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Laud, as Bishop of London, had severely censured | harshly treated during three years of imprisonment, the Lord Mayor for prohibiting a woman from selling that ended in his trial and his execution on the 10th apples on Sunday in St. Paul's Churchyard. His of January, 1645. From the scaffold Laud, seventyenforcement of the reading of this “Book of Sports ” one years old, delivered his last words to man in the in all the English churches was resisted by many form of his own funeral sermon, on a text from the of the clergy, who were therefore silenced. Some twelfth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, “Let who read it, read the Fourth Commandment after us run with patience the race which is set before us, it. Some read it unwillingly, with forced compliance looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our to preserve their livings. William Prynne, after a faith ; who, for the joy that was set before him, enyear's imprisonment in the Tower, was sentenced dured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down to a fine of £5,000, to be expelled from his Uni | at the right hand of the throne of God.” The sermon versity, his Inn of Court, and his profession of the ended, this was law; to be pilloried, first at Palace Yard, Westminster, then at Cheapside, and in each place to lose

LAUD'S LAST PRAYER. an ear; to have his book burnt before his face by the common executioner ; and to be imprisoned for

| O Eternal God and merciful Father, look down upon me life. In 1637 eight ships in the Thames prepared

in mercy; in the riches and fulness of all thy mercies look to carry to New England refugees from the rule of

down upon me, but not till thou hast nailed my sins to the compulsion, were stopped, and an Order of Council

cross of Christ. Look upon me, but not till thou hast bathed prohibited “all ministers unconformable to the doc

me in the blood of Christ; not till I have hid myself in trine and discipline of the Church of England ; and

the wounds of Christ; that so the punishment that is due that no clergyman should be suffered to pass to the

to my sins may pass away and go over me: and since thou foreign plantations without the approbation of the

art pleased to try me to the uttermost, I humbly beseech

thee, give me now in this great instant full patience, proporArchbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Lon

tionable comfort, a heart ready to die for my sins, the King's don." On the 30th of June in the same year

happiness, and the preservation of this Church ; and my zeal Prynne, the lawyer, stood in the pillory again, to

to these (far from arrogance be it spoken) is all the sin, lose what remained of his ears, with the Rev. Henry

human frailty excepted, and all incidents thereunto, which is Burton and Dr. John Bastwick, a physician, sen

yet known of me in this particular, for which I now come tenced also to fine, branding, mutilation, and im

to suffer ; but otherwise my sins are many and great. Lord, prisonment. But as they went to the pillory the

pardon them all, and those especially which have drawn people had strewed sweet herbs on the way.

down this present judgment upon me; and when thou hast There had been old antagonism between William

given me strength to bear it, then do with me as seems best Laud and John Williams, who in 1621 succeeded

to thee; and carry me through death that I may look upon Bacon as Lord Keeper, and was at the same time

it in what visage soever it shall appear to me, and that made Bishop of Lincoln. His opinions on public there may be a stop of this issue of blood in this more questions did not please the Court of Charles. The than miserable kingdom. I pray for the people, too, as well Duke of Buckingham had been his enemy, and he as for myself. O Lord, I beseech thee, give grace of repenthad both Charles and Laud against him. As early ance to all people that have a thirst for blood; but if they as 1627 an attempt had been begun to charge him will not repent, then scatter their devices, and such as are with betrayal of the king's secrets. In 1637 this or shall be contrary to the glory of thy great name, the accusation was shifted to a charge of tampering with truth and sincerity of religion, the establishment of the King, the king's witnesses. He was condemned, and sen and his posterity after him in their just rights and privileges, tenced to a fine of £10,000, suspension by the High the honour and conservation of Parliament, in their ancient Commission Court from all his offices, and imprison and just power, the preservation of this poor Church in the ment during the king's pleasure. His palace was

truth, peace, and patrimony, and the settlement of this disentered to seize goods to the value of the fine, and

tracted and distressed people under their ancient laws and a letter was there found from Lambert Osbaldistone,

in their native liberties. And when thou hast done all this Master of Westminster School, in which Laud, small

in mere mercy for them, O Lord, fill their hearts with thankof stature, was referred to as “the little urchin,”

