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1656 or the beginning of 1657 Tillotson left college to be tutor at Ford Abbey, Devonshire, to the son of Edmund Prideaux, who was then Cromwell's Attorney-General. At the Restoration, Tillotson had been ordained, and acted with the Presbyterians, but he submitted to the Act of Uniformity. Tillotson was curate at Cheshunt from 1661 to 1672, with which office he held others, including that of preacher at Lincoln's Inn. To this he was elected in November, 1663, and he liked it so well that he made Lincoln's Inn his head-quarters. He took great
ingratitude towards Almighty The case in
- a deliverance, only because it that in three
a c cost us so very cheap. us for our e
- circumstance more, which may not punished
- observation: that God seems, in given us
-- xme sort to have united and brought 1. Gri
- kiverances which he hath been pleased deeds,
- against all the remarkable attempts for 1
beginning of our Reformation. Our Buti
from the formidable Spanish invasion du
*happened in the year 1588. And now vs after, God was pleased to bring about si sost happy deliverance. That horrid gun.
5, without precedent and without parallel, I have been executed upon the fifth day of
same day upon which his Highness the Prince spied the forces here in England which he * for our rescue. So that this is a day every
be solemnly set apart and joyfully celebrated arh and nation, throughout all generations, as
all other to comprehend, and to put us in mind murate all the great deliverances which God hath
szar us, from Popery, and its inseparable companion, - Power. And we may then say with the holy
- This is the Lord's doing, it is marvellous in our - This is the day which the Lord hath made: we will
- IT and be glad in it."
pains with his sermons, en clear and unaffected in Several of his early ser “ The Wisdom of beil.. larged before publication in directed against the grow Under Charles II., Tillots bury, and chaplain to th Dean Tillotson warmel exclusion of the Dule his friend Gilbert William Russell, besi the unlawfulness Lord Russell's chat wards put it, his country." R became a trust Revolution this his Thanksgivi 14:—"And evil deeds, Thou our G quities des as this; and joint tions, wo hadst con nor escu
Is Dean of Canterbury, Dr. Tillotson exercised wiepiscopal jurisdiction after suspension of the pemate, Dr. Sancroft, for refusal of the oaths ap
inted by the Act of Parliament of the 24th of April. The same oaths were refused by Dr. Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and by the Bishops of Worcester, Gloucester, Peterborough, Chichester, Ely, and Norwich. Sancroft was deprived of his ottice in 1690, and Tillotson succeeded him as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1691. Tillotson's age was then sixty-one, and he died in 1694.
King William offered in Parliament to excuse the oath to the non-juring clergy on condition that Dissenters might be excused the sacramental test ; but the legislature overruled his wish for an even-handed policy of toleration. The old discord
about Unity continued, and a small series of nono sur| juring bishops, in a separate free church, continued
I to exercise their functions and consecrate non-juring n the priests down to the year 1779, when Dr. Gordon,
the last of the line of non-juring bishops, died. The breach might have been healed after the death of James II. in 1701, if the Act of A bjuration had not
required acknowledgment of William as king by months ago, right of law as well as by fact of possession.
George Hickes, best known in literature for his studies of First English and the Northern languages of Europe, was one of the chiefs of the non-jurors. He was born in 1642 at Newsham, Yorkshire, educated at Northallerton School and St. John's College, Oxford, became D.D. both of St. Andrews and of Oxford, and in 1683 was made Dean of Worcester. One of the most energetic of the nonjurors, he was deprived of his church offices at the Revolution, openly opposed the government, and had to leave the country. In 1694 he was consecrated by three of the non-juring bishops to a new bishoprio
w the them
on furiously, od check to the fall career.
