holy pope Gregory sent, with many other monks, to the
sent messengers to Rome, to assure the blessed Gregory, that
the English people had received Christianity; and he also in --
writing made many enquiries, as touching the manner, how ? This sketch shows the manner among the First English of
he ought to behave himself towards the new converts. swathing the dead for burial. The face was left for a time uncovered, then the fold was passed over it, and the body went down thus into
Whereupon Gregory gave many thanks to God with a joyful the grave.
| mind, that that had happened to the English nation which
himself had so earnestly desired. And he sent ambassadors to wrote in the reign of William the Conqueror Latin the believing king Æthelbyrht, with letters and many presents: Lives of Saints ; Turgot wrote during the reign of and other letters he sent to Augustine, with answers to all William II. a History of the Monastery of Durham; the things after which he had enquired, and advised him in
Eadmer wrote in the reign of Henry I. a Life of these words : “ Most dearly beloved brother, I know that the Anselm ; and Sawulf began the long series of Almighty hath by you shewn forth many wonders to the
| English records of travel and adventure, with an people whom he hath chosen, for which you have reason both
account of that form of far travel to which religion to rejoice and to be afraid. You may very prudently rejoice
prompted men-travel in Palestine, The religious that the souls of this people by outward miracles are brought
houses being still the chief centres of intellectual to have inward grace. Nevertheless be afraid ; that your
activity, and the spirit of adventure impelling mind be not lifted up with arrogance by reason of the miracles which God hath wrought by you, and you then fall
Englishmen then as now to foreign travel, men into vain-glory within, when you are extolled with outward
looked with especial interest towards the Holy respect." Gregory sent also to Augustine holy presents of
Land. Not long after the death of Cædmon, Adamsacred vestments and of books, and the reliques of the apostles
nan, Abbot of Iona, had written down an account and martyrs, and ordered that his successors should fetch the
of the holy places from the dictation of Bishop pall of the archbishopric from the apostolical see of the
Arculf, a native of Gaul, who had spent nine Roman Church.
months at Jerusalem. Bede abridged this narrative After this Augustine placed bishops out of those that into a text-book, that was used for diffusing a more had accompanied him, in each city of the English nation,
lively knowledge of the topography of Palestine, and they have remained promoting the Christian faith con. Another Englishman, early in First-English times, tinually unto this day. The holy Gregory composed many Willibald, also visited the Holy Land, before he divine treatises, and with great diligence instructed God's became Bishop of Eichstadt, about the year 740. people in the way to eternal life, and wrought many miracles He died in the latter part of the eighth century, and in his lifetime, and behaved himself in a most glorious his life was written by a nun of Heidenheim, who manner upon the episcopal throne thirteen years, and six also took down from his own mouth an account of months, and ten days, and afterwards as on this day departed his travels. to the eternal throne of the heavenly kingdom, in which he After the Conquest, the English traveller who liveth with God Almighty world without end. Amen. first followed the Crusaders to Palestine was Sæwulf.
His visit was paid in the years 1102 and 1103. Here we may pass from the literature of First. Sawulf was a merchant who often had twinges of English times. The teachers of religion were also conscience, confessed to Bishop Wulfstan at Wor. the teachers of all other learning, and formed the cester, then was tempted back to the old tricks of main body of the educated class. To be of the trade, and finally gave up active life in the world people, “leod," was to be unlearned, “lewed ;” the to escape from its temptations, and joined the monks educated man was clerk. From such a literary class at Malmesbury. His description of the storm at there came a literature almost exclusively religious. Joppa—due allowance made for rhetoric-gives us a The one great exception is the heathen poem of lively sense of the energy of that religious move * Beowulf.” “Beowulf” was a tale brought into ment towards Palestine, which had brought so many the country, but we have it as told in the language pilgrims into the harbour. In the following account spoken only here. In its origin it is more ancient of Sæwulf's entrance into the Holy Land and his than Cædmon, and its original character is well going up to Jerusalem, then in the hands of the preserved; but a few interspersed comments, and Crusaders, the Mosque of Omar is described as the the fact that it is in a form of speech proper to Temple of the Lord, with a minute identification of this country, and doubtless produced here by the sacred places that came of a determination to join fusion of tribes, shows that the old poem, as we thoughts of heaven with as many spots of earth as have it, was written by an English monk, who seems possible :even to have put local features of the coast near Whitby into his suggestions of scenery, and who
SÆWULF's VISIT TO THE HOLY PLACES." could hardly have written before Cædmon's time. After leaving the isle of Cyprus, we were tossed about by Except only a few short pieces, all other literature tempestuous weather for seven days and seven nights, being of the First English was religious, and applied religion forced back one night almost to the spot from which we very practically to the life of man.