fulness, and with religious dutiful obedience to thee and thy and “ the little meddling hocus pocus." Upon this

commandments all their days. Amen, Lord Jesus, and I

beseech thee receive my soul into thy bosom, Amen. letter further proceedings were taken, and Dr. Williams was sentenced to pay £5,000 more to the king and £3,000 to the Archbishop of Canterbury; If any think it strange that a good man, engaged while the writer of the letter was fined £5,000 to in intense controversy about sacred things, could err the king, £5,000 to the Archbishop of Canterbury, as Laud erred in attempting to enforce that unity deprived of his preferments, condemned to imprison within the Church of Christ for which all true hearts ment during the king's pleasure, and to stand in the laboured and still labour, let him remember that the pillory with his ear nailed to the posts. Dr. Wil | Pilgrim Fathers were good men, and that in the free liams was not released until 1640, when he was church which they crossed the wide Atlantic to reconciled to the king, who made him, in 1641, secure they were, after a few years, banishing those Archbishop of York. Laud was then in the Tower, fellow-Christians whom they termed heretics. One to which he was conveyed on the 1st of March, of their leaders was exclaiming, “ God forbid, that 1641. He had tried force against force stronger our love of the truth should be grown so cold that than his own, and raised a tumult against prelacy. we should tolerate errors !” Another averred that He was stripped of his revenues, heavily fined, and / “ to say men ought to have liberty of conscience is

impious ignorance." Another urged that “ Religion and conversation of all ministers and schoolmasters. admits of no eccentric notions." Every member of These local courts were first instituted in 1643, and the congregation of a tolerant Baptist of Rhode | remained instruments of tyranny for the next ten Island was tined twenty or thirty pounds, and one years. A fifth of the sequestrated income might be who refused to pay the tine was whipped unmercifully. granted to the expelled man, on conditions that even There was a fine on absence from “ the ministry of

a word of resentment might be held to break, and the Word;" to deny that any book in the Old or the number of the clergy thus ejected has been New Testament was throughout the infallible Word |

reckoned by the historian of their sufferings at seven of God, was blasphemy, punishable by fine and thousand. togging, and in case of obstinacy, by exile or death. When Cromwell first raised his troop, he had A levout woman, hearing of such things, travelled invited Baxter to become its pastor. Baxter refused, all the way from London to warn the leaders of the and reasoned against the appeal to arms. But when now church against persecution, and they flogged her. | war was so far afoot that the only question could be She was wontenced to twenty stripes. At home, of having or not having the religious life maintained when Land's friends ceased to be the persecutors, among the combatants, Baxter consented to become, they became the persecuted. Each party was full of and was for two years, chaplain to a regiment. Thus zen) in other character, and we can only look with he was at the taking of Bridgewater, the siege of cual myo, whether argument be of the seventeenth | Bristol and of Sherborne Castle. He was three weeks or nineteenth contury, on imperfections common to at the siege of Exeter, six weeks before Banbury humanity. Jolin Robinson uttered a great truth Castle, and eleven weeks at the siege of Worcester. who li hin faro well to the little band that left | In the army he opposed the various forms of free Dollt in the Maytlower, he said, “The Lord has more | opinion in religion to be found among the soldiers, tinch yost to brouk forth out of His Holy Word." and somewhat lost their confidence by his zeal on Ai wo not waiting yet for the acceptance of its behalf of unity; for he flinched from the religious Iruding truth, that of the three abiding virtues of the disputations that had cast out love, and chiefly on (the most in the greatest is charity ? “ Though I have | that ground held with the Presbyterians of those aloes milt of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, days, who desired uniform Church government not

'all knowledgo; and though I have all faith, less than Laud, but sought to give it a shape which * Ilmut I could remove mountains, and have not they regarded as more Biblical than the machinery of

burity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all | archbishops and bishops. In their desire also to my mins to feed the poor, and though I give | separate their church as much as possible from the my body to be burned, and have not charity, | traditions of the Church of Rome, they scrupulously protitesti ime nothing." So St. Paul interpreted |

avoided naming children after saints. Most of the les feswohinge of Him who based His Church upon names in the New Testament, and many more, being Iwe no linde; "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God thus associated with saint worship, Old Testament will all they heart, and with all thy soul, and with names, as Elijah, Jonathan, Obadiah ; or the names w why mimi. This is the first and great command of Christian gifts, Grace, Faith, Hope, Charity; or mond. And the second is like unto it: Thou shalt even religious phrases, were given as Christian names lovas Ily michbour as thyself. On these two com to their children by pious parents. Towards the manomenem ung all the law and the prophets." end of the civil war Baxter had a severe illness,