usad troubles ? en done all our
our deliverance. es zoness, and for
and easiness of swot a battle, and
lest we should
8 so very easy. dan wewaded through e reed it more. But
h rer we think of it, ngunable: for there can
- in the separate church, that of Thetford. Before the
end of the century all proceedings against Dr. Hickes were stayed, out of respect to his position as a - scholar. He died in 1715. - Another of the non-jurors, an earnest and ener
-99.getic writer, was Jeremy Collier, born in 1650, and --- educated in Ipswich school and at Caius College, -= Cambridge. He had a rectory in Suffolk, and was
= lecturer at Gray's Inn before he got into trouble by
3- his opposition to the Revolution. He died outlawed ---- in 1726. At the close of the century Jeremy Collier - led an attack upon the Immorality and Profaneness
of the Stage, and this controversy continued for two
For three years. Jeremy Collier also wrote some 5. good “Moral Essays " and an Ecclesiastical History, E I William Penn, born in 1644, son of an admiral, E-9 and educated at Christchurch, Oxford, had suffered
persecution in his earlier life for turning Quaker, and = wrote in prison at the age of twenty-five “ No Cross
no Crown.” In 1670 he inherited his father's estate,
and in 1681 obtained a grant of New Netherlands, -- thenceforward called Pennsylvania. In 1694 Penn => published “A Brief Account of the Rise and Pro- gress of the People called Quakers," and there was -= published in the same year the “ Journal of George -= Fox,” the founder of their brotherhood, who died in
1690. Penn died in 1718.
Locke became one of the Fellows of the Royal Society, and in 1673 he was Secretary to a Commission of the Board of Trade over which Shaftesbury was President. He was with Shaftesbury when Charles II. was seeking his life, and afterwards went to Holland. Shaftesbury died in 1683, but Locke remained at Amsterdam, and for a time at Rotterdam, in close association with Philip Van Limborch, Jean le Clerc, and other leaders of the Church of the Remonstrants, which had been established by Jacob Harmensen (Arminius). He was writing upon “ Toleration” at the time of the English Revolution, and returned to England in the ship that brought the Princess Mary. He then published his “Essay concerning Human Understanding,” and his “Two Treatises of Government,” in which he laid down the principles of the Revolution. In 1691 Locke, whose health was very delicate, found a pleasant home at Oates, in Essex, the residence of Sir Francis Masham and his wife. Lady Masham had been known to Locke some years before as his friend Dr. Cudworth's only daughter Damaris. In 1693 he published “Some Thoughts concerning Education,” which had a great and wholesome influence upon home-life in England, while his wisdom and honesty were made serviceable to the state. The later writings of Locke, until his death in 1704, were chiefly religious. In 1695 he published a treatise on “ The Reasonableness of Christianity "—this drew its evidence chiefly from the Gospel narrative ; and his last work came of an endeavour to ground his faith also upon study of the Epistles of St. Paul—“An Essay for the Understanding of St. Paul's Epistles by consulting St. Paul himself.”
In the first year of the Revolution John Locke drew up for himself and some of his friends these
RULES FOR A SOCIETY OF PACIFIC CHRISTIANS. 1. We think nothing necessary to be known or believed for salvation, but what God hath revealed.
2. We therefore embrace all those who, in sincerity, receive the word of truth revealed in the Scripture, and obey the light which enlightens every man that comes into the world.
3. We judge no man in meats, or drinks, or habits, or days, or any other outward observances, but leave every one to his freedom in the use of those outward things which he thinks can most contribute to build up the inward man in righteousness, holiness, and the true love of God and his
neighbour, in Christ Jesus. JOHN LOCKE. (From the Portrait prefixed to his works in 1703.)
4. If any one find any doctrinal parts of Scripture difficult
to be understood, we recommend him-ist, The study of the E John Locke was nearly of the same age as Dryden, Scriptures in humility and singleness of heart ; 2nd, Prayer - John Dryden having been born in August, 1631, | to the Father of lights to enlighten him ; 3rd, Obedience to 3 and John Locke in August, 1632. Locke was born what is already revealed to him, remembering that the prac.
- at Wrington, in Somersetshire ; his father served in tice of what we do know is the surest way to more know- the Parliamentary wars under Colonel Popham, by ledge; our infallible guide having told us, “If any man
whose advice the boy was sent to Westminster | will do the will of him that sent me, he shall know of the - School. From Westminster he passed, in 1651, to doctrine.” 4th, We leave him to the advice and assist
Christchurch, Oxford, where he felt the impulse | ance of those whom he thinks best able to instruct him; . then given to scientific research by Bacon's philo no men or society of men having any authority to impose
sophy. He made medicine his study, and by accident their opinions or interpretations on any other, the meanest
was brought into close friendly relation to Lord -- Ashley, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury. In 1668
I See Note 1, page 263.
Christian, since, in matters of religion, every man must tolerance and despotism. Burnet was preacher at the know and believe and give an account for himself.