sailed; but after much suffering, by divine mercy, at sunrise on the eighth day, we saw before us the coast of the port of Joppa, which filled us with an unexpected and extraordinary joy. Thus, after a course of thirteen weeks, as we took ship
at Monopoli, on a Sunday, having dwelt constantly on the CHAPTER II. TRANSITION ENGLISH: FROM THE CONQUEST TO
i From “Early Travels in Palestine, coinprising the narratives !
Arculf, Willibald, Bernard, Sawulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela. So WiCLIF.----A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1376.
John Maundeville, De la Brocquiere, and Maundrell, Ellite with
Notes, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., &c." One of many After the Conquest the chief literary energy was
valuable books with which Mr. Thomas Wrixht has, during a lots at first in the production of monastic chronicles. career, quickened the general knowledge of our past life and literi. Science was occupied with treatises on computation ture, and earned the gratitude of students who can recognise the of the time of Easter, until contact with the Arabs
worth of a busy life spent, with a definite aim, in sustained labor
helping always towards the higher education of the people. quickened scientific thought. Osbern of Canterbury Monopoli. A seaport of South Italy, on the Adriatic.
waves of the sea, or in islands, or in deserted cots and sheds of two days, by a mountainous road, very rough, and danger(for the Greeks are not hospitable), we put into the port of ous on account of the Saracens, who lie in wait in the caves Joppa, with great rejoicings and thanksgivings, on a Sunday. | of the mountains to surprise the Christians, watching both
And now, my dear friends, all join with me in thanking day and night to surprise those less capable of resisting by God for his mercy shown to me through this long voyage; the smallness of their company, or the weary, who may blessed be his name now and evermore! Listen now to a chance to lag behind their companions. At one moment, new instance of his mercy shown to me, although the lowest you see them on every side; at another, they are altogether of his servants, and to my companions. The very day we invisible, as may be witnessed by anybody travelling there. came in sight of the port, one said to me (I believe by divine Numbers of human bodies lie scattered in the way, and by the inspiration), “Sir, go on shore to-day, lest a storm come on way-side, torn to pieces by wild beasts. Some may, perhaps, in the night, which will render it impossible to land to wonder that the bodies of Christians are allowed to remain morrow.” When I heard this, I was suddenly seized with a unburied, but it is not surprising when we consider that there great desire of landing, and, having hired a boat, went into it, is not much earth on the hard rock to dig a grave: and if with all my companions; but, before I had reached the shore, earth were not wanting, who would be so simple as to leave the sea was troubled, and became continually more tempestu. his company, and go alone to dig a grave for a companion ? ous. We landed, however, with God's grace, without hurt, Indeed, if he did so, he would rather be digging a grave for and entering the city weary and hungry, we secured a lodging, himself than for the dead man. For on that road, not only and reposed ourselves that night. But next morning, as we the poor and weak, but the rich and strong, are surrounded were returning from church, we heard the roaring of the sea, with perils; many are cut off by the Saracens, but more by and the shouts of the people, and saw that everybody was in heat and thirst; many perish by the want of drink, but more confusion and astonishment. We were also dragged along | by too much drinking. We, however, with all our company, with the crowd to the shore, where we saw the waves swell. reached the end of our journey in safety. Blessed be the ing higher than mountains, and innumerable bodies of drowned Lord, who did not turn away my prayer, and hath not turned persons of both sexes scattered over the beach, while the his mercy from me. Amen. fragments of ships were floating on every side. Nothing was The entrance to the city of Jerusalem is from the west, to be heard but the roaring of the sea and the dashing toge- under the citadel of king David, by the gate which is called ther of the ships, which drowned entirely the shouts and the gate of David. The first place to be visited is the church clamour of the people. Our own ship, which was a very large of the Holy Sepulchre, which is