Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

Thy goodness or mercy,” says Moses, “ that we may rejoice and be glad all our days," Ps. xc. 14. There is fulness in that for the vastest desires of the soul_“satisfy us ;" there is solid contentment—that begets true joy and gladness; and there is permanency—“all our days.” It is the only comfort of this life, and the assurance of a better.

John Dryden—in whose mind, with a bias towards authority, opinion tended towards Absolutism in the State and Catholicism in the Church in accordance with his natural bent, became avowedly a Roman Catholic in James II.'s reign. Already, in November, 1682, his point of view was Roman Catholic, when his “Religio Laici” closed with these lines :

was one of the seven bishops who in May, 1688, pro tested against a repetition by King James II. of his illegal Declaration of Indulgence. The king ordered it to be read in all places of worship in London on Sunday, the 20th of May, and in the country on the 3rd of June. On the 18th of May, a protest was signed on behalf of a great body of the clergy by William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and six bishops, of whom one was Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Ken, born in 1637, was the son of an attorney. His eldest sister became Izaak Walton's second wife. He lived, when a boy, with Izaak Walton, and was helped in life by George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, Izaak Walton's sonin-law, who died in 1684. Young Thomas Ken went to Winchester School, and thence to Oxford. He was already, as an Oxford student, poet and musician, playing on the lute, viol, and organ. Soon after the Restoration Ken became Rector of Easton Parva, in Essex, and chaplain to Bishop Morley, with whom Izaak Walton and his family were then domesticated. Ken obtained also a fellowship of Winchester College. In 1667, year of the publication of “ Paradise Lost," the Bishop of Winchester gave Ken the rectory of Brightstone, in the Isle of Wight, and it was in the Isle of Wight that the Rector of Brightstone wrote the Morning and Evening Hymns for his own use. He sang them himself to his lute, morning and evening.

“ Faith is not built on disquisitions vain;

The things we must believe are few and plain:
But since men will believe more than they ne
And every man will make himself a creed,
In doubtful questions 'tis the safest way
To learn what unsuspected ancients say ;
For 'tis not likely we should higher soar
In search of Heaven than all the Church before;
Nor can we be deceived, unless we see
The Scripture and the Fathers disagree.
If after all they stand suspected still,
(For no man's faith depends upon his will,).
'Tis some relief, that points not clearly known
Without much hazard may be let alone;
And after hearing what our Church can say,
If still our reason runs another way,
That private reason 'tis more just to curb
Than by disputes the public peace disturb.
For points obscure are of small use to learn:
But common quiet is mankind's concern."

[graphic]

There is the natural issue of this reasoning in Dryden's surrender of private judgment in the “Hind and Panther," published in April, 1687, a dialogue between beasts upon the questions of the Churches ; between the milk-white Hind, type of the Church of Rome, and the spotted Panther, type of the Church of England.

“What weight of ancient witness can prevail, If private reason hold the public scale ? But, gracious God, how well dost Thou provide For erring judgments an unerring guide! Thy throne is darkness in the abyss of light, A blaze of glory that forbids the sight. O teach me to believe Thee thus concealed, And search no farther than Thyself revealed ; But her alone for my director take, Whom Thou hast promised never to forsake! My thoughtless youth was winged with vain desires; My manhood, long misled by wandering fires, Followed false lights; and when their glimpse was gone, My pride struck out new sparkles of her own. Such was I, such by nature still I am; Be Thine the glory and be mine the shame! Good life be now my task; my doubts are done; What more could fright my faith than Three in One!"

Tuomas Kex. (From a Contemporary Print.)

MORNING HYMN. Awake, my soul! and with the sun, Thy daily stage of duty run; Shake off dull sloth, and joyful rise, To pay thy morning sacrifice.

Thomas Ken, author of one of the most familiar pieces of English sacred verse, the “Evening Hymn,"

Thy precious time misspent, redeem;
Each present day thy last esteem;
Improve thy talent with due care,
For the great day thyself prepare.