Rolls Chapel when he began, with aid from Robert 5. We hold it to be an indispensable duty for all Christians
Boyle, his “History of the Reformation." He caused to maintain love and charity in the diversity of contrary
the dissolute Earl of Rochester to die a Christian, and opinions : by which charity we do not mean an empty sound,
was by his friend Lord Russell when he died on the but an effectual forbearance and goodwill, carrying men to a
scaffold. Then Burnet was deprived of his preachercommunion, friendship, and mutual assistance one of another,
ship, and was abroad till he returned to England in outward as well as spiritual things; and by debarring all
with William of Orange as his chaplain. In the magistrates from making use of their authority, much less
next year he was made Bishop of Salisbury. His their sword (which was put into their hands only against
ability, industry, and warmth of feeling had made evil-doers), in matters of faith or worship. 6. Since the Christian religion we profess is not a notional
him a foremost man of his party. He could not science, to furnish speculation to the brain or discourse
avoid judging others as a partisan, and from partisans to the tongue, but a rule of righteousness to influence our
upon the other side he has suffered many a harsh judg. lives, Christ having given Himself “ to redeem us from all
ment. As bishop, Burnet lived in his diocese, and iniquity, and purify unto Himself a people zealous of good
paid close attention to its duties. He died in 1715, works," we profess the only business of our public assem
leaving evidence of his ability and industry and blies to be to exhort, thereunto laying aside all controversy
of his living interest in the great controversies of his and speculative questions, instruct and encourage one another
time, not only in his “History of the Reformation in the duties of a good life, which is acknowledged to be the of the Church of England," but also in a “ History great business of true religion, and to pray God for the of his own Times,” that is full of important detail, assistance of His Spirit for the enlightening qur understanding | although bitterly ridiculed by Pope and Swift. It and subduing our corruptions, that so we may return unto ends with the year 1713, and there is added to it Him a reasonable and acceptable service, and show our faith an Address to Posterity, written in 1708, when by our works, proposing to ourselves and others the example | Burnet thought that he was near the end of his of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as the great pattern labour. It closes with the following words on the for our imitation.
7. One alone being our Master, even Christ, we acknow. ledge no masters of our assembly; but if any man in the
STUDY AND PRACTICE OF RELIGION. spirit of love, peace, and meekness, has a word of exhorta I will conclude this whole Address to Posterity with that, tion, we hear him.
which is the most important of all other things, and which 8. Nothing being so oppressive, or having proved so fatal alone will carry every thing else along with it; which is to to unity, love, and charity, the first great characteristical
recommend, in the most solemn and serious manner, the duties of Christianity, as men's fondness of their own
Study and Practice of Religion to all sorts of Men, as that opinions, and their endeavours to set them up, and have which is both the Light of the World, and the Salt of the them followed, instead of the gospel of peace; to prevent Earth. Nothing does so open our Faculties, and compose and those seeds of dissension and division, and maintain unity in direct the whole Man, as an inward Sense of God, of his the difference of opinions which we know cannot be avoided Authority over us, of the Laws he has set us, of his Eye ever --if any one appear contentious, abounding in his own sense
upon us, of his hearing our Prayers, assisting our Endeavours, rather than in love, and desirous to draw followers after
watching over our concerns, and of his being to judge and to himself, with destruction or opposition to others, we judge reward or punish us in another State, according to what we him not to have learnt Christ as he ought, and therefore not do in this: Nothing will give a Man such a Detestation of fit to be a teacher of others.
Sin, and such a Sense of the Goodness of God, and of our 9. Decency and order in our assemblies being directed, as Obligations to Holiness, as a right Understanding and a firin they ought, to edification, can need but very few and plain
Belief of the Christian Religion: Nothing can give a Man so rules. Time and place of meeting being settled, if anything calm a Peace within, and such a firm Security against all else need regulation, the assembly itself, or four of the Fears and Dangers without, as the Belief of a kind and wise ancientest, soberest, and discreetest of the brethren, chosen Providence, and of a future State. An Integrity of Heart for that occasion, shall regulate it.
gives a Man a Courage, and a Confidence that cannot be 10. From every brother that, after admonition, walketh shaken: A Man is sure that, by living according to the disorderly, we withdraw ourselves.
Rules of Religion, he becomes the wisest, the best and 11. We each of us think it our duty to propagate the
happiest Creature, that he is capable of being: Honist doctrine and practice of universal goodwill and obedience in Industry, the employing his Time well, and a constant all places, and on all occasions, as God shall give us oppor. Sobriety, an undefiled Purity and (hastity, with a quiet tunity.
