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and Superstition and Pickthank bore witness against him, and the judge (clearly a judge versed in Acts of Uniformity) thus charged the jury :

own hand, so wrought it about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way.

The dialogues with By-ends, Save-all, Money-love, and Hold-the-world are full of distinct reference to the worldly loss imposed on Nonconformist preachers, and the question of their dissent from some of their own principles that they might comply with what appeared to be imposed conditions of their usefulness. Such talk brought Christian to the Hill of Lucre, and more incidents followed, with more homely dialogues. The Pilgrims became prisoners to Giant Despair in Doubting Castle, but escaped by opening the prison lock with a key called Promise, that was in Christian's bosom. Christian met with Little-faith, was saved by a Shining One from the net of the Flatterer, but also chastised; met with Atheist, Young Ignorance, and talked of Temporary, who dwelt in Graceless, next door to one Turnback, and had been much awakened till he dropped Christian's company for that of Saveself. So Christian at last came with Hopeful to the Gate of Death. There was a deep, unbridged river between them and it. They were told that there was no way but through the river. None but Enoch and Elijah had been spared the passage. Angels were there, who could not help them ; but who told them they would find the water deeper or shallower as they believed in the King of the place.

Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this town: you have also heard what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against hiin : also you have heard his reply and confession. It lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life; but yet I think meet to instruct you into our law.

There was an act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, servant to our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should multiply and grow too strong for him, their males should be thrown into the river. There was also an act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another of his servants, that whoever would not fall down and worship his golden image, should be thrown into a fiery furnace. There was also an act made in the days of Darius, that whoso, for some time, called upon any god but him, should be cast into the lion's den. Now the substance of these laws this rebel has broken, not only in thought (which is not to be borne), but also in word and deed: which must therefore needs be intolerable.

For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime apparent. For the second and third, you see he disputeth against our religion ; and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death.

Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blind. man, Mr. No-good, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Liveloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Lyar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in his private verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the judge. And first among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, the foreman, said, I see clearly that this man is an heretic. Then said Mr. No-good, Away with such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very looks of him. Then said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I, said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my way. Hang him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said Mr. High-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. Lyar. Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let us dispatch him out of the way, said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr. Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, I could not be reconciled to him; therefore, let us forth with bring him in guilty of death. And so they did ; therefore he was presently condemned to be had from the place where he was, to the place from whence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented.

They therefore brought him out, to do with him according to their law; and first they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they lanced his flesh with knives; after that they stoned him with stones, then pricked him with their swords ; and last of all they burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his end.

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and a couple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had dispatched him) was taken up into it, and straightway was carried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the celestial gate. But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to prison; so he there remained for a space. But He that overrules all things, having the power of their rage in his

They then addressed themselves to the water; and entering, Christian began to sink, and crying out to his good friend Hopeful, he said, I sink in deep waters; the billows go over my head, all his waves go over me, Selah.

Then said the other, Be of good cheer, my brother; I feel the bottom, and it is good. Then said Christian, Ah, my friend, the sorrows of death have compassed me about, I shall not see the land that flows with milk and honey. And with that a great darkness and horror fell upon Christian, so that he could not see before him.

“When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee.” The perils of the river were at last overcome.

Now upon the bank of the river on the other side, they saw the two shining men again, who there waited for them; wherefore being come out of the river, they saluted them, saying, We are ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those that shall be heirs of salvation. Thus they went along towards the gate. Now you must note that the city stood upon a mighty hill, but the pilgrims went up that hill with ease, because they had these two men to lead them up by the arms; also they had left their mortal garments behind then in the river, for though they went in with them, they came out without them. They therefore went up here with much agility and speed, though the foundation upon which the city was framed was higher than the clouds.

Now, now, look how the holy pilgrims ride,
Clouds are their chariots, angels are their guide:
Who would not here for Him all hazards run,

That thus provides for His when this world's done P They therefore went up throngh the regions of the air, sweetly talking as they went, being comforted, because they

had safely got over the river, and had such glorious com- of worship if exercised in private houses only. panions to attend them.

