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and be some presumption against the truth of Religion, that be conclusive, it remains so upon the supposition of it represents our future and more general interest, as not necessity. The last chapter of the First Book is secure of course, but as depending upon our behaviour, and related to the argument of Pope's “Essay on Man," requiring recollection and self-government to obtain it. For in showing reason from Analogy to believe that we it might be alleged, “What you say is our condition in one
misjudge through ignorance of the great whole, respect is not in any wise of a sort with what we find by
whereof we see only a part. It is “ of the Governexperience our condition is in another. Our whole present
ment of God, considered as a Scheme or Constitution, interest is secured to our hands, without any solicitude of
imperfectly comprehended,” and it opens thus :ours; and why should not our future interest, if we have any such, be so too ?” But since, on the contrary, thought
Though it be, as it cannot but be, acknowledged, that the and consideration, the voluntary denying ourselves many
Analogy of Nature gives a strong credibility to the general things which we desire, and a course of behaviour far from
doctrine of religion, and to the several particular things conbeing always agreeable to us, are absolutely necessary to our
tained in it, considered as so many matters of fact; and acting even a common decent and common prudent part, so
likewise that it shows this credibility not to be destroyed by as to pass with any satisfaction through the present world, and be received upon any tolerable good terms in it: since
any notions of necessity: yet still, objections may be insisted this is the case, all presumption against self-denial and
upon, against the wisdom, equity, and goodness of the divine
government implied in the notion of Religion, and against the attention being necessary to secure our higher interest is
method by which this government is conducted ; to which removed. Had we not experience, it might, perhaps
objections Analogy can be no direct answer. For the credi. speciously, be urged, that it is improbable anything of hazard
bility or the certain truth of a matter of fact does not and danger should be put upon us by an Infinite Being, when everything which is hazard and danger in our manner of
immediately prove anything concerning the wisdom or good.
ness of it; and Analogy can do no more, immediately or conception, and will end in error, confusion, and misery, is
directly, than show such and such things to be true or now already certain in his fore-knowledge. And indeed,
credible, considered only as matters of fact. But still, if, why anything of hazard and danger should be put upon such
upon supposition of a moral constitution of nature and a frail creatures as we are, may well be thought a difficulty in speculation, and cannot but be so till we know the whole, or,
moral government over it, Analogy suggests and makes it
credible, that this government must be a scheme, system, or however, much more of the case. But still the Constitution
constitution of government, as distinguished from a number of Nature is as it is. Our happiness and misery are trusteå to our conduct, and made to depend upon it. Somewhat,
of single unconnected acts of distributive justice and good.
ness; and likewise, that it must be a scheme, so imperfectly and, in many circumstances, a great deal too, is put upon us,
comprehended, and of such a sort in other respects, as to either to do or to suffer as we choose. And all the various miseries of life, which people bring upon themselves by
afford a direct general answer to all objections against the
justice and goodness of it: then Analogy is remotely of great negligence and folly, and might have avoided by proper care, are instances of this, which miseries are beforehand just as
service in answering those objections, both by suggesting contingent and undetermined as their conduct, and left to be
the answer, and showing it to be a credible one. determined by it.
Now this, upon inquiry, will be found to be the case. For, These observations are an answer to the objections against
first, upon supposition that God exercises a moral governthe credibility of a state of trial, as implying temptations,
ment over the world, the analogy of His natural government
suggests and makes it credible that His moral government and real danger of miscarrying with regard to our general
must be a scheme quite beyond our comprehension; and this interest, under the moral government of God; and they shew, that if we are at all to be considered in such a capacity, and
affords a general answer to all objections against the justice
and goodness of it. And, secondly, a more distinct observa. as having such an interest, the general Analogy of Providence must lead us to apprehend ourselves in danger of miscarrying,
tion of some particular things contained in God's scheme
of natural government, the like things being supposed, by in different degrees, as to this interest, by our neglecting to
analogy, to be contained in His moral government, will act the proper part belonging to us in that capacity. For
farther shew how little weight is to be laid upon these we have a present interest under the government of God which we experience here upon earth. And this interest,
objections. as it is not forced upon us, so neither is it offered to our acceptance, but to our acquisition ; in such sort as that we
The Second Part of Butler's “Analogy" turns are in danger of missing it, by means of temptations to
from Nature to Revelation, reasoning first of its neglect, or act contrary to it, and without attention and self
necessity, and of the importance of Christianity, denial, must and do miss of it. It is then perfectly credible
whereof natural religion is the foundation and printhat this may be our case with respect to that chief and final cipal part, but not in any sense the whole. The good which Religion proposes to us.
argument in the second chapter is “Of the supposed Presumption against a Revelation considered as
miraculous.” Butler here gives reasons for saying, The fifth chapter continues the consideration of the state of Probation, by turning to the question
I find no appearance of a presumption, from the Analogy how we came to be placed in it, and arguing from
of Nature, against the general scheme of Christianity, that the Analogy of Nature that it was intended for moral
God created and invisibly governs the world by Jesus Christ, discipline and improvement. The sixth chapter and by Him also will hereafter judge it in righteousness, il., argues that the opinion of the Fatalist, who sees render to every one according to his works: and that good necessity in Nature, judged by the Analogy between men are under the secret influence of His Spirit. Whether Nature and Religion, does not warrant the opinion these things are, or are not, to be called miraculous, is, that there is no such thing as Religion ; that if upon perhaps, only a question about words; or, however, is of no the supposition of freedom the evidence of Religion | moment in the case. If the Analogy of Nature raises any presumption against this general scheme of Christianity, it | Nonconformist clergyman. Samuel Worley twisad must be either because it is not discoverable by reason or in his youth at an academy for Dinnen taru kejut by experience, or else because it is unlike that course of nature Mr. Veal, in Stepney; but while there, bes down to which is. But Analogy raises no presumption against the the Established Church, ynve up the m ort les w124 truth of this scheme upon either of these accounts.
receiving, walked to Oxford, and entered himmille
a “poor scholar" at Excur College. He muurbed The next chapter argues that Analogy makes himself by teaching and writing, and w518 a curatas credible that a revelation must appear liable to when he married Susannah Annemley, who, likes objections; and the next considers Christianity by Samuel Wexley, had a Nonconformint ministar fint Analogy with the course of Nature as, like it, a scheme | father, and had turned to the Established Church, or constitution imperfectly comprehended. The fifth Of the nineteen children of this marriaya, three w chapter of this Second Part argues from Analogy the and three daughters grow up. When the Revolutum probability “ of the particular system of Chris was effected, Mamuel Worley wrestar in its deferum, tianity ; the appointment of a Pediator, and the and obtained the living of Eurworth, in Langlow redemption of the world by Him." The next subjects shire. His wife did wstawut the Houlum, but of like argument are the want of universality in | said nothing. It was only in the year tufe King, Revelation, and the supposed deficiency in the proof William dioul, that her husband mix bare " Am73" of it; the particular evidence for Christianity; and, to the prayers for the king Hequation but, nu lastly, of the objections which may be made against found that she would wat remains Wiliman III, am arguing from the Analogy of Nature to Perigion. In: the true king; wharem posats, a-1 Wobeny 11 the course of his answer to these objections, Butiar to live with her till saluran was burynd, le 11. .00144,11 says
did not return to be un nier V11.4 Vivali's
death. John Wismajoy, t 61 year yor!.442 1. The dost of this treatise is atto riccate the staratat rotiv rims), win the fint 3 1481. ***** of God. but to show tb- cazt cs ct
is L* to, pero para siemet bus, , Y; Wome jzstifs His Puriddetto "*
S . P. 17:1 of 1.6, 17. Vila Vino y # That are resisti, o sa t ener Wix Vart 1). Beim fali Lap
rer! And the beT ET H ET 3, LT, TA LL41 al te kan my MAX G1735 LS ST - 2 -2 * bat . 2146 c
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The buoyancy of returning health settled again into the natural and wholesome course of life, or as Whitefield wrote, “Afterwards it became more settled, and, blessed be God, saving a few casual intervals, have abode and increased in my soul ever since.”
Samuel Wesley, the elder, died in 1735, when the age of his son John was thirty-two, and George Whitefield's age was about twenty-one. After his father's death, John Wesley came to London to present to Queen Caroline the Dissertations upon Job, which the old gentleman had scarcely lived to finish.
kumo which our friends kept i To the close of his life it was a delight of John
in the six weeks, except on | Wesley when he came to London to pay a visit
t requently on Saturdays to the old school-buildings and playground of the W