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in the separate church, that of Thetford. Before the end of the century all proceedings against Dr. Hickes were stayed, out of respect to his position as a scholar. He died in 1715.
Another of the non-jurors, an earnest and energetic writer, was Jeremy Collier, bom in 1650, and educated in Ipswich school and at Caius College, Cambridge. He had a rectory in Suffolk, and was lecturer at Gray's Inn before he got into trouble by his opposition to the Revolution. He died outlawed in 1726. At the close of the century Jeremy Collier led an attack upon the Immorality and Profaneness of the Stage, and this controversy continued for two or three years. Jeremy Collier also wrote some good "Moral Essays" and an Ecclesiastical History.
William Penn, born in 1644, son of an admiral, and educated at Christchurch, Oxford, had suffered persecution in his earlier life for turning Quaker, and wrote in prison at the age of twenty-five "No Cross no Crown." In 1670 he inherited his father's estate, and in 1681 obtained a grant of New Netherlands, thenceforward called Pennsylvania. In 1694 Penn published "A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers," and there was published in the same year the "Journal of George Fox," the founder of their brotherhood, who died in 1690. Penn died in 1718.
Locke became one of the Fellows of the Royal Society, and in 1673 he was Secretary to a Commission of the Board of Trade over which Shaftesbury was President. He was with Shaftesbury when Charles II. was seeking Ids life, and afterwards went to Holland. Shaftesbury died in 1683, but Locke remained at Amsterdam, and for a time at Rotterdam, in close association with Philip Van Limborch, Jean le Clerc, and other leaders of the Church of the Remonstrants, which had been established by Jacob Harmensen (Arminius).1 He was writing upon "Toleration" at the time of the English Revolution, and returned to England in the ship that brought the Princess Mary. He then published his "Essay concerning Human Understanding," and his "Two Treatises of Government," in which he laid down the principles of the Revolution. In 1691 Locke, whose health was very delicate, found a pleasant home at Oates, in Essex, the residence of Sir Francis Masham and his wife. Lady Masham had been known to Locke some years before as his friend Dr. Cudworth's only daughter Damaris. In 1693 he published "Some Thoughts concerning Education," which had a great and wholesome influence upon home-life in England, while his wisdom and honesty were made serviceable to the state. The later writings of Locke, until his death in 1704, were chiefly religious. In 1695 he published a treatise on "The Reasonableness of Christianity "•—this drew its evidence chiefly from the Gospel narrative; and his last work came of an endeavour to ground his faith also upon study of the Epistles of St. Paul—" An Essay for the Understanding of St. Paul's Epistles by consulting St. Paul himself."
In the first year of the Revolution John Locke drew up for himself and some of his friends these
RULES FOE A SOCIETY OF PACIFIC CHKI8TIANS.
1. We think nothing necessary to be known or believed for salvation, but what God hath revealed.
2. We therefore embrace all those who, in sincerity, receive the word of truth revealed in the Scripture, and obey the light which enlightens every man that comes into the world.
3. Wo judge no man in meats, or drinks, or habits, or days, or any other outward observances, but leave every ona to his freedom in the uso of those outward things which ho thinks can most contribute to build up the inward man in righteousness, holiness, and the true love of God and his neighbour, in Christ Jesus.