20

should befall you; and if the first thought of it scare you, David looks ! - icrd, for thy dear Son, look upon it the oftener, till the visage of it become familiar promised him

i this day have done; to you, that you start and scare no more at it. Nor is there kindness.”

be world, myself, and Thee, any danger in these thoughts. Troubles cannot be brought assurance

... at peace may be. the nearer by our thus thinking on them, but you may be forts, ani? both safer and stronger by breathing and exercising of your come; it

- to live, that I may dread faith in supposed cases. But if you be so tender-spirited with it

--.5e as little as my bed; that you cannot look upon calamities so much as in thought kindri

that this vile body may or fancy, how would you be able for a real encounter ? No, the i

rious at the awful day. surely. But the soul that hath made God his stay can do

1 th both. See it in that notable resolution of the prophet, Hab. hu

ay my soul on Thee repose, iii. 17: “Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither

imay sweet sleep mine eyelids closeshall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail,

that may me more vigorous make, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off

I serve my God when I awake. from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salva

When in the night I sleepless lie, tion. The Lord is my strength"-and in that saying

is soul with heavenly thoughts supply: David, Ps. xxiii. 4: “ Yea, though I walk through

Let no ill dreams disturb my rest, valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for 4

No powers of darkness me molest. art with me; thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me." see how faith is as cork to his soul, keeping it from

Dull sleep!-of sense me to deprive; in the deeps of afflictions. Yea, that big word wi

I am but half my time alive. says of his morally just man, is true of the believer:

Thy faithful lovers, Lord, are grieved the very fabric of the world were falling abou

To lie so long of Thee bereaved. would he stand upright and undaunted in the ruins."

But though sleep o'er my frailty reigns, In this confidence, considered in itself, we'

Let it not hold me long in chains ; the object of it, “The loving kindness of th

And now and then let loose my heart, manner or way by which he expects to en:

Till it an Hallelujah dart. will command it;" (3) the time, “ In the dd “ His loving kindness." He says not, "'!

The faster sleep the senses binds, mand my return to the House of God,",

The more unfettered are our minds;

30 my deliverance from the heavy 01:15

Oh may my soul, from matter free, proaches of the enemy," which wollte?

Thy loveliness unclouded see. particularly and expressly to his jope command His loving kindness," ode!

Oh when shall I, in endless day, expressing himself, I conceive to

For ever chase dark sleep away; assurance of this, is necessarily in

And hymns with the supernal choir other good things. This special

Incessant sing, and never tire ! Lord, doth engage His powii know are infinite, to the I"

Oh may my Guardian, while I sleep, good for those whom He

Close to my bed his vigils keep, David chooses rather toi

His love angelical distil, mercies in this their 11

Stop all the avenues of ill. specify them severally? out the expression in :

May he celestial joy rehearse, vantages of speech.

And thought to thought with me converse; --a man may enjoy

Or in my stead, all the night long, Denefits from the h..

Sing to my God a grateful song. loving kindness," and honour, and!!

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow, gifts of the minil

Praise him, all creatures here below; gifts of His ang

Praise him above, ye heavenly host, external pronto

Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. least glance contrary, 11:

In 1681, Ken published a “ Manual of Prayers for secret curs.

the Scholars of Winchester College." He was made He often y.

Bishop of Bath and Wells not many days before the death of Charles II. On the 8th of June, 1688,

he was among the seven bishops committed to the 1 Hora

Tower for seditious libel. On the 30th of June, the day of the acquittal of the seven bishops, a messenger was sent to invite William of Orange, who landed in Torbay on the 5th of November. William and Mary became King and Queen of England on the 13th of February, 1689. But

50

William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and have been written in the fourth century by St. four more of the seven, including Ken, refused to Ambrose, for Pentecost. In the year 1100 it was take the oaths of allegiance to the new sovereigns, inserted in the office for the consecration of a bishop, and, with about four hundred clergymen and mem- and afterwards into that for the ordination of priests. bers of the university, they were deprived. Ken It was retained, as opening part of the same cerewas housed and cared for by his friend Lord Wey- | mony, in the Lutheran churches. This is Dryden's mouth, at Longleate House, until his death in 1711. Paraphrase :In these latter years he was suffering excruciating pain from chronic disease, and “ for many years

VENI, CREATOR SPIRITUS. travelled with his shroud in his portmanteau, as

Creator Spirit, by whose aid what he often said might be as soon wanted as any

The world's foundations first were laid, other of his habiliments.” During these years of

Come, visit every pious mind; suffering he wrote several poems entitled “Ano

Come, pour thy joys on human kind; dynes,” of which these are two :

From sin and sorrow set us free,

And make Thy temples worthy Thee.
PAIN.

O source of uncreated light,
Since 'tis God's will, Pain, take your course,

The Father's promised Paraclete !

Thrice holy fount, thrice holy fire,
Exert on me your utmost force-

Our hearts with heavenly love inspire;
I well God's truth and promise know.

Come, and Thy sacred unction bring
He never sends a woe,

To sanctify us while we sing.
But His supports divine
In due proportion with the affliction join.