When Bunyan was released, in 1672, he acted as

regular pastor to the congregation at Bedford. He Now while they were thus drawing towards the gate, came every year to London, and 3,000 persons behold a company of the heavenly host came out to meet

sometimes gathered about the meeting-house at them; to whom it was said by the other two shining ones, Southwark on a Sunday, 1,200 on a weekday, or These are the men that have loved Our Lord when they were

dark winter morning at seven o'clock, to hear him in the world, and that have left all for His holy name, and He

preach. He preached also at Reading. One of his hath sent us to fetch them, and we have brought them thus

hearers there was about to disinherit his son. The far on their desired journey, that they may go in and look

son asked Bunyan to intercede for him : he did their Redeemer in the face with joy. Then the heavenly host

so, with success; but on his journey on horseback gave a great shout, saying, “ Blessed are they that are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb." There came out also at

from Reading to London after his labour of love, this time to meet them several of the King's trumpeters,

Bunyan was drenched by heavy rain, which produced clothed in white and shining raiments, who, with melodious

a fever, of which he died ten days afterwards. Over noises and loud, made even the heavens to echo with their

his grave in the burial-ground at Bunhill Fields the sound. These trumpeters saluted Christian and his fellow

record ran, with ten thousand welcomes from the world, and this they

“Mr. John Bunyan, Author of the · Pilgrim's Progress.' did with shouting and sound of trumpet.

Ob. 12 Aug., 1688, æt. 60. This done, they compassed them round on every side; some

The Pilgrim's Progress now is finished, went before, soine behind, and some on the right hand, some

And Death has laid him in his earthly bed." on the left (as 'twere to guard them through the upper regions), continually sounding as they went with melodious noise, in notes on high: so that the very sight was to them that could behold it, as if heaven itself was come down to meet them. Thus therefore they walked on together; and

In 1671, the year before John Bunyan's releaso as they walked, ever and anon these trumpeters, even with

from prison, John Milton published, in one volume, joyful sound, would, by mixing their music with looks and

two poems, “Paradise Regained” and “Samson gestures, still signify to Christian and his brother, how wel.

Agonistes." Milton's “Paradise Lost," published come they were into their company, and with what gladness in 1667, will be described in the volume of this they came to meet them. And now were these two men as Library which is set apart for illustration of the 'twere in heaven before they came at it, being swallowed up larger works in English Literature, and “Samson with the sight of angels, and with hearing of their melodious Agonistes” will have a place of its own in the notes. Here also they had the city itself in view, and they volume illustrating English Plays. But there was thought they heard all the bells therein ring to welcome significance in the joining of “Paradise Regained" them thereto. But above all, the warm and joyful thoughts with “Samson Agonistes " in one volume, produced that they had about their own dwelling there, with such at a time when many earnest men, who had thought company, and that for ever and ever. Oh, by what tongue their leaders under the Commonwealth solemnly or pen can their glorious joy be expressed! And thus they elected to some great work, God's glory and the came up to the gate.

people's safety, which in part they effected, were

cast into questioning of God's providence towards There yet followed the glory of admission through

man. Why was it that in the noontide of their the gate by which they who keep truth shall enter success the hand of God was changed towards those into the joy of their Lord. But Ignorance found a

who had laboured for His glory? Why were they ferryman named Vain-hope, to put him across the

thrown lower than they had been exalted highi, left. river, and came up to the gate without a saving to the hostile sword, scroll. “Then I saw that there was a way to hell

"— even from the gates of heaven, as well as from the

their carcases City of Destruction, So I awoke, and behold, it was

To dogs and fowls a prey, or else captivid,

Or to the unjust tribunals under change of times." a dream."

John Bunyan was not released from prison by any | If others who seemed to be living in the midst of a act of grace of which he was himself the object, but

triumphant mockery of their best hopes, felt that benefited in common with many others by the king's

what they regarded as “the good old cause" was Declaration of Indulgence. Encouraged by the Cabal

become as Samson shorn of his power, blind, captive, ministry, formed after the banishment of Clarendon, Charles II. usurped several powers not belonging to

the sport of the Philistines, betrayed into their hands

by Delilah—as many Independents felt that they the Crown; and one of these was a dispensing power

had been given up by their yoke-fellows the Presbywhich he claimed as head of the Church, and by

terians-Milton took up for their encouragement the virtue of which, on the 15th of March, 1672, he sus

parable of Samson. Applying it to their case as an pended the general laws against nonconformists and

encouragement to trust in God, he expressed in the recusants, granting “a sufficient number of places

| chorus, “God of our Fathers, what is man,” the in all parts of the kingdom for the use of such as

questionings he made it his last care to meet, and, do not conform to the Church of England, to meet

while suggesting that and assemble in, in order to their public worship and devotion.” To the Roman Catholics he granted

“ Patience is more oft the exercise exemption from the penal laws, and their own form

Of saints, the trial of their fortitude,

Making them cach his own deliverer,
And victor over all
That tyranny or fortune can inflict,”

he ended his play, and his life as a poet, with the lesson of a firm and absolute reliance upon God,

Crod, however evil seem the days on which we fall.

shown God supreme, foreknowing all, and source
only of good; so here, while Satan sought Jesus by
the coast of Jordan, the Eternal Father declares to
Gabriel the fulness of His purpose, and the scene in
heaven closes here also with the harmonies of heaven,
as the angels

“- into hymns,
Burst forth, and in celestial measures muved."

