« AnteriorContinuar »
In the court of the church of our Lord's sepulchre are seen crucifixion of her Son, stood on the spot now occupied by the some very holy places, namely, the prison in which our Lord altar of this church. Adjoining to this church is another Jesus Christ was confined after he was betrayed, according to church of St. Mary, called the Little, occupied by nuns wir the testimony of the Assyrians; then, a little above, appears serve devoutly the Virgin and her Son. Near which is the the place where the holy cross and the other crosses were Hospital, where is a celebrated monastery founded in honour found, where afterwards a large church was built in honour of St. John the Baptist. of queen Helena, but which has since been utterly destroyed We descend from our Lord's sepulchre, about the distance by the Pagans; and below, not far from the prison, stands of two arbalist-shots, to the Temple of the Lord, which is to the marble column to which our Lord Jesus Christ was bound the east of the Holy Sepulchre, the court of which is of great in the common hall, and scourged with most cruel stripes. length and breadth, having many gates ; but the principal Near this is the spot where our Lord was stripped of his gate, which is in front of the Temple, is called the Beautiful, garments by the soldiers; and next, the place where he was on account of its elaborate workmanship and variety of clad in a purple vest by the soldiers, and crowned with the colours, and is the spot where Peter healed Claudius, when crown of thorns, and they cast lots for his garments. Next he and John went up into the Temple at the ninth hour of we ascend Mount Calvary, where the patriarch Abraham prayer, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles. The place raised an altar, and prepared, by God's command, to sacrifice where Solomon built the Temple was called anciently Bethel; his own son ; there afterwards the Son of God, whom he pre whither Jacob repaired by God's command, and where he figured, was offered up as a sacrifice to God the Father for dwelt, and saw the ladder whose summit touched heaven, and the redemption of the world. The rock of that mountain the angels ascending and descending, and said, “Truly this remains a witness of our Lord's passion, being much cracked place is holy," as we read in Genesis. There he raised a near the foss in which our Lord's cross was fixed, because it stone as a memorial, and constructed an altar, and poured oil could not suffer the death of its Maker without splitting, as upon it; and in the same place afterwards, by God's will, we read in the Passion, "and the rocks rent." Below is the Solomon built a temple to the Lord of magnificent and inplace called Golgotha, where Adam is said to have been raised comparable work, and decorated it wonderfully with every to life by the blood of our Lord which fell upon him, as is ornament, as we read in the Book of Kings. It exceeded all said in the Passion, “ And many bodies of the saints which the mountains around in height, and all walls and buildings slept arose.” But in the Sentences of St. Augustine, we read in brilliancy and glory. In the middle of which temple is that he was buried in Hebron, where also the three patriarchs seen a high and large rock, hollowed beneath, in which was were afterwards buried with their wives; Abraham with the Holy of Holies. In this place Solomon placed the Ark of Sarah, Isaac with Rebecca, and Jacob with Leah; as well as the Covenant, having the manna and the rod of Aaron, which the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel carried with flourished and budded there and produced almonds, and the them from Egypt. Near the place of Calvary is the church two Tables of the Testament; here our Lord Jesus Christ, of St. Mary, on the spot where the body of our Lord, after | wearied with the insolence of the Jews, was accustomed to having been taken down from the cross, was anointed before repose; here was the place of confession, where his disciples it was buried, and wrapped in a linen cloth or shroud.