Plenteous of grace, descend from high,
Rich in Thy sevenfold energy!

Thou strength of His Almighty hand,
Though I am frailest of mankind,

Whose power does heaven and earth command;
And apt to waver as the wind -

Proceeding Spirit, our defence,
Though me no feeble bruised reed

Who dost the gift of tongues dispense,
In weakness can exceed-

And crownst Thy gift with eloquence;
My soul on God relies,
And I your fierce, redoubled shocks despise.

Refine and purge our earthly parts;
But, oh, inflame and fire our hearts !

Our frailties help, our vice control,
Patient, resigned, and humble wills

Submit the senses to the soul; .
Impregnably resist all ills.

And when rebellious they are grown,
My God will guide me by His light,

Then lay Thy hand, and hold them down.
Give me victorious might:

Chase from our minds the infernal foe,
No pang can me invade

And Peace, the fruit of Love, bestow;
Beneath His wing's propitious shade.

And lest our feet should step astray,

Protect and guide us in the way.
EASE.

Make us eternal truths receive,

And practise all that we believe :
In pity my most tender God

Give us Thyself, that we may see
Now takes from me His rod;

The Father and the Son by Thee.
And the transporting Ease I feel,

Immortal honour, endless fame,
Enkindles in me ardent zeal,

Attend the Almighty Father's name :
That love, joy, praise, may all combine,

The Saviour Son be glorified,
To sing infinity of love divine.

Who for lost man's redemption died :

And equal adoration be,
My love, joy, praise, all powers within,

Eternal Paraclete, to Thee.
Your heavenly task begin!
My love shall ever keep on wing,
Incessantly shall heaven-ward spring;

The religious aspect of the Revolution as it was
Love, the beloved still keeps in mind,

regarded by a leader among the clergy who most Loves all day long, and will not be confined.

favoured it, may be found in “A Thanksgiving.
Sermon for our Deliverance by the Prince of
Orange,” preached at Lincoln's Inn Chapel, by Dr.

John Tillotson, on the 31st of January, 1689.
CHAPTER XI.

John Tillotson (whose great-grandfather had

changed the family name from Tilston to Tillotson) 1.- FROM THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION TO THE DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE.— Tillotson, LOCKE, BURNET,

was eldest of three sons of a clothier at Sowerby, in STEELE, ADDISON, BLACKMORE, ISAAC Watts, AND

Yorkshire, and was born there in 1630. He entered

Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1647, commenced B.A. OTHERS. ---A.D. 1689 TO A.D. 1714.

in 1650, and M.A. in 1654. His tutor had been a JOHN DRYDEN remained firm to his principles, and Nonconformist who was among those in controversy I died a Roman Catholic, on May-day of the year with Stillingfleet. Writings of Chillingworth had

1700. There is a paraphrase by him of the hymn to much influence upon his mind, and he had a long the Holy Ghost, “Veni, Creator Spiritus,” said to personal friendship with Dr. John Wilkins. In

1656 or the beginning of 1657 Tillotson left college to be tutor at Ford Abbey, Devonshire, to the son of Edmund Prideaux, who was then Cromwell's At torney-General. At the Restoration, Tillotson had been ordained, and acted with the Presbyterians, but he submitted to the Act of Uniformity. Tillotson was curate at Cheshunt from 1661 to 1672, with which office he held others, including that of preacher at Lincoln's Inn. To this he was elected in November, 1663, and he liked it so well that he made Lincoln's Inn his head-quarters. He took great

THE GREAT DELIVERANCE OF 168. The case in the text doth very much resemble ours. Ani that in three respects. God hath sent great judgmants apa us for our evil deeds and for our great trespasses: He ish punished us less than our iniquities have deserved, and be given us a very great and wonderful deliverance.

1. God hath inflicted great judgments upon us for ouren] deeds, and for our great trespasses. Great judgments, both for the quality, and for the continuance of them. It star suffice only to mention those which are of a more s date. Scarce hath any nation been more calamitous than the of ours, both in respect of the invasions and conquesta di foreigners, and of our own civil and intestine divisions. Fs times we have been conquered; by the Romans, Susy Danes, and Normans. And our intestine divisions have wise been great and of long continuance. Witness the Bure Wars, and that long and cruel contest between the in Houses of York and Lancaster.