4. If any one find any doctrinal parts of Scripture difficult to be understood, we recommend him—1st, The study of tho Scriptures in humility and singleness of heart; 2nd, Prayer to the Father of lights to enlighten him; 3rd, Obedience to what is already revealed to him, remembering that the practice of what we do know is the surest way to more knowledge; our infallible guide having told us, "If any man will do the will of him that sent mo, he shall know of tho doctrine." 4th, We leave him to the advice and assistance of those whom he thinks best able to instruct him; no men or society of men having any authority to impose their opinions or interpretations on any other, tho meanest
'See Note 1, pos?e M
Christian, since, in matters of religion, every man must know and believe and give an account for himself. 5. We hold it to be an indispensable duty for all Christians to maintain love and charity in the diversity of contrary opinions: by which charity we do not mean an empty sound, but an effectual forbearance and goodwill, carrying men to a communion, friendship, and mutual assistance one of another, in outward as well as spiritual things; and by debarring all magistrates from making use of their authority, much less their sword (which was put into their hands only against evil-doers), in matters of faith or worship. 6. Since the Christian religion we profess is not a notional science, to furnish speculation to the brain or discourse to the tongue, but a rule of righteousness to influence our lives, Christ having given Himself “to redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a people zealous of good works,” we profess the only business of our public assemblies to be to exhort, thereunto laying aside all controversy and speculative questions, instruct and encourage one another in the duties of a good life, which is acknowledged to be the great business of true religion, and to pray God for the assistance of His Spirit for the enlightening our understanding and subduing our corruptions, that so we may return unto Him a reasonable and acceptable service, and show our faith by our works, proposing to ourselves and others the example of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as the great pattern for our imitation. 7. One alone being our Master, even Christ, we acknowledge no masters of our assembly; but if any man in the spirit of love, peace, and meekness, has a word of exhortation, we hear him. 8. Nothing being so oppressive, or having proved so fatal to unity, love, and charity, the first great characteristical duties of Christianity, as men's fondness of their own opinions, and their endeavours to set them up, and have them followed, instead of the gospel of peace; to prevent those seeds of dissension and division, and maintain unity in the difference of opinions which we know cannot be avoided —if any one appear contentious, abounding in his own sense rather than in love, and desirous to draw followers after himself, with destruction or opposition to others, we judge him not to have learnt Christ as he ought, and therefore not fit to be a teacher of others. 9. Decency and order in our assemblies being directed, as they ought, to edification, can need but very few and plain rules. Time and place of meeting being settled, if anything else need regulation, the assembly itself, or four of the ancientest, soberest, and discreetest of the brethren, chosen for that occasion, shall regulate it. 10. From every brother that, after admonition, walketh disorderly, we withdraw ourselves. 11. We each of us think it our duty to propagate the doctrine and practice of universal goodwill and obedience in all places, and on all occasions, as God shall give us opportunity.
Gilbert Burnet was born at Edinburgh in 1643, and educated at Aberdeen; he studied also for a few months in Oxford and Cambridge, worked at Hebrew in Holland, and in 1665, at the age of twenty-two, became Divinity Professor in Glasgow. He was a hard worker, rose at four in the morning to his studies, and continued the practice until it was forbidden by the infirmities of age. His life was troubled by church dissensions and the strife of politics, in which he gave offence by opposition to in
tolerance and despotism. Burnet was preacher at the Rolls Chapel when he began, with aid from Robert Boyle, his “History of the Reformation.” He caused the dissolute Earl of Rochester to die a Christian, and was by his friend Lord Russell when he died on the scaffold. Then Burnet was deprived of his preachership, and was abroad till he returned to England with William of Orange as his chaplain. In the next year he was made Bishop of Salisbury. His ability, industry, and warmth of feeling had made him a foremost man of his party. He could not avoid judging others as a partisan, and from partisans upon the other side he has suffered many a harsh judgment. As bishop, Burnet lived in his diocese, and paid close attention to its duties. He died in 1715, leaving evidence of his ability and industry and of his living interest in the great controversies of his time, not only in his “History of the Reformation of the Church of England,” but also in a “History of his own Times,” that is full of important detail, although bitterly ridiculed by Pope and Swift. It ends with the year 1713, and there is added to it an Address to Posterity, written in 1708, when Burnet thought that he was near the end of his labour. It closes with the following words on the
study AND PRACTICE of RELIGION."
I will conclude this whole Address to Posterity with that, which is the most important of all other things, and which alone will carry every thing else along with it; which is to recommend, in the most solemn and serious manner, the Study and Practice of Religion to all sorts of Men, as that which is both the Light of the World, and the Salt of the Earth. Nothing does so open our Faculties, and compose and direct the whole Man, as an inward Sense of God, of his Authority over us, of the Laws he has set us, of his Eye ever upon us, of his hearing our Prayers, assisting our Endeavours, watching over our concerns, and of his being to judge and to reward or punish us in another State, according to what we do in this: Nothing will give a Man such a Detestation of Sin, and such a Sense of the Goodness of God, and of our Obligations to Holiness, as a right Understanding and a firm Belief of the Christian Religion: Nothing can give a Man so calm a Peace within, and such a firm Security against all Fears and Dangers without, as the Belief of a kind and wise Providence, and of a future State. An Integrity of Heart gives a Man a Courage, and a Confidence that cannot be shaken: A Man is sure that, by living according to the Rules of Religion, he becomes the wisest, the best and happiest Creature, that he is capable of being: Honest Industry, the employing his Time well, and a constant Sobriety, an undefiled Purity and Chastity, with a quiet Serenity, are the best Preservers of Life and Health : So that, take a Man as a single Individual, Religion is his Guard, his Perfection, his Beauty, and his Glory: This will make him the Light of the World, shining brightly, and enlightening many round about him.