confessed themselves to him; here the angel Gabriel apAt the head of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, in the peared to Zacharias, saying, “Thou shalt receive a child in wall outside, not far from the place of Calvary, is the place thy old age;" here Zacharias, the son of Barachias, was slain called Compas, which our Lord Jesus Christ himself signified between the temple and the altar; here the child Jesus was and measured with his own hand as the middle of the world, circumcised on the eighth day, and named Jesus, which is according to the words of the Psalmist, “ For God is my king interpreted Saviour ; here the Lord Jesus was offered by his of old, working salvation in the midst of the earth.” But parents, with the Virgin Mary, on the day of her purification, some say that this is the place where our Lord Jesus Christ and received by the aged Simeon; here, also, when Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene, while she sought him was twelve years of age, he was found sitting in the midst of weeping, and thought he had been a gardener, as is related in the doctors, hearing and interrogating them, as we read in tbthe Gospel. These most holy places of prayer are contained Gospel; here afterwards he cast out the oxen, and shecp, and in the court of our Lord's Sepulchre, on the east side. In the pigeons, saying, “ My house shall be a house of prayer;" aod sides of the church itself are attached, on one side and the | here he said to the Jews, “ Destroy this temple, and in three other, two most beautiful chapels in honour of St. Mary and days I will raise it up." There still are seen in the rock the St. John, as they, participating in our Lord's sufferings, sta footsteps of our Lord, when he concealed himself, and went tioned themselves beside him here and there. On the west out from the Temple, as we read in the Gospel, lest the Jews wall of the chapel of St. Mary is seen the picture of our Lord's | should throw at him the stones they carried. Thither the Mother, painted externally, who once, by speaking wonder. | woman taken in adultery was brought before Jesus by the fully through the Holy Spirit, in the form in which she is Jews, that they might find some accusation against him. here painted, comforted Mary the Egyptian, when she re- There is the gate of the city on the eastern side of th. pented with her whole heart, and sought the help of the Temple, which is called the Golden, where Joachim, the Mother of our Lord, as we read in her life. On the other | father of the Blessed Mary, by order of the Angel of the Lord side of the church of St. John is a very fair monastery of the met his wife Anne. By the same gate the Lord Jesus, coming Holy Trinity, in which is the place of the baptistery, to from Bethany on the day of olives, sitting on an ass, entend which adjoins the Chapel of St. John the Apostle, who first the city of Jerusalem, while the children sang “ Hosinna to filled the pontifical seo at Jerusalem. These are all so com- | the son of David.” By this gate the emperor Heraclius posed and arranged, that any one standing in the furthest entered Jerusalem, when he returned victorious from Pensie, church may clearly perceive the five churches from door to with the cross of our Lord; but the stones first fell down and door.
closed up the passage, so that the gate became one mase, until Without the gate of the Holy Sepulchre, to the south, is humbling himself at the admonition of an angel, he deseende the church of St. Mary, called the Latin, because the monks from his horse, and so the entrance was opened to him. In there perform divine service in the Latin tongue; and the the court of the Temple of the Lord, to the south, is the Assyrians say that the blessed Mother of our Lord, at the Temple of Solomon, of wonderful magnitude, on the east sidr
of which is an oratory containing the cradle of Christ, and apostles after his resurrection; and it is called Galilee, as his bath, and the bed of the Virgin Mary, according to the he said to the apostles, “ After I am risen again, I will go testimony of the Assyrians.
before you unto Galilee.” That place was called Galilee, From the Temple of the Lord you go to the church of St. because the apostles, who were called Galileans, frequently Anne, the mother of the Blessed Mary, towards the north, rested there. where she lived with her husband, and she was there delivered The great city of Galilee is by Mount Tabor, a journey of her daughter Mary. Near it is the pool called in Hebrew of three days from Jerusalem. On the other side of Mount Bethsaida, having five porticoes, of which the Gospel speaks. Tabor is the city called Tiberias, and after it Capernaum and A little above is the place where the woman was healed by Nazareth, on the sea of Galilee or sea of Tiberias, whither our Lord, by touching the hem of his garment, while he was Peter and the other apostles, after the resurrection, returned surrounded by a crowd in the street.