In this sonno many a true man of many a creed and it was at that time that he wrote that one of we munght the ponce of God, and Richard Baxter his many books which is most widely read, “The In...i towaruh peace. He was gentle, without | Saint's Everlasting Rest,” first published in 1653.

waliosas or workness, and he sought unity for the He says :abbandoned Church as earnestly as William Laud.

meln winokoned among the Puritans, and shared “Whilst I was in health, I had not the least thought of Alan Hamleylarimni sympathies of the Long Parliament. writing books, or of serving God in any more public way than wowa imembers voted, in May, 1641, approval “ of preaching. But when I was weakened with great bleeding, Alama tion of their brethren of Scotland, in their

and left solitary in my chamber at Sir John Cook's in Derbr. aan of a conformity in the Church government

shire, without any acquaintance but my servant about me,

and was sentenced to death by the physicians, I began to Tween the two nations." The Grand Committee of Thors whole lotimo for Religion, appointed three days

contemplate more seriously on the everlasting rest which I

apprehended myself to be just on the borders of; and that w olle mabiling of the Parliament, had originated

my thoughts might not too much scatter in my meditation, I im lim Jaime'n time, but soon became a new energy

began to write something on that subject, intending but the for the inquiry into accusations against loyal clergy.

quantity of a sermon or two (which is the cause that the 16 mm in mule committee, which divided itself into

beginning is, in brevity and style, disproportionable to the mummul lower committees, and the first sentence of

rest); but being continued long in weakness, where I had no Homeporntention WILM pansed by the Grand Committee

books, nor no better employment, I followed it on till it was twell us early in the 16th of January, 1611. As

enlarged to the bulk in which it is published. The first three the work grow on the hands of the sequestrators,

weeks I spent in it was at Mr. Vowell's house at Kirby concomillar wore appointed under Parliament in all

Mallory, in Leicestershire; a quarter of a year more, at the won of the country. They were to consist of from

scasons which so great weakness would allow, I bestowed on live to ton members, each paid five shillings a day it at Sir Tho. Rouse's house, at Rouse Lench, in Won esterfor loin rattendance, and we're enjoined to be “speedly

shire; and I finished it shortly after at Kidderminster. The r itual" in their inquiry into the lives, doctrine, I first and last parts were first done, being all that I intended

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for my own use; and the second and third parts came after brotherhood of Christian charity. “I have credibly wards in besides my first intention."

heard,” says Baxter, “that Dr. Thomas Goodwin,

Philip Nye, and Dr. Owen, the leaders of the InUnder the Commonwealth, Richard Baxter spoke dependents, did tell the king that, as the Pope his mind freely to Cromwell, and told him that he allowed orders of religious parties in mere dependence was a usurper, while admitting that he sought to use on himself, all that they desired was, not to be bis false position for the maintenance of godliness, masters of others, but to hold their own liberty of and that, where his own interest was not at stake, worship and discipline in sole dependence on the he sought more to do good than any who had gone king, as the Dutch and French churches do, so they before.

may be saved from the bishops and ecclesiastical courts." Before the arrival of Charles II. he had

been visited in Holland by English Presbyterians. CHAPTER X.