Then take a Man as a Piece of Mankind, as a Citizen of the World, or of any particular State, Religion is indeed then the Salt of the Earth : For it makes every Man to be to all the rest of the World, whatsoever any one can with
1 This passage is printed as in the first edition (1724), reproducing capitals, italics, spelling, punctuation, &c., that it may serve for specimen of English as it was written early in the eighteenth century. ruason wish or desire him to be. He is true, just, honest and faithful in the whole Commerce of Life, doing to all others, that which he would have others do to him: He is a Lover of Mankind, and of his Country: He may and ought to love some more than others; but he has an Extent of Love to all, of Pity and Compassion, not only to the poorest, but to the worst; for the worse any arc, they are the more to be pitied. He has a Complacency and Delight in all that are truely, tho' but defectively good, and a Respect and Veneration for all that are eminently so: He mourns for the Sins, and rejoices in the Virtues of all that are round about him: In every Relation of Life, Religion makes him answer all his Obligations: It will make Princes just and good, faithful to their Promises, and Lovers of their People: It will inspire Subjects with Respect, Submission, Obedience anc Zeal for their Prince: It will sanctify Wedlock to be a State of Christian Friendship, and mutual Assistance: It will give Parents the truest Love to their Children, with a proper Care of their Education: It will command the Returns of Gratitude and Obedience from Children: It will teach Masters to be gentle and careful of their Servants, and Servants to be faithful, zealous, and diligent in their Master's Concerns: It will make Friends tender and true to one another; it will make them generous, faithful and disinterested: It will make Men live in their Neighbourhood, as Members of one common Body, promoting first the general Good of the Whole, and then the Good of every Particular, as far as a Man's Sphere can go: It will make Judges and Magistrates just and patient, hating Covctousness, and maintaining Peace and Order, without respoct of Persons: It will make People live in so inoffensive a manner, that it will be easy to maintain Justice, whilst Men are not disposed to give Disturbance to those about thom. This will make Bishops and Pastors faithful to their Trust, tender to their People, and watchful over thom; and it will beget in the People an Esteom for their Persons, and their Functions.
Thus Religion, if truely received and sincerely adhered to, would prove the greatest of all Blessings to a Nation: But by Religion, I understand somewhat more than the receiving some Doctrines, tho' ever so true, or the professing them, and engaging to support them, not without Zeal and Eagerness. What signify the best Doctrines, if Men do not live suitably to them; if they have not a due Influence upon their Thoughts, their Principles, and their Lives? Men of bad Lives, with sound Opinions, are self condemned, and lie under a highly aggravated Guilt; nor will the Heat of a Party, arising out of Interest, and managed with Fury and Violence, compensate for the ill Lives of such false Pretenders to Zeal; while they are a Disgrace to that, which they profess and seem so hot for. By Religion I do not mean, an outward Compliance with Form and Customs, in going to Church, to Prayers, to Sermons and to SacramentB, with an external Show of Devotion, or, which is more, with some inward forced good Thoughts, in which many may satisfy themselves, while this has no visible effect on their lives, nor any inward Force to subdue and rectify their Appetites, Passions and secret Designs. Those customary performances, how good and useful soever, when well understood and rightly directed, are of little value, when Men rest on them, and think that, because they do them, they have therefore acquitted themselves of their Duty, tho' they continue still proud, covetous, full of Deceit, Envy and Malice: Even secret Prayer, the most effectual of all other means, is designed for a higher end, which is to possess our Minds with such a constant and present Sense of Divine Truths, as may make these live in us, and govern us; and may draw down such Assistances, as may exalt and sanctify our Natures.