to their fishing, and where the Lord afterwards showed himFrom St. Anne we pass through the gate which leads to self to them on the sea. Near the city of Tiberias is the the Valley of Jehoshaphat, to the church of St. Mary in the field where the Lord Jesus blessed the five loaves and two same valley, where she was honourably buried by the apostles fishes, and afterwards fed four thousand men with them, as after her death; her sepulchre, as is just and proper, is we read in the Gospel. But I will return to my immediate revered with the greatest honours by the faithful, and monks | subject. perform service there day and night. Here is the brook In the Galilee of Mount Sion, where the apostles were Cedron; here also is Gethsemane, where our Lord came concealed in an inner chamber, with closed doors, for fear of with his disciples from Mount Sion, over the brook Cedron, the Jews, Jesus stood in the middle of them and said, “ Peace before the hour of his betrayal; there is a certain oratory be unto you;' and he again appeared there when Thomas where he dismissed Peter, James, and John, saying, “Tarry put his finger into his side and into the place of the nails. ye here, and watch with me;' and going forward, he fell There he supped with his disciples before the Passion, and on his face and prayed, and came to his disciples, and found washed their feet; and the marble table is still preserved them sleeping: the places are still visible where the disciples there on which he supped. There the relics of St. Stephen, slept, apart from each other. Gethsemane is at the foot of Nicodemus, Gamaliel, and Abido, were honourably deposited Mount Olivet, and the brook Cedron below, between Mount | by St. John the Patriarch after they were found. The stoning Sion and Mount Olivet, as it were the division of the moun- of St. Stephen took place about two or three arbalist-shots tains; and the low ground between the mountains is the without the wall, to the north, where a very handsome church Valley of Jehoshaphat. A little above, in Mount Olivet, is was built, which has been entirely destroyed by the Pagans. an oratory in the place where our Lord prayed, as we read The church of the Holy Cross, about a mile to the west of in the Passion, “ And he was withdrawn from them about Jerusalem, in the place where the holy cross was cut out, and a stone's cast; and being in an agony, he prayed more which was also a very handsome one, has been similarly laid earnestly, and his sweat was, as it were, great drops of blood waste by the Pagans; but the destruction here fell chiefly on falling down to the ground." Next we come to Aceldama, the surrounding buildings and the cells of the monks, the the field bought with the price of the Lord, also at the foot of church itself not having suffered so much. Under the wall Mount Olivet, near a valley about three or four arbalist-shots of the city, outside, on the declivity of Mount Sion, is the to the south of Gethsemane, where are seen innumerable church of St. Peter, which is called the Gallican, where, after monuments. That field is near the sepulchres of the holy having denied his Lord, he hid himself in a very deep crypt, fathers Simeon the Just and Joseph the foster-father of our as may still be seen there, and there wept bitterly for his Lord. These two sepulchres are ancient structures, in the offence. About three miles to the west of the church of the manner of towers, cut into the foot of the mountain itself. Holy Cross is a very fine and large monastery in honour of We next descend, by Aceldama, to the fountain which is St. Saba, who was one of the seventy-two disciples of our called the Pool of Siloah, where, by our Lord's command, Lord Jesus Christ. There were above three hundred Greek the man born blind washed his eyes, after the Lord had monks living there, in the service of the Lord and of the apointed them with clay and spittle.
saint, of whom the greater part have been slain by the From the church of St. Mary before mentioned, we go up Saracens, and the few who remain have taken up their abode by a very steep path nearly to the summit of Mount Olivet, in another monastery of the same saint, within the walls of towards the cast, to the place whence our Lord ascended to the city, near the tower of David, their other monastery heaven in the sight of his disciples. The place is surrounded being left entirely desolate. by a little tower, and honourably adorned, with an altar raised on the spot within, and also surrounded on all sides
William of Malmesbury, from whose history we with a wall. On the spot where the apostles stood with his inother, wondering at his ascension, is an altar of St. Mary;
have taken a short account of Aldhelm, was Sawulf's there the two men in white garments stood by them, saying,
contemporary, but a younger man. He wrote his “Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing into heaven?”