His Declaration from Breda had included in these

words the promise of an end of persecution for FROM THE COMMONWEALTH TO THE REVOLUTION. religion :

RICHARD BAXTER, John BUNYAN, JOHN MILTON,
RALPH CUDWORTH, ROBERT LEIGHTON, THOMAS

"And because the passion and uncharitableness of the times KEN, AND OTHERS. — A.D. 1660 TO A.D. 1689.

have produced several opinions in religion, by which men are engaged in parties and animosities against each other; which

when they shall hereafter unite in a freedom of conversation, N no small degree

will be composed, or better understood; we do declare a Charles II. owed

liberty to tender consciences; and that no man shall be dis. his crown to the

quieted, or called in question, for differences of opinion in division between

matters of religion which do not disturb the peace of the Presbyterians and

kingdom; and that we shall be ready to consent to such an act Independents. laents. At

At

of Parliament as, upon mature deliberation, shall be offered Kidderminster to us, for the full granting that indulgence." Richard Baxter had set up during the Commonwealth an

The king, whom Presbyterians had helped to the Association for Ca

throne, after his arrival in London, named ten or tholicism against

twelve Presbyterians, including Baxter, chaplains in ISITIAL. From Clarendon's Answer to Parties, of which he

ordinary. Baxter counselled his king not less faith"Leviathan" (1673).

wrote :

fully than he had counselled Cromwell, and stil!

laboured above all things to establish spiritual union "As we hindered no man from following his own judgment

among English Christians. Baxter and other Presbyin his own congregation, so we evinced, beyond denial, that it

terians in London discussed measures of compromise would be but a partial, dividing agreement to agree on the

with Episcopal clergy, and began by offering to terms of Presbyterian, Episcopal, or any one party, because it

accept Archbishop Usher's scheme of church governwould unavoidably shut out the other parties; which was the

ment, that made each bishop the head of a Presbytery principal thing which we endeavoured to avoid ; it being not which shared his powers, and a revised Liturgy that with Presbyterians only, but with all orthodox, faithful did not forbid extemporary prayer. They accepted pastors and people, that we are bound to hold communion, the king as supreme “in all things and causes, as and to live in Christian concord, so far as we have attained. well ecclesiastical as civil.” They proposed also that Hereupon, many counties began to associate, as Wiltshire, of the church ceremonies in question, some should be Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Hampshire, Essex, and others; abolished as occasions of dispute upon indifferent and some of them printed the articles of their agreement. In matters, and that use of others should be optional. a word, a great desire of concord began to possess all good Upon every point the Presbyterians were met with people in the land, and our breache3 seemed ready to heal. resistance by the bishops, but in October, 1660, the And though some thought that so many associations and king signed a Declaration on ecclesiastical affairs, forms of agreement did but tend to more division, by showing which conceded very much to Presbyterian desires. or diversity of apprehensions, the contrary proved true by Had it been acted upon, much strife and division Experience; for we all agreed on the same course, even to

would have been at an end ; but there can be no end unite in the practice of so much discipline as the Episcopal,

to strife without change in the minds of combatants. Presbyterians, and Independents are agreed in, and as The House of Commons in November, 1660, rejected Crosseth none of their principles.”

the Declaration by a majority of twenty-six.

Among enthusiasts of the time was a small body Baxter, who had always held by the monarchy, of Fifth-Monarchy men, so called from their interwelcomed the Restoration, and his great hope for a pretation of the prophecy in the seventh chapter of measure of compromise that would bring again into | Daniel. The four beasts had always been interpreted one church the Episcopal and Presbyterian Christians to mean the four great monarchies of the world ; the Beemned at last attainable. The best Independents ten horns of the fourth beast were said to be the ten desired fellowship without the pale of a church to European kingdoms, and the “ little horn" (verses 8, which, however they might be parted from it upon 20, 21,) was now read to mean William the Conmatters of opinion, they could be joined in the queror and his successors, who “made war with the Im Int " o

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waliowional and conversation of all ministers and schoolmasters. HOW 1444 W " in monta on the local courts were tirst instituted in 1613, and

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for my own use; and the second and third parts came after brotherhood of Christian charity. “I have credibly wards in besides my first intention.”

heard,” says Baxter, " that Dr. Thomas Goodwin,

Philip Nye, and Dr. Owen, the leaders of the InUnder the Commonwealth, Richard Baxter spoke dependents, did tell the king that, as the Pope his mind freely to Cromwell, and told him that he allowed orders of religious parties in mere dependence was a usurper, while admitting that he sought to use on himself, all that they desired was, not to be bis false position for the maintenance of godliness, masters of others, but to hold their own liberty of and that, where his own interest was not at stake, worship and discipline in sole dependence on the he sought more to do good than any who had gone king, as the Dutch and French churches do, so they before.

may be saved from the bishops and ecclesiastical courts." Before the arrival of Charles II. he had

been visited in Holland by English Presbyterians. CHAPTER X.