“ All is best, though we oft doubt
What the unsearchable disposo
Of Highest Wisdom brings about,
And ever best found in the close.
Oft He seems to hide His face,
But unexpectedly returns,
And to His faithful champion hath in place
Bore witness gloriously; whence Gaza mourns
And all that band them to resist
His uncontrollable intent:
His servants He, with new acquist
Of true experience, from this great event,
With peace and consolation hath dismiss'd,
And calm of mind, all passion spent.”

Christ entered the wilderness with merlitations that in calmest form represent one part of the epic episode by which we are made acquainted with events preceding the main action of the poem. Then, after the forty days of fasting in the dextrt, Satan approached in the form of

“—an aged man in rural weeds,
Following, as scemed, the quest of some stray eve,
Or withered sticks to gather, which might serve
Against a winter's day, when winds blow keen,
To warm him wet returned from field at eve."

While “Samson Agonistes” thus pointed directly to those ills of which some were impatient, the other

| Satan addressed Christ with hypocrisy and temptation

to doubt, poem published with it, “ Paradise Regained," drew in a kindred spirit from the pattern of Christ one

“ To whom the Son of God: Who brought me hither, lesson, applied to all temptations of man's life, the

Will bring me hence; no other guide I seek.'” lesson of a firm and quiet trust. The spirit of the thirty-seventh Psalm pervades “ Samson Agonistes," and its tenderest thoughts are in “Paradise Re

Satan still tempting to doubt was met by declaration gained,” which breathes everywhere a placid music

of firm faith and knowledge of the tempter. Then the to one burden, “ Rest in the Lord, and wait patiently

archfiend acknowledged himself, but claimed to be for Him.” The poem is a miniature epic, in four

still able to love what he sees excellent in good, or books, calm as its theme. In “Paradise Lost” there

fair, or virtuous, and pleaded that he helps mån

with oracles, portents, and dreams. Christ answered was a temptation yielded to, in “Paradise Regained". there is a temptation overcome ; and the tempting of

of with rebuke, and declared that now the oracles are Christ in the wilderness is so told as to teach, through

dumb. Christ, how, under all trials and temptations of life,

“God hath now sent His living oracle and all suggestion of doubt, the one safeguard is an

Into the world to teach His final will; abiding faith and quiet trust in our Father who is

And sends His Spirit of Truth henceforth to dwell in heaven.

In pious hearts, an inward oracle In “ Paradise Regained" the epic treatment of the

To all truth requisite for men to know."* theme is subdued in every feature to the tone of its main thought. There is the opening statement of the

| The fiend dissembles, and excuses falsehood. subject, and the invocation of the Holy Spirit by which this glorious eremite was led into the desert. Then the narrative opens with the baptism of Christ,

Easily canst thou find one miserable, where

And not enforced oft-times to part from truth, “- on Him baptized

If it may stand him more in stcad to lie,
Heaven opened, and in likeness of a dove

Say and unsay, feign, flatter, or abjure
The Spirit descended, while the Father's voice

But thou art placed above me, thou art Lord;
From heaven pronounced Him His beloved Son.

From thee I can, and must submiss, endure
That heard the adversary--"

Check or reproof, and glad to 'scape so quit.

Hard are the ways of Truth, and rough to walk, and as the host of Satan since the Fall have become Smooth on the tongue discoursed, pleasing to the s, powers of air drawing near to man, he now

And tuneable as sylvan pipe or song.

What wonder then if I delight to hear “ To council summons all his mighty peers

Her dictates from thy mouth? most men admin Within thick clouds and tenfold dark involved,”

Virtue, who follow not her lore. Permit me

To hear thee when I come--since no man inte and goes forth from it to tempt that “one greater And talk at least, though I despair to attain. man," as he went forth from the council of the fiends Thy Father, who is holy, wise, and pure, in Pandemonium to tempt Adam and Eve. And

Suffers the hypocrite or atheous priest as in “ Paradise Lost" Satan proceeded on his way,

To tread His sacred courts, and minister but did not begin his attempt before the poet had About His altar, handling holy things,

6. Where

Since first her salutation heard, with thoughts Meekly composed awaited the fulfilling."

Christ meanwhile tracing the desert

Praying or vowing; and vouchsafed His voice
To Balnam reprobate, a prophet yet
Inspired. Disdain not such access to me.'