“History of the Kings of England ” in the reigns About a stone's throw from that place is the spot where,
of Henry I. and Stephen. It ended with the year according to the Assyrians, our Lord wrote the Lord's Prayer
1142, which seems to have been the date of its in Hebrew, with his own fingers, on marble; and there a
author's death. This monk of Malmesbury was an very beautiful church was built, but it has since been entirely
enthusiast for books, and, like Bede, he refused to be destroyed by the Pagans, as are all the churches outside the
made an abbot, because he desired to give to study walls, except the church of the Holy Ghost on Mount Sion,
all the time not occupied by the religious exercises. about an arrow-shot from the wall to the north, where the
of the brethren. When John Milton was writing a apostles received the promise of the Father, namely, the
“History of Britain” by help of monastic chroniclers, Paraclete Spirit, on the day of Pentecost; there they made and, having parted from Bede, he came in due time, the Creed. In that church is a chapel in the place where to the record left us by this literary monk, he said the Blessed Mary died. On the other side of the church is that among our old chroniclers “ William of Malmesthe chapel where our Lord Jesus Christ first appeared to the J bury must be acknowledged, both for style and
judgment, to be by far the best writer of them all.” | fashioned into French verse for courtly English William wrote at Malmesbury not only the “ History readers by Gaimar and Wace, and into English verse of English Kings,” but also a “ History of English by Layamon, the change was made by Walter Map Prelates," and many other books.
that put a Christian soul into the flesh of the With the year 1142 ended not only William of Arthurian romances. This he did by joining a Malmesbury's “History of the Kings of England,” but also the “ Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy,” by Ordericus Vitalis. Orderic, who was sixty-seven years old when he brought his narrative down to the end of his own working life, had in the year 1085 been placed as an English boy in the Norman abbey of St. Evroult, and had lived there devoted to the contemplative life, and active with his pen. When fifty-three years old, he was in the writing-room of his monastery, quietly at work upon his history, and, falling into recollections of his childhood, spoke thus of his position at St. Evroult: —“Then, being in my eleventh year, I was separated from my father, for the love of God, and sent, a young exile, from England to Normandy, to enter the service of the King Eternal. Here I was received by the venerable father Mainier, and having assumed the monastic habit, and become indissolubly joined to the company of the monks by solemn vows, have now cheerfully borne the light yoke of the Lord for forty-two years, and walking in the ways of God with my fellow-monks, to the best of my ability, according to the rules of our order, have endeavoured to perfect myself in the service of the Church and ecclesiastical duties, at the same time that I have always devoted my talents to some useful employment."
William of Malmesbury and Ordericus Vitalis ended their work in 1142, in Stephen's reign. In the same reign, in the year 1147, Geoffrey of Monmouth produced his “History of British Kings.” Geoffrey was a Welsh monk who was made Bishop
A COURTLY WRITER. of St. Asaph not long before his death in 1154. From the Book of the Coronation of Henry I. Cotton. MSS., Claudius, A. ii. His History contained more fable than chronicle. By “ British ” kings he meant kings of Britain separate legend of Joseph of Arimathea to the stories before the coming of the English. Of English kings of King Arthur, and setting in the midst of their there were trustworthy chronicles; Geoffrey pro- ideals of a life according to the flesh the quest for vided a chronicle of British kings, not meant to the Holy Graal. The Holy Graal was the dish used be particularly trustworthy, but distinctly meant to by our Lord at the Last Supper, into which also his be amusing. It was partly founded on Breton tra wounds were washed after he had been taken from ditions, and it did obtain a wide attention. It was the cross, a sacred dish visible only to the pure. It the source of a new stream of poetry in English could be used, therefore, as a type of the secret literature, and it is this book that brought King things of God. Walter Map, who thus dealt with Arthur among us as our national hero. Geoffrey's the King Arthur legends, was a chaplain of the Court History does not itself belong to the subject of this of King Henry II. He was born about the year volume. The old romances of King Arthur are not 1143, and called the Welsh his countrymen, England religious. They are picturesque stories of love and “our mother.” He studied in the University of war, and of each in rude animal form. But the way Paris, was in attendance at the Court of Henry II., in which the legends of this mythical hero have | and in 1173 was presiding at Gloucester Assizes as been dealt with in our country furnishes one of the one of the King's Justices in Eyre. At Henry II.'s most marked illustrations of the religious tendency | Court, Map was a chaplain; Henry died in 1189, and of English thought. For while amongst Latin nations Map was not an archdeacon until 1196, in the reign the Charlemagne romances have given rise to fictions of Richard I. He was then about fifty-three years which, however delightful, express only play of the old, and after that date we hear no more of him.' imagination, the romances of which Arthur is the We must dwell now for a little while upon the origin hero have been used by the English people in succes of our religious treatment of Arthurian romance. sive stages of their civilisation for expression of their highest sense of spiritual life. In the very first years
See the Volume of this Library containing “Shorter English of the revived fame of Arthur, when Geoffrey of
Poems," pages 12—16, for illustrations of Walter Map's Golias Monmouth's “ History of British Kings" was being poetry.