Serenity, are the best Preservers of Life and Health : so that, take a Man as a single Individual, Religion is his
Guard, his Perfection, his Beauty, and his Glory: This will Gilbert Burnet was born at Edinburgh in 1643;
make him the Light of the World, shining brightly, and enand educated at Aberdeen ; he studied also for a
lightening many round about him. few months in Oxford and Cambridge, worked at Then take a Jan as a Piece of Mankind, as a Citizen of Hebrew in Holland, and in 1665, at the age of the World, or of any particular State, Religion is indeed twenty-two, became Divinity Professor in Glasgow. then the Salt of the Earth : For it makes every Man to be to He was a hard worker, rose at four in the morning all the rest of the World, whatsoerer any one can with to his studies, and continued the practice until it was forbidden by the infirmities of age. His life was troubled by church dissensions and the strife of
1 This passage is printed as in the first edition (1724), repmducing
capitals, italics, spelling, punctuation, &c., that it may serve for politics, in which he gave offence by opposition to in. specimen of English as it was written early in the eighteenth oentary. reason wish or desire him to be. He is true, just, honest and So that by Religion I mean, such a Sense of divine Truth, faithful in the whole Commerce of Life, doing to all others, as enters into a Man, and becomes a Spring of a new Nature that which he would have others do to him: He is a Lover of within him; reforming his Thoughts and Designs, purifying Mankind, and of his Country: He may and ought to love his Heart, and sanctifying him, and governing his whole some more than others; but he has an Extent of Love to all, Deportment, his Words as well as his Actions; convincing of Pity and Compassion, not only to the poorest, but to the him that, it is not enough, not to be scandalously vicious, or worst; for the worse any are, they are the more to be pitied. to be innocent in his Conversation, but that he must be He has a Complacency and Delight in all that are truely, entirely, uniformly and constantly pure and vertuous, anitho' but defectively good, and a Respect and Veneration for mating him with a Zeal, to be still better and better, more all that are eminently so: He mourns for the Sins, and eminently good and exemplary, using Prayers and all out. rejoices in the Virtues of all that are round about him: In ward Devotions, as solemn Acts testifying what he is inevery Relation of Life, Religion makes him answer all his wardly and at heart, and as Methods instituted by God, to Obligations : It will make Princes just and good, faithful to be still advancing in the use of them further and further, their Promises, and Lovers of their People: It will inspire into a more refined and spiritual Sense of divine Matters. Subjects with Respect, Submission, Obedience and Zeal for This is true Religion, which is the Perfection of Human their Prince: It will sanctify Wedlock to be a State of Chris. Nature, and the Joy and Delight of every one, that feels it tian Friendship, and mutual Assistance: It will give Parents active and strong within him; it is true, this is not arrived the truest Love to their Children, with a proper Care of their at all at once; and it will have an unhappy allay, hanging Education: It will command the Returns of Gratitude and long even about a good Man: But, as those ill Mixtures are Obedience from Children: It will teach Masters to be gentle the perpetual Grief of his Soul, so it is his chief Care to and careful of their Servants, and Servants to be faithful, watch over and to mortify them; he will be in a continual zealous, and diligent in their Master's Concerns: It will Progress, still gaining ground upon himself : And, as he make Friends tender and true to one another; it will make attains to a good degree of Purity, he will find a noble Flame them generous, faithful and disinterested: It will make Men of Life and Joy growing upon him. Of this I write with live in their Neighbourhood, as Members of one common the more Concern and Emotion, because I have felt this the Body, promoting first the general Good of the Whole, and true and indeed the only Joy, which runs thro' a Man's then the Good of every Particular, as far as a Man's Sphere Heart and Life: It is that which has been for many Years can go: It will make Judges and Magistrates just and my greatest Support; I rejoice daily in it; I feel from it the patient, hating Covetousness, and maintaining Peace and Earnest of that supreme Joy, which I pant and long for; I Order, without respect of Persons: It will make People live am sure there is nothing else can afford any true or compleat in so inoffensive a manner, that it will be easy to maintain Happiness. I have, considering my Sphere, seen a great deal Justice, whilst Men are not disposed to give Disturbance to of all, that is most shining and tempting in this World: The those about them. This will make Bishops and Pastors faith Pleasures of Sense I did soon nauseate; Intrigues of State, ful to their Trust, tender to their People, and watchful over and the Conduct of Affairs have something in them, that is them; and it will beget in the People an Esteem for their more specious; and I was, for some Years, deeply immersed Persons, and their Functions.