To whom our Saviour, with unaltered brow:
“Thy coming hither, though I know thy scope,
I bid not, or forbid. Do as thou findest
Permission from above; thou canst not more.'

He added not; and Satan, bowing low His gray dissimulation, disappeared Into thin air diffused : for now began Night with her sullen wings to double-shade The desert; fowls in their clay nests were couched; And now wild beasts came forth the woods to roam."

“Sole, but with holiest meditation fed,

Into himself descended, and at once
All His great work to come before Him set.”

So ends the first book of “ Paradise Regained." In the opening of the second book Jesus has been missed by the disciples Andrew and Simon, who, after vain search, lament the failure of their expectations.

Satan rejoined the council of his potentates, and without sign of boast or sign of joy, solicitous and blank, sought aid of them all. Then“ Belial the dissolutest spirit that fell, the sensualest” counselled “Set women in his eye.” The poem is planned for the strengthening of men's hearts through the example of Christ against all the chief temptations of the world. What was perhaps the foremost temptation to many in the days of Charles II. is skilfully included by giving to Belial the suggestion, disdained by Satan, of the lure of Circe, a temptation inapplicable to Christ, although among those which have to be resisted by the Christian.

“ Then on the banks of Jordan, by a creek,
Where winds with reeds and osiers whispering play,
Plain fishermen, (no greater men them call,)
Close in a cottage low together got,
Their unexpected loss and plaints outbreathed.”

In the moment of their highest hope all seemed to be lost. The Messiah, the deliverer who was to free the chosen people from oppression, was rapt from them. But their short plaint ends with a glad faith in Him upon whose Providence they lay their fears.

6. Therefore with manlier objects we must try
His constancy, with such as have more shew
Of worth, of honour, glory, and popular praise,
Rocks whereon greatest men have oftest wrecked;
Or that which only seems to satisfy
Lawful desires of nature, not beyond.-
And now I know He hungers, where no food
Is to be found, in the wide wilderness :
The rest commit to me; I shall let pass
No advantage, and His strength as oft assay.'"

“He will not fail, Nor will withdraw Him now, nor will recall, Mock us with His blest sight, then snatch Him hence; Soon we shall see our Hope, our Joy, return.”

Mary also, when

The first temptation shall be through hunger, absolute want. The poem then turns to Christ hungering, and represents Christ's holy thoughts, that still find rest in God. He sleeps, and hunger suggests sinless dreams of food, in which the recognition of God's providence blends even with dream thoughts “ of meats and drinks, nature's refreshment sweet."

“ Others returned from baptism, not her Son,

Nor left at Jordan, tidings of Him none,
Within her breast though calm, her breast though pure,
Motherly cares and fears got head, and raised
Some troubled thoughts."

The course of them, by recalling more passages in the earlier life of Christ, completes the work of episode in the construction of the poem, and the doubts of Mary, as the doubts of Andrew and Simon, lead only to the constant burden of the poem “ Rest in the Loril, wait patiently for Him.”

“Him thought, He by the brook of Cherith stood,

And saw the ravens with their horny beaks
Food to Elijah bringing, even and morn,
Though ravenous, taught to abstain from what they

He saw the Prophet also, how he fled
Into the desert, and how there he slept
Under a juniper; then how, awaked,
He found his supper on the coals prepared,
And by the Angel was bid rise and eat,
And ate the second time after repose,
The strength whereof sufficed him forty days:
Sometimes that with Eliah He partook,
Or as a guest with Daniel at his pulse.”

*** Afflicted I may be, it seems, and blest;

I will not argue that, nor will repine.-
But where delays He now? Some great intent
Conculs Him. When twelve years He scarce had seen,
I lost Him, but so found as well I saw
He could not lose himself, but went about
His Father's business. What He meant I mused,
Since understand; much more His absence now
Thus long to some great purpose He obscures.
But I to wait with patience am inured ;
Dir heart hath been a storehouse long of things
And sayings laid up, portending strange events.'

Thus Mary, pondering oft, and oft to mind
Reralling what remarkably had passed

When morning came, Christ saw from a hill a pleasant grove, and was met by Satan

“Not rustic as before, but seemlier clad,

As one in city, or court, or palace bred,"

with suggestion that He had been forgotten by God, and with subtle pleading to His brief answer of

Of most-erected spirits, most-tempered pure,
Ethereal, who all pleasures else despise,
All treasures and all gain esteem as dross,
And dignities and powers, all but the highest.""

content. Then Satan spread a table in the wilderness with all that could entice the appetite. The spirits Satan brought with him there waited as attendant youths, sweet odours and sweet music graced the splendour of the feast. Then Satan asked, “What doubts the Son of God to sit and eat ?" but to his solicitation he received temperate answer of unbroken confidence in God, and the table vanished to the sound of harpies' wings. The next temptation was by the desire for wealth as means to great ends. “Riches are mine," said Satan, “ fortune is in my hand,”—

Calmly Christ answered; and to men who for earthly glory may be tempted to swerve from the heavenwani path this answer speaks :

" • They whom I favour thrive in wealth amain;

While virtue, valour, wisdom, sit in want."'.