Mediæval tradition said that there were Nine | Mordred. In a convent at Amesbury, not far from Worthies of the world, three heathen, three Jewish, | Stonehenge, Arthur's penitent wife, Guenevere, is said and three Christian :-namely, Hector, Alexander, and to have ended her days, and his body was taken to Cæsar; Joshua, David, and Judas Maccabæus; King Avalon, which is Glastonbury, on a peninsula formed Arthur, Charlemagne, and that Godfrey of Boloine by the river Brue, the Roman Insula Avalonia, who headed the crusaders when the Holy City was or Isle of Apples. The Roman name was only a taken in the year 1099, who was then elected the first Latinising of the Cymric, in which Afall is an appleLatin King of Jerusalem, but chose the humbler title tree. The great abbey at Glastonbury once covered of “ Defender and Baron of the Holy Sepulchre," and | sixty acres, and the modern town has almost been would wear no earthly diadem where his Redeemer built out of its ruins. Here Joseph of Arimathea had been crowned with thorns. If our British was said to have been buried. It was said also that Worthy ever lived, his time was the earlier part of King Arthur was buried here between two pillars ; the sixth century, when he led tribes of Celtic Britons and as the revival of King Arthur's fame took place in their resistance against the incoming of the English. in Henry II.'s time, that king, when on his way to There is more record of a chieftain of the North, Ireland, in the year 1171, ordered Henry of Blois, named Urien, about whom were the bards Taliesin, then Abbot of Glastonbury, to make search. The Llywarch Hen, and Aneurin, who lamented for the search was made, and care was no doubt taken to chiefs slain in the battle of Cattraeth. To Gildas, make it successful. Between two pillars, at a depth said by tradition to have been a brother of Aneurin, l of nine feet, a stone was found, with a leaden cross, there is ascribed an ancient history of the disasters | inscribed on its under side in Latin :-“ Here lies of the British (“De Calamitate, Excidio et Conquestu buried the renowned King Arthur, in the Isle of Britanniæe”), but it was written in no friendly spirit, and is the work of an English monk, who probably
HIGIA wrote in the seventh century. By him Arthur is mentioned, and in another work, a “ History of the
CET Britons," ascribed to Nennius, a disciple of Elbodus, who may have lived in the latter part of the eighth century, and whose work is really Celtic in feeling, Arthur is more fully spoken of. Here there is record of the twelve battles in which he routed the Saxonsnamely, 1, at the mouth of the river Gleni ; 2, 3, 4, 5, by the river Duglas in the region Linuis ; 6, on the river Bassas ; 7, in the wood Celidon; 8, near Gurnion Castle; 9, at Caerleon ; 10, on the banks of the river Trat Treuroit; 11, on the mountain Bregovin ; 12, when Arthur penetrated to the hill of Badon, and 940 fell by his hand alone. There was at any rate early tradition, mixed already with fable, of the prowess of the chief who led his followers in a great war of independence.