So that by Religion I mean, such a Sense of divine Truth, as enters into a Man, and becomes a Spring of a new Nature within him; reforming his Thoughts and Designs, purifying his Heart, and sanctifying him, and governing his whole Deportment, his Words as well as his Actions; convincing him that, it is not enough, not to be scandalously vicious, or to be innocent in his Conversation, but that he must be entirely, uniformly and constantly pure and vertuous, animating him with a Zeal, to be still better and better, more eminently good and exemplary, using Prayers and all outward Devotions, as solemn Acts testifying what he is inwardly and at heart, and as Methods instituted by God, to be still advancing in the use of them further and further, into a more refined and spiritual Sense of divine Matters. This is true Religion, which is the Perfection of Human Nature, and the Joy and Delight of every one, that feels it active and strong within him; it is true, this is not arrived at all at once; and it will have an unhappy allay, hanging long even about a good Man: But, as those ill Mixtures are the perpetual Grief of his Soul, so it is his chief Care to watch over and to mortify them; he will be in a continual Progress, still gaining ground upon himself: And, as he attains to a good degree of Purity, ho will find a noble Flame of Life and Joy growing upon him. Of this I write with the more Concern and Emotion, because I have felt this the true and indeed the only Joy, which runs thro' a Man's Heart and Life: It is that which has been for many Years my greatest Support; I rejoice daily in it; I feel from it the Earnest of that supreme Joy, which I pant and long for; I am sure there is nothing else can afford any truo or compleat Happiness. I have, considering my Sphere, seen a great deal of all, that is most shining and tempting in this World: The Pleasures of Sense I did soon nauseate; Intrigues of State, and the Conduct of Affairs have something in them, that is more specious; and I was, for some Years, deeply immersed in these, but still with Hopes of reforming the World, and of making Mankind wiser and better: But I have found, That which is crooked cannot he made straight. I acquainted my self with Knowledge and Learning, and that in a great Variety, and with more Compass than Depth: but tho' Wisdom excclleth Folly, as much as Light does Darkness; yet, as it is a sore Travail, so it is so very defective, that whut is wanting to compleat it, cannot be numbered. I have seen that two were better than one, and that a threefold Cord is not easily loosed; and have therefore cultivated Friendship with much Zeal and a disinterested Tenderness; but I have found this was also Vanity and Vexation of Spirit, tho' it be of the best and noblest sort. So that, upon great and long Experience,
I could enlargo on the Preacher's Text, Vanity of Vanities, and all is Vanity; but I must also conclude with him; Fear God, and keep his Commandments, for this is the All of Man, tho Whole both of his Duty, and of his Happiness. I do therefore end all, in the Words of David, of tho Truth of which, upon great Experience and a long Observation, I am so fully assured, that I leave these as my last Words to Posterity: "Come ye Children, hearken unto me; I will teach "yon the Fear of the Lord; what Man is he that desireth Life, "and loveth many Days, that he may see Good; keep thy "Tongue from Evil, and thy Lips from speaking Guile; depart "from Evil, ami do Good, seek Peace and pursue it. The Eyis "of the Lord are upon the Righteous, and his Ears are open to "their Cry; but the Face of the Lord is against them that do
II Evil, to cat off the Remembrance of them from the Earth. "The Righteous cry, and the Lord heareth, and delivereth them "out of all their Troubles. The Lord it nigh unto them that "are of a broken Heart, and saveth such as be of a contrite "Spirit."
Simon Patrick Tu Bishop of Chichester when, in 1<>91, be wan translated to Ely. He wrote on. the Lord's Hopper " Mensa Mystica," and a book in gapport of their belief to satisfy believers, called "The Witnesses of Christianity, or the Certainty of our Faith and Hope." In 1691, when Simon Patrick was made Bishop of Ely, Thomas Tenison was made Bishop of Lincoln, and in 1694 Tenison succeeded Tillotson as Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillotson had recommended him as a successor, because he was liberal in spirit and had been proved faithful in the discharge of duty.
There began at this time an active controversy on the Doctrine of the Trinity. Thomas Firmin, a friend of Tillotson, and a benevolent and wealthy London merchant, became zealous for the diffusion of tracts favourable to Unitarian opinions. Two of these were answered by Dr. Sherlock, who was nonjuror at the Revolution, but complied afterwards. In 1691, the year after his book on the Trinity appeared, Sherlock was made Dean of St Paul's. He died in 1707, aged Hixty-six. William Sherlock argued that there was no salvation outside the Catholic faith, as set forth in the Athanasian Creed. The controversy spread. Dr. John Wallis entered into it as a mathematician. Dr. Robert South, in 1693, attacked Sherlock for the too sophisticated method of his explanation. In 1695 John Toland, an Irishman who had been bred as a Roman Catholic, published a tract called "Christianity not Mysterious," that spread the controversy farther. His book was burnt by order of the Irish House of Parliament, and he was called a Jesuit and a Socinian. As he had applied in his own way some principles of Locke's philosophy, the veteran Edward Stilllngfieet, Bishop of Worcester, the most energetic controversial writer in the Church, attacked John Locke, making him answerable for doctrines that he had not taught, because they had been associated with first principles drawn from his "Essay concerning Human Understanding." Locke replied; Stillingfleet replied again; Ixxike answered a second and a third time. George Bull, a pious and amiable man, who was made Bishop of St. David's in 1705, and died in 1708, had written, in 1685, a Defence of the Nicene Creed, and he wrote again on the same subject. William Beveridge was made Bishop of St. Asaph in 1704, and died, aged seventy-one, in 1707. He left a large body of sermons, in which the active piety of his own life is reflected.
Dr. Samuel Clarke, son of an alderman of Norwich, educated at Norwich and at Cains College, Cambridge, published notes upon Newton's philosophy at the age of twenty-two. He was for twelve years chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich, who gave him the living of Drayton in Norfolk. Robert Boyle died in 1691, a week after his sister and life-companion, Lady Ranclagh. By his will he left provision for annual lectures by divines who were to be "ready to satisfy real scruples, and to answer such new objections and difficulties as might be started, to which good answers had not been made." They were also to preach eight sermons in the year, on the first Monday of every month except June, July, August, and December, for the proof of the Chris
tian religion against infidels, •' not descending lower to any controversies that are among CbnitiAns." The first Boyle lecturer was Richard Bentley, chewn when only twenty-eight years old. He gave, with great effect, a course in 1692, and another in 1694. r?amuel Clarke gave the Boyle lectures in 1704, taking for subject the Being and Attributes of God, and he gave a course again in the following year, on the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion, argued from the " fitness of things." He afterward* pleased Newton greatly by a translation of his optica, and became chaplain to Queen Anne and Rector of St. James's, Westminster. He had been accused <£ Arianism, because he said that he had only read the Athanasian Creed once, and then by mistake; but in 1712 he published a work on the Doctrine of the Trinity. This was condemned by the Lower House of Convocation as unorthodox in its method of interpretation, and inconsistent with the Athanaska Creed. Dr. Clarke had no wish to excite division, and submitted himself in terms which were held to be no recantation of his views, although sufficiect when accompanied with a promise to preach no more in the sense objected to. Dr. Clarke died in 1729.
The new and bolder questioning of religion and of God Himself, as well as of church doctrines, which becomes a feature of our literature in the times <a which we are now speaking, had several sources. One was in the critical wit of a dissolute court in the time of Charles n., when men influenced by the French reaction against extravagance of style and thought in literature, followed the king's example in exalting pleasures of the sense. With minds thru lowered in aim, while trained in a form of critical acuteness that had its good as well as its bad use, they satirised extravagance, but fell also out of accord with all true exaltation of thought; for every libertine called himself a "man of parts" or '* man of sense," and looked on a character for wit at inconsistent with a character for religious feeling or domestic worth. Thus in Sir George Etherege's comedy of the "Man of Mode," Dorimant. who represents the licentious fine gentleman of (.'harks II.'s day, says of Ids intimacy with Bellair, who is well bred, complaisant, seldom impertinent, anJ as he says "by much the most tolerable of all th« young men that do not abound in wit," that th*v are intimate because "it is our mutual interest to be so; it makes the women think better of ha understanding, and judge more favourably of tajr reputation; it makes him pass uj on some for a mis of very good sense, and I upon others for a very civil person." What the cant of the day thus caU>>i "good sense" was commonly parted from religiu* . and antagonism to the Puritans after the Restoratkr. made it ungentlemanly to be known to pray. Richara Steele, in Queen Anne's reign, attacked in the "Tatler* this fashion which had been transmitted to hi* day, and spoke in playful earnest of a young gentlenu£ who gave himself much trouble to be thought an atheist, though it could be proved upon him th»t every night before going to bed he said his pravers. But there was another form of doubt that instead •.«' accompanying the degradation of man's life spracx from a generous reaction against it. This was U* form of scepticism that had power; and this could be met only by those who opposed to it, with respect for its sincere desire for truth, a frank sincerity and thorough earnestness. In France and elsewhere the prevalent corruptions of society extended to the Church, and doctrines were enforced by an authority too often itself contemptible in honest eyes. Self.seeking teachers, who lived evil lives, discredited the faith of which they made themselves the absolute dictators. They provoked doubts which they were utterly incompetent to answer, and already before the close of the seventeenth century the literature of Europe showed the clear beginnings of a revolt that afterwards prompted many, in extreme reaction against blind authority, to sweep from their minds all that they had been taught by rote, and seek by fearless exercise of reason to find out for themselves absolute truth. Strong reaction tends to excess. Resentment against superstition has caused many who have been very near to it to give themselves to infidelity. The first combat of the Red Cross Knight, when parted from Una, was with Sansfoy. Resentment against religion, plied as a trade, with greed and hypocrisy, drove into strong opposition many able, earnest men. Bold thinkers and enthusiasts urged reason and eloquence against the faith itself, wliich had been thus disci-edited. An argument was rising that no longer dealt with questions of "fixed fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute," but struck at the root of all helief in God. Men were asking whether the world, as it was, could be the work of a just God; whether there was a God. If they believed in God, they questioned with the boldest freedom whatever authority required them to believe as to His nature, or the revelation of His will to man.
In the "Tatlers" and "Spectators" of Queen Anne's reign, Steele and Addison sought to check the lower social influences that made war upon religion and an lionest life. They wrote papers that battled against such fashions as the habitual scoffing against marriage, swearing, duelling, and this they did in a genial spirit that set the example of the wholesomer life they endeavoured to restore to honour among "men of sense." They dared to be religious, and showed that it was |K>ssible to be religious without groan, critical without sneer, witty without offence. Richard Steele had, under conditions that increase our honour for the little piece, begun his manly career as a writer with a pamphlet called "The Christian Hero; or, No Principles but those of Religion Sufficient to make a. Great Man." In this he showed that the true Christian heroism, which dares take Christ for the jrreat example, and live up to the teaching of the iSennon on the Mount, is far above the heroism of the ancients, who were just then lauded especially in French-classical literature. I take from "The Christian Hero," published in 1701, this passage containing, w ith comment, a short paraphrase of
Paul'8 Epistle To Phi Lemon.
It were endless to enumerate these excellences and beauties in his writings; but since they were all in his more public and ministerial office, let's see him in his private life. There is nothing expresses a man's particular character more fully
than his letters to his intimate friends; we have one of that nature of this great Apostle to Philemon, which in the modern language would perhaps run thus:—
"Sin,—It is with the deepest satisfaction that I every day hear you commended for your generous behaviour to all of that faith in tho articles of which I had the honour and happiness to initiate you; for which, though I might presume to an authority to oblige your compliance in a request I am going to make to you, yet choose I rather to apply myself to you as a friend than an Apostle, for with a man of your great temper, I know I need not a more powerful pretence than that of my age and imprisonment. Yet is not my petition for myself, but in behalf of the bearer, your servant Onesimus, who has robbed you and ran away from you. What he has defrauded you of, I will be answerable for; this shall be a demand upon me; not to say that you owe mo your very self. I called him your servant, but he is now also to be regarded by you in a greater relation, even that of your fellow-Christian; for I esteem him a son of mine as much as your self; nay, methinks it is a certain peculiar endearment of him to me, that I had the happiness of gaining him in my confinement. I beseech you to receive him, and think it an act of Providence that he went away from you for a season, to return more improved to your service for ever."
This letter is the sincere image of a worthy, pious, and brave man, and the ready utterance of a generous Christian temper. How handsomely does he assume, though a prisoner 'i How humbly condescend, though an Apostle r Could any request have been made, or any person obliged with a better grace? The very criminal servant is no less with him than his son and his brother. For Christianity has that in it, which makes men pity, not scorn the wicked, and by a beautiful kind of ignorance of themselves, think those wretches their equals; it aggravates all the benefits and good offices of life, by making them seem fraternal; and tho Christian feels the wants of the miserable so much his own, that it sweetens the pain of tho obliged, when he that gives docs it with an air that has neither oppression or superiority in it, but had rather have his generosity appear an enlarged self-love than diffusivo bounty, and is always a benefactor with the mien of a receiver.
Steele and Addison will be more fully represented in the volume of this Library answering to that of Shorter English Poems, which will contain a series of the best pieces of Prose that are short enough to be given complete. But the tone and purpose of their writing were so essentially religious, that each of them must be represented here. This is a pa]>er of Addison's, written in July, 1714 (No. 574 of the "Spectator," and here given as printed in the first editions), on
I was once engaged in Discourse with a Roticrutian about the great Secret. As this kind of Men (I mean those of them who are not professed Cheats) are over-run with Enthusiasm and Philosophy, it was very amusing to hear this religious Adopt descanting on his pretended Discovery. He talked of the Secret as of a Spirit which lived within an Emerald, and converted every thing that was near it to the highest Perfection it is capable of. It gives a Lustre, says he, to the Sun, and Water to the Diamond. It irmdiates every Metal, and enriches Lead with all tho Properties of Gold. It heightens Smoak into Flame, Flame into Light, and Light into Glory. He further added, that a single Ray of it dissipates Pain, and Care, and Melancholy from the Person on whom it falls. In short, says he, its Presence naturally changes every Placo