But to come nearer to our own times, what fearfalje ments and calamities of war, and pestilence, and fire, bure many of us seen ? and how close did they follow one another! What terrible havoc did the sword make amongst us ir many years? And this not the sword of a foreign excel, but a civil war; the mischiefs whereof were all termiinstal upon ourselves, and have given deep wounds, and lett broad scars upon the most considerable families in the nation.

. . . . Alta sedent civilis vulnera destre.' This war was drawn out to a great length, and had a tragical end, in the murder of an excellent king; and in banishment of his children into a strange country, whereby they were exposed to the arts and practices of those of another religion; the mischievous consequences whereof we hex ever since sadly laboured under, and do feel them at this day.

And when God was pleased in great mercy at last to an end to the miserable distractions and confusions of abus twenty years, by the happy restoration of the royal fact, and our ancient government; which seemned to promise to 3 a lasting settlement, and all the felicities we could wish: how soon was this bright and glorious morning overeet, ty the restless and black designs of that sure and intetas enemy of ours, the Church of Rome, for the restoring of the religion amongst us. And there was too much encourt ment given to this design, by those who had power in the hands, and had brought home with them a secret good to it.

For this great trespass, and for our many other sins, GH was angry with us, and sent among us the most rega pestilence that ever was known in this nation, which in he space of eight or nine months swept away near a third pot of the inhabitants of this vast and populous city, and of the suburbs thereof; besides a great many thousands mere several parts of the nation. But we did not return to be Lord, nor seek Him for all this.

And therefore the very next year after, God sent a terris and devouring fire, which in less than three days' tipe the greatest part of this great city in ashes. And there is ***

[graphic][merged small]

pains with his sermons, endeavouring to make them clear and unaffected in their style and reasoning. Several of his early sermons, like that of 1664, on “ The Wisdom of being Religious," which he enlarged before publication into a small treatise, were directed against the growing tendency to Atheism. Under Charles II., Tillotson became Dean of Canterbury, and chaplain to the king, who did not like him. Dean Tillotson warmly supported the bill for the exclusion of the Duke of York, yet both he and his friend Gilbert Burnet sought to persuade Lord William Russell, before his execution, to acknowledge the unlawfulness of resistance to authority, and as Lord Russell's chaplain, Mr. Samuel Johnson, afterwards put it, “ to bequeath a legacy of slavery to his country." But Tillotson recovered ground, and became a trusted friend of Lady Russell. At the Revolution this is the reference to political events in his Thanksgiving-Sermon, on a text from Ezra ix. 13, 14 :—“And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing that Thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such deliverance as this; should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations, wouldst not Thou be angry with us till Thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remnant nor escaping?"

1 Lucan's “Pharsalia," bk. i., line 32

“ Nor thou, fierce Pyrrhus, nor the Punic bands,

This waste have made; no sword could reach so far:
Deep pierce the rounds received in ciri tear."

(May's “Lase Tillotson, quoting from memory, wrote "manent " for "andes

• The plague of 1665 : in which year there were 97,06 the City of London within the Bills of Mortality ; sed elim 68,596 were of persons who died of the plague, besides many no account was given by the parish clerks, and who were buried

much reason to believe that the enemy did this : that per. And more particularly yet; that which is called the great petual and implacable enemy of the peace and happiness of trespass here in the text, their joining “in affinity with the this nation.

people of these abominations,” by whom they had been And even since the time of that dreadful calamity, which is detained in a long captivity, this, I say, seems to have had, now above twenty years agone, we have been in a continual both from the nature of the thing, and the just judgment of fear of the cruel designs of that party, which had hitherto God, no small influence upon a great part of the miseries and been incessantly working underground, but now began to calamities which have befallen us. For had it not been for show themselves more openly; and especially since a prince the countenance which Popery had by the marriages and

of that religion succeeded to the crown, our eyes have been alliances of our princes, for two or three generations together, C ready to fail us for fear, and for looking after those dreadful with those of that religion, it had not probably had a con

things that were coming upon us, and seemed to be even at tinuance among us to this day. Which will, I hope, now be 2 the door. A fear which this nation could easily have rid | a good warning to those who have the authority to do it, 7:23 itself of, because they that caused it were but a handful in to make effectual provision by law for the prevention of the X comparison of us, and could have done nothing without a like inconvenience and mischief in this nation for ever. S foreign force and assistance; had not the principles of 2. Another parallel between our case and that in the text

humanity, and of our religion too, restrained us from violence is, that God hath punished us less than our iniquities did 2 and cruelty, and from everything which had the appearance of deserve. And this acknowledgment we have as much reason