And Jesus patiently replied that wealth without these three is impotent to gain or keep dominion ; but men endued with them have often attained in lowest poverty to highest deeds.

««• Extol not riches then, the toil of fools,

The wise man's cumbrance, if not snare; moro apt
To slacken Virtue, and abate her edge,
Than prompt her to do aught may merit praise.
What, if with like aversion I reject
Riches and realms! yet not, for that a crown,
Golden in shew, is but a wreath of thorns,
Brings dangers, troubles, cares, and sleepless nights,
To him who wears the regal diadem,
When on his shoulders each man's burden lies;
For therein stands the office of a king,
His honour, virtuo, merit, and chief praise,
That for the public all this weight he bears.
Yet he who reigns within himself, and rules
Passions, desires, and fears, is more a king;
Which every wise and virtuous man attains :
And who attains not ill aspires to rule
Cities of men, or headstrong multitudes,
Subject himself to anarchy within,
Or lawless passions in him, which he serves.
But to guide nations in the way of truth
By saving doctrine, and from error lead
To know, and knowing worship God aright,
Is yet more kingly: this attracts the soul,
Governs the inner man, the nobler part;
That other o'er the body only reigns,
And oft by force, which to a generous mind
So reigning can be no sincere delight.
Besides, to give a kingdom hath been thought
Greater and nobler done, and to lay down
Far more magnanimous, than to assume.
Riches are needless then, both for themselves,
And for thy reason why they should be sought,
To gain a sceptre, oftest better missed.'”

“ • For what is glory but the blaze of fame,

The people's praise, if always praise unmixed ?
And what the people but a herd confused,
A miscellaneous rabble, who extol
Things vulgar, and, well weighed, scarce worth the

They praise, and they admire, they know not what,
And know not whom, but as one leads the other.
And what delight to be by such extolled,
To live upon their tongues and be their talk?
Of whom to be dispraised were no small praise,-
His lot who dares be singularly good.
The intelligent among them and the wise
Are few, and glory scarce of few is raised.
This is true glory and renown, when God
Looking on the Earth, with approbation marks
The just man, and divulges him through Heaven
To all His Angels, who with true applause
Recount his praises.' Thus He did to Job,
When, to extend his fame through Heaven and Er
- As thou to thy reproach mayest well remember-
He ask'd thee: “Hast thou seen my servant Job :"
Famous he was in Heaven, on Earth less known.
Where glory is false glory, attributed
To things not glorious, men not worthy of fart.
They err who count it glorious to subdue
By conquest far and wide, to over-run
Large countries, and in field great battles win,
Great cities by assault. What do these worthi's
But rob and spoil, burn, slaughter, and enslave,
Peaceable nations, neighbouring or remote,
Made captive, yet deserving freedom more
Than those their conquerors ? Who leave behind
Nothing but ruin wheresoe'er they tove,
And all the flourishing works of peace destroy:
Then swell with pride, and must be titled Gods,
Great Benefactors of mankind, Deliverers,
Worshipped with temple, priest, and sacrifice.
One is the son of Jove, of Mars the other;
Till conqueror Death discover them scarce min,
Rolling in brutish vices and deformed,
Violent or shameful death their due reward.
But if there be in glory aught of good,
It may by means far different be attained,
Without ambition, war, or violence;
By decds of peace, by wisdom eminent,
By patience, temperance. I mention still
Him whom thy wrongs, with saintly patiene u
Made famous in a land and times obscure.
Who names not now with honour patient Jobs

Thus closes the second book, and Satan, mute for a time, confounded what to say, renews his efforts in the opening of the third book with soothing words, that suggest temptation through the love of fame.

«« «Wherefore deprive All Earth her wonder at Thy acts, Thyself The fame and glory? glory the reward That sole excited to high attempts, the flame

I "Fame is no plant that grows on mortal sü,

Nor in the glistering foil
Set off to the world, nor in broad rumour lies;
Butives and spreads aloft by those pure eyes
And perfect witness of all.judging Jove;
As He pronounces lastly on each deed,
Of so much Fame in heaven expect thy m 1.**

(Milton's "Lycidasic

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