His Declaration from Breda had included in these

words the promise of an end of persecution for FROM THE COMMONWEALTH TO THE REVOLUTION. religion :

RICHARD BAXTER, JOHN BUNYAN, JOHN MILTON,
Ralph CUDWORTH, ROBERT LEIGHTON, THOMAS

"And because the passion and uncharitableness of the times KEN, AND OTHERS. — A.D. 1660 TO A.D. 1689.

have produced several opinions in religion, by which men are engaged in parties and animosities against each other; which

when they shall hereafter unite in a freedom of conversation, N no small degree

will be composed, or better understood; we do declare a Charles II. owed

liberty to tender consciences; and that no man shall be dishis crown to the

quieted, or called in question, for differences of opinion in division between

matters of religion which do not disturb the peace of the Presbyterians and

kingdom; and that we shall be ready to consent to such an act Independents. At

of Parliament as, upon mature deliberation, shall be offered Kidderminster

to us, for the full granting that indulgence.”
Richard Baxter had
set up during the
Commonwealth an

The king, whom Presbyterians had helped to the
Association for Ca-

throne, after his arrival in London, named ten or tholicism against

twelve Presbyterians, including Baxter, chaplains in LIITUAL From Clarendon's Answer to

ordinary. Baxter counselled his king not less faithParties, of which he "Leriathan " (1673). wrote :

fully than he had counselled Cromwell, and stil!

laboured above all things to establish spiritual union "As we hindered no man from following his own judgment

among English Christians. Baxter and other Presbyhis own congregation, so we evinced, beyond denial, that it

terians in London discussed measures of compromise Fuld be but a partial, dividing agreement to agree on the

with Episcopal clergy, and began by offering to termus of Presbyterian, Episcopal, or any one party, because it

accept Archbishop Usher's scheme of church governad unavoidably shut out the other parties; which was the

ment, that made each bishop the head of a Presbytery principal thing which we endeavoured to avoid ; it being not which shared his powers, and a revised Liturgy that with Presbyterians only, but with all orthodox, faithful did not forbid extemporary prayer. They accepted pestors and people, that we are bound to hold communion, the king as supreme “in all things and causes, as and to live in Christian concord, so far as we have attained. well ecclesiastical as civil.” They proposed also that Herrapon, many counties began to associate, as Wiltshire, of the church ceremonies in question, some should be Lorsetahire, Somersetshire, Hampshire, Essex, and others; abolished as occasions of dispute upon indifferent

and some of them printed the articles of their agreement. In matters, and that use of others should be optional. I word, a great desire of concord began to possess all good Upon every point the Presbyterians were met with papir in the land, and our breaches seemed ready to heal. resistance by the bishops, but in October, 1660, the And though some thought that so many associations and king signed a Declaration on ecclesiastical affairs, Loms of agreement did but tend to more division, by showing which conceded very much to Presbyterian desires

Grersity of apprehensions, the contrary proved true by Had it been acted upon, much strife and division Tr; for we all agreed on the same course, even to would have been at an end; but there can be no end alate in the practice of so much discipline as the Episcopal,

to strife without change in the minds of combatanta. habyterians, and Independents are agreed in, and as

The House of Commons in November, 1660, rejected math none of their principles.”

the Declaration by a majority of twenty-six.

Among enthusiasts of the time was a small body Baxter, who had always held by the monarchy, of Fifth-Monarchy men, so called from their intrFelpmed the Restoration, and his great hope for a pretation of the prophecy in the seventh chapiter of Belp of compromise that would bring again into | Daniel. The four beasts haud always been interpreted me church the Episcopal and Presbyterian Christians to mean the four great monarchies of the word; the

81 at last attainable. The best Independents ten horns of the fourth beast were said to be the ten al fellowship without the pale of a church to European kingdoms, and the “ lit:le horn" (verses 8.

1, however they might be parted from it upon 20, 21.) was now read to mean W2112m the Core Batters of opinion, they could be joined in the queror and his successors, who made war with the

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