called the Martyrdom, not and strong one, and many others laden with corn and mer only because the streets lead most directly to it, but because chandise, as well as with pilgrims coming and returning, still it is more celebrated than all the other churches; and that held by their anchors, but how they were tossed by the waves! rightly and justly, for all the things which were foretold and how their crews were filled with terror! how they cast over forewritten by the holy prophets of our Saviour Jesus Christ board their merchandise! what eye of those who were looking were there actually fulfilled. The church itself was royally on could be so hard and stony as to refrain from tears? We and magnificently built, after the discovery of our Lord's had not looked at them long before the ships were driven cross, by the archbishop Maximus, with the patronage of the from their anchors by the violence of the waves, which threw emperor Constantine, and his mother Helena. In the middle them now up aloft, and now down, until they were run aground of this church is our Lord's Sepulchre, surrounded by a very or upon the rocks, and there they were beaten backwards and strong wall and roof, lest the rain should fall upon the forwards until they were crushed to pieces. For the violence Holy Sepulchre, for the church above is open to the sky. of the wind would not allow them to put out to sea, and the This church is situated, like the city, on the declivity of character of the coast would not allow them to put into shore Mount Sion. The Roman emperors Titus and Vespasian, with safety. Of the sailors and pilgrims who had lost all hope to revenge our Lord, entirely destroyed the city of Jeruof escape, some remained on the ships, others laid hold of the salem, that our Lord's prophecy might be fulfilled, which, masts or beams of wood; many remained in a state of stupor, as he approached Jerusalem, seeing the city, he pronounced, and were drowned in that condition without any attempt to save weeping over it, “If thou hadst known, even thou, for themselves; some (although it may appear incredible) had in the day shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall my sight their heads knocked off by the very timbers of the cast a trench about thce, and compass thee round, and keep ships to which they had attached themselves for safety; others thee in on every side, and shall lay thee even with the were carried out to sea on the beams, instead of being brought ground, and thy children with thee; and they shall not to land ; even those who knew how to swim had not strength leave in thee one stone upon another.” We know that our to struggle with the waves, and very few thus trusting to their Lord suffered without the gate. But the emperor Hadrian, own strength reached the shore alive. Thus, out of thirty who was called Ælius, rebuilt the city of Jerusalem, and the very large ships, of which some were what are commonly | Temple of the Lord, and added to the city as far as the Tower called dromonds, some gulafres, and others cats,' all laden of David, which was previously a considerable distance from with palmers and with merchandise, scarcely seven remained the city, for any one may see from the Mount of Olivet where safe when we left the shore. Of persons of both sexes, there the extreme western walls of the city stood originally, and perished more than a thousand that day. Indeed, no eye how much it is since increased. And the emperor called the ever beheld a greater misfortune in the space of a single day, city after his own name Ælia, which is interpreted, the House from all which God snatched us by his grace; to whom be of God. Some, however, say that the city was rebuilt by the honour and glory for ever. Amen
emperor Justinian, and also the Temple of the Lord as it is We went up from Joppa to the city of Jerusalem, a journey now; but they say that according to supposition, and not ac
cording to truth. For the Assyrians," whose fathers dwelt in i Dromonds. . . gulofres. . . cats. A dromond, Greek opónov, from that country from the first persecution, say that the city was Toexw (root opéuw), I run, is a large fast sailing vessel. Gulafre is the
taken and destroyed many times after our Lord's Passidn, Arabic "khaliyah," a low flat-built galley with one deck, sails and
along with all the churches, but not entirely defaced. oars, common in the Mediterranean. A cat is a very strong ship, with a narrow stern, projecting quarters, a deep waist, and no figure at the prow. The name is still used in the coal trade.
2 Assyrians is Sæmund's name for Syrians.