undutifulness to the government which the providence of God to make for ourselves, as Ezra had to do it in behalf of the - had set over us. An instance of the like patience, under the Jews; “Thou our God hast punished us less than our iniqui

like provocations, for so long a time, and after such visible ties deserve." Thou, our God, hast punished ug; there is the and open attempts upon them, when they had the laws 80 reason of so much mercy and mitigation. It is God, and not plainly on their side, I challenge any nation or church in the man, with whom we have to do; and therefore it is that we, world, from the very foundation of it, to produce. Insomuch, the children of men, are not consumed. And it is our God that if God had not put it into the hearts of our kind neigh likewise, to whom we have a more peculiar relation, and with bours, and of that incomparable prince who laid and conducted whom, by virtue of our profession of Christianity, we are in that great design with so much skill and secrecy, to have covenant. “Thou our God hast punished us less than our appeared so seasonably for our rescue, our patience had in. | iniquities deserve.” He might justly have poured forth all His fallibly, without a miracle, been our ruin. And I am sure if wrath, and have made His jealousy to have smoked against our enemies had ever had the like opportunity in their hands, us, and have blotted out the remembrance of us from under and had over-balanced us in numbers but half so much as we heaven: He might have given us up to the will of our did them, they would never have let it slip; but would long enemies, and into the hands of those whose tender mercies since have extirpated us utterly, and have “made the remem. are cruelty: He might have brought us into the net which brance of us to have ceased from among men."

they had spread for us, and have laid a terrible load of And now if you ask me, for what sins more especially God affliction upon our loins, and suffered insolent men to ride hath sent all these judgments upon us ? it will not, I think, over our heads, and them that hated us with a perfect hatred become us to be very particular and positive in such determi. to have had the rule over us : but He was graciously pleased nations. Thus much is certain, that we have all sinned and to remember mercy in the midst of judgment, and to repent contributed to these judgments; every one hath had some Himself for His servants, when He suw that their power was hand, more or less, in pulling down this vengeance upon gone, and that things were come to that extremity, that we the nation. But we are all too apt to remove the meritorious were in all human probability utterly unable to have wrought cause of God's judgments as far as we can from ourselves out our own deliverance. and our own party, and upon any slight pretence to lay it 3. The last parallel between our case and that in the text upon others.

is the great and wonderful deliverance which God hath Yet I will venture to instance in one or two things which wrought for us. And whilst I am speaking of this, “ God is may probably enough have had a more particular and im. my witness, whom I serve in the Gospel of His Son," that I

mediate hand in drawing down the judgments of God upon us. do not say one word upon this occasion in flattery to men, test Our horrible contempt of religion on the one hand, by our but in true thankfulness to Almighty God, and constrained

infidelity and profaneness; and our shameful abuse of it on thereto from a just sense of His great mercy to us all, in this o he other, by our gross hypocrisy, and sheltering great marvellous deliverance, in this mighty salvation which He

wickedness and immoralities under the cloak and profession wrought for us. So that we may say with Ezra, “Since of religion.

Thou our God hast given us such a deliverance as this :" so And then, great dissensions and divisions, great unchari great that we know not how to compare it with anything but tableness and bitterness of spirit among those of the same itself. God hath given us this deliverance. And therefore, religion ; so that almost from the beginning of our happy “Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but to Thy name be the Reformation the enemy had sown these tares, and by the un. praise.” For Thou knowest, and we are all conscious to wearied malice and arts of the Church of Rome, the seeds of ourselves, that we did nowise deserve it; but quite the condissension were scattered very early amongst us; and a sour trary. God hath given it, and it ought to be so much the humour had been fermenting in the body of the nation, both welcomer to us, for coming from such a hand. “It is the upon account of religion and civil interests, for a long time Lord's doing," and therefore ought to be the more “marbefore things broke out into a civil war,

vellous in our eyes." It is a deliverance full of mercy, and

I had almost said, full of miracle. The finger of God was 1 The report was that the Roman Catholics had plotted to burn

visibly in it; and there are plain signatures and characters London, Pope expressed his indignation at this in his reference to upon it, of a more immediate divinity interposition. And if the inscription on the Monument, cut in 1681, erased under James II., we will not wisely consider the Lord's doings, we have reason re-cut under William III., and finally erased in 1831. ** Where London's column, pointing at the skies,

to stand in awe of the threatenings of His: “Because they Like a tall bully lifts the head and lieg."

regard not the works of the Lord, nor the operation of Ilis ("On the Use of Riches.'') hands, He shall destroy them, and not build them up."

« AnteriorContinuar »