Arthur's name is also associated from old time with localities in many parts of Britain. At Caerleon-upon-Usk he is said to have held his court; that is the Isca Silurum of Antoninus, where the second Augustan legion was long in garrison, the ancient capital of Britannia Secunda (Wales), and a
THE INSCRIPTION OVER King ARTHUR'S COFFIN. place of importance in the twelfth century. Here
From Warner's " History of Glastonbury.” the remains of a Roman amphitheatre form an oval bank, which is called “ Arthur's Round Table." He
Avalon ;” and seven feet lower down his body was held court also at Camelot, which is identified with
found in an oaken coffin. Cadbury in Somersetshire, three or four miles from
It must have been about this time—when Arthur Castle Cary. This place is called Camelot some
had become the hero of romance, and his bones were times in old records, and near it are the villages of
found at Avalon, to please the king—that Walter West Camel and Queen's Camel. John Selden, in
Map, perhaps asked by the king for a connected his notes to Drayton's “Polyolbion," spoke of Cadbury
body of Arthurian romance, gave life to such a body as a hill, "a mile compass at the top, four trenches encircling it, and twixt every of them an earthen
by putting into it the very soul of our mediæval
religion. Many in the world were becoming better wall; the content of it within about twenty acres full
studied in the animal life of the new stories about of ruins and relics of old buildings." There is also
Arthur than in Bible truth. Shakespeare long afterTintagel, on the coast of Cornwall, Arthur's birth
wards indicated this in Dame Quickly's confusion of place. At Camelford, about five miles from Tintagel,
ideas between Arthur and Abraham, when of the the last battle is said to have been fought with
dead Falstaff she said, “ Nay, sure, he's not in hell ;
he's in Arthur's bosom, if ever man went to Arthur's I See the volume of this Library containing “Shorter English Poems," page 5.
bosom. A made a fine end, and went away, an it
had been any chrissom child.” Map took the legend
flesh to the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth." Joseph answered, “ That speech is like the speech of proud Goliath, who reproached the living God in speaking against David. But ye scribes and doctors know that God saith by the prophet, Vengeance is mine, and I will repay to you evil equal to that which ye have threatened to me. The God whom you have hanged upon the cross, is able to deliver me out of your hands. All your wickedness will return upon you. For the governor, when he washed his hands, said, “I am clear from the blood of this just person. But ye answered and cried out, “His blood be upon us and our children' According as ye have said, may ye perish for ever.” The elders of the Jews hearing these words, were exceedingly enraged ; and seizing Joseph, they put him into a chamber where there was no window; they fastened the door, and put a seal upon the lock; and Annas and Caiaphas placed a guard upon it, and took counsel with the priests and Levites, that they should all meet after the sabbath, and they con.
being its first abbot, and great privileges were ob- trived to what death they should put Joseph. When they tained for it.
had done this, the rulers, Annas and Caiaphas, ordered Joseph Of Joseph's history, after he had begged the body to be brought forth. of Christ for burial, as told by all the four Evan T In this place there is a portion of the narrative lost or gelists, this was the account given in the apocryphal omitted, which cannot be supplied. Gospel of Nicodemus, and familiarly known before
When all the assembly heard this, they wondered and were Map's time :
astonished, because they found the same seal upon the lock of
the chamber, and could not find Joseph. Then Annas and JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA.
Caiaphas went forth, and while they were all wondering at Joseph, when he came to the Jews, said to them, “Why are Joseph's being gone, behold one of the soldiers, who kept the ye angry with me for desiring the body of Jesus of Pilate ? sepulchre of Jesus, spake in the assembly, that while they Behold, I have put him in my tomb, and wrapped him up in were guarding the sepulchre of Jesus, there was an earth. clean linen, and put a stone at the door of the sepulchre: I | quake; “and we saw an angel of God roll away the stone have acted rightly towards him; but ye have acted unjustly of the sepulchre and sit upon it; and his countenance was against that just person, in crucifying him, giving him vine like lightning and his garment like snow; and we became gar to drink, crowning him with thorns, tearing his body through fear like persons dead. And we heard an angel with whips, and prayed down the guilt of his blood upon saying to the women at the sepulchre of Jesus, • Do not fear : you." The Jews at the hearing of this were disquieted, and | I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified; he is risen, as troubled ; and they seized Joseph, and commanded him to be |he foretold. Come and see the place where he was laid ; and put in custody before the sabbath, and kept there till the go presently, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the sabbath was over. And they said to him, " Make confession; dead, and he will go before you into Galilee; there ye shall for at this time it is not lawful to do thee any harm, till the see him, as he told you.'” Then the Jews called together all first day of the week come. But we know that thou wilt the soldiers who kept the sepulchre of Jesus, and said to not be thought worthy of a burial; but we will give thy | them, “Who are those women, to whom the angel spoke