in these, but still with Hopes of reforming the World, and of Thus Religion, if truely received and sincerely adhered to, making Mankind wiser and better: But I have found, That would prove the greatest of all Blessings to a Nation : But by which is crooked cannot be made straight. I acquainted my Religion, I understand somewhat more than the receiving self with Knowledge and Learning, and that in a great some Doctrines, tho' ever so true, or the professing them, Variety, and with inore Compass than Depth: but tho' Tis. and engaging to support them, not without Zeal and Eager dom excelleth Folly, as much as Light does Darkness; yet, as it ness. What signify the best Doctrines, if Men do not live is a sore Travail, so it is so very defective, that what is want. suitably to them; if they have not a due Influence upon ing to compleat it, cannot be numbered. I have seen that tro their Thoughts, their Principles, and their Lives ? Men of were better than one, and that a threefold Cord is not easily bad Lives, with sound Opinions, are self condemned, and lie loosed ; and have therefore cultivated Friendship with much under a highly aggravated Guilt; nor will the Heat of a Zeal and a disinterested Tenderness; but I have found this Party, arising out of Interest, and managed with Fury and was also Vanity and Vexation of Spirit, tho’ it be of the best Violence, compensate for the ill Lives of such false Pre | and noblest sort. So that, upon great and long Experience, tenders to Zeal; while they are a Disgrace to that, which I could enlarge on the Preacher's Text, Vanity of Vanities, they profess and seem so hot for. By Religion I do not mean, and all is l'anity ; but I must also conclude with him ; Fear an outward Compliance with Form and Customs, in going to | God, and keep his Commandments, for this is the All of Man, Church, to Prayers, to Sermons and to Sacraments, with an the Whole both of his Duty, and of his Happiness. I do external Shew of Devotion, or, which is more, with some in. therefore end all, in the Words of David, of the Truth of ward forced good Thoughts, in which many may satisfy which, upon great Experience and a long Observation, I am themselves, while this has no visible effect on their Lives, so fully assured, that I leave these as my last Words to nor any inward Force to subdue and rectify their Appetites, Posterity: “ Come ye Children, hearken unto me; I will teach Passions and secret Designs. Those customary performances, “ you the Fear of the Lord ; what Man is he that desireth Life, how good and useful soever, when well understood and “and loveth many Days, that he may see Good ; keep thy rightly directed, are of little value, when Men rest on them, “ Tongue from Eril, and thy Lips from speaking Guile; depart and think that, because they do them, they have therefore | " from Eril, and do Good, seek Peace and pursue it. The Eyes acquitted themselves of their Duty, tho' they continue still “ of the Lord are upon the Righteous, and his Ears are open to proud, covetous, full of Deceit, Envy and Malice: Even | "their Cry; but the Face of the Lord is against them that do secret Prayer, the most effectual of all other means, is designed | “ Eril, to cut off the Remembrance of them from the Earth. for a higher end, which is to possess our Minds with such a “ The Righteous cry, and the Lord heareth, and delivereth them constant and present Sense of Divine Truths, as may make “out of all their Troubles. The Lord is nigh unto them that these live in us, and govern us; and may draw down such “are of a broken Heart, and sareth such as be of a contrite Assistances, as may exalt and sanctify our Natures.
Hiraon Patrick was Bishop of Chichester when, in tian religion against infidels, * not descending lower 1691, be was translated to Ely. He wrote on, the to any controversies that are among Christians." Lord's Super" Mensa Mvstica," and a book in sup The first Bovle lecturer was Richard Bentlev, ehona port of their belief to satisfy believers, called “ The when only twenty-eight years old. He gave, with Witnesses of Christianity, or the Certainty of our great effect, a course in 1692, and another in 1594. Faith and Hope." In 1691, when Simon Patrick Samuel Clarke gave the Bovle lectures in 1704, was made Bishop of Ely, Thomas Tenison was made taking for subject the Being and Attributes of God, Bizhop of Lincoln, and in 1694 Tenison succeeded and he gave a course again in the following year, Tillotson as Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillotson on the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religiou, had recommended him as a successor, because he argued from the “fitness of things." He afterwaris was liberal in spirit and had been proved faithful in pleased Newton greatly by a translation of his optis the discharge of duty.
and became chaplain to Queen Anne and Rector of There began at this time an active controversy St. James's, Westminster. He had been accused of on the Doctrine of the Trinity. Thomas Firmin, a Arianism, because he said that he had only read the friend of Tillotson, and a benevolent and wealthy Athanasian Creed once, and then by mistake; but in London merchant, became zealous for the diffusion 1712 he published a work on the Doctrine of the of tracts favourable to Unitarian opinions. Two of Trinity. This was condemned by the Lower House these were answered by Dr. Sherlock, who was non of Convocation as unorthodox in its method of injuror at the Revolution, but complied afterwards. | terpretation, and inconsistent with the Athanasiun In 1691, the year after his book on the Trinity Creed. Dr. Clarke had no wish to excite division, appeared, Sherlock was made Dean of St. Paul's. and submitted himself in terms which were held to He died in 1707, aged sixty-six. William Sherlock | be no recantation of his views, although surficient argued that there was no salvation outside the when accompanied with a promise to preach no more Catholic faith, as set forth in the Athanasian in the sense objected to. Dr. Clarke died in 1729. Creed. The controversy spread. Dr. John Wallis The new and bolder questioning of religion and of entered into it as a mathematician. Dr. Robert God Himself, as well as of church doctrines, which South, in 1693, attacked Sherlock for the too sophis becomes a feature of our literature in the times a ticated method of his explanation. In 1695 John which we are now speaking, had several sources Toland, an Irishman who had been bred as a Roman One was in the critical wit of a dissolute court in Catholic, published a tract called “ Christianity not the time of Charles II., when men influenced by Mysterious," that spread the controversy farther. the French reaction against extravagance of style and His book was burnt by order of the Irish House of thought in literature, followed the king's example in Parliament, and he was called a Jesuit and a Socinian. exalting pleasures of the sense. With minds thus As he had applied in his own way some principles lowered in aim, while trained in a form of critical of Locke's philosophy, the veteran Edward Stilling acuteness that had its good as well as its bad use fleet, Bishop of Worcester, the most energetic con they satirised extravagance, but fell also out of troversial writer in the Church, attacked John Locke, accord with all true exaltation of thought; for every making him answerable for doctrines that he had not libertine called himself a “man of parts” or ** uan taught, because they had been associated with first of sense," and looked on a character for wit as principles drawn from his “Essay concerning Human | inconsistent with a character for religious feeling Understanding.” Locke replied; Stillingfleet replied or domestic worth. Thus in Sir George Ethere's again; Locke answered a second and a third time. comedy of the “Man of Mode," Dorimant, who George Bull, a pious and amiable man, who was represents the licentious fine gentleman of Charles made Bishop of St. David's in 1705, and died in II.'s day, says of his intimacy with Bellair, wlo 1708, had written, in 1685, a Defence of the Nicene is well bred, complaisant, seldom impertinent, and Creed, and he wrote again on the same subject. as he says “by much the most tolerable of all the William Beveridge was made Bishop of St. Asaph in young men that do not abound in wit,” that they 1704, and died, aged seventy-one, in 1707. He left are intimate because “it is our mutual inters a large body of sermons, in which the active piety of to be so; it makes the women think better of Es his own life is reflected.
understanding, and judge more favourably of us Dr. Samuel Clarke, son of an alderman of Nor- reputation; it makes him pass upon some for a man wich, educated at Norwich and at Caius College, of very good sense, and I upon others for a very Cambridge, published notes upon Newton's philosophy | civil person.” What the cant of the day thus call at the age of twenty-two. He was for twelve years “good sense" was commonly parted from religioa; chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich, who gave him and antagonism to the Puritans after the Restoratie the living of Drayton in Norfolk. Robert Boyle made it ungentlemanly to be known to pray. Richari died in 1691, a week after his sister and life-com- | Steele, in Queen Anne's reign, attacked in the “Tatier panion, Lady Ranelagh. By his will he left provision this fashion which had been transmitted to his dar, for annual lectures by divines who were to be “ready and spoke in playful earnest of a young gentle ILE to satisfy real scruples, and to answer such new who gave himself much trouble to be thought 13 objections and difficulties as might be started, to atheist, though it could be proved upon hin that which good answers had not been made.” They every night before going to bed he said his prates were also to preach eight sermons in the year, on But there was another form of doubt that instead the first Monday of every month except June, July, accompanying the degradation of man's life sans August, and December, for the proof of the Chris- | from a generous reaction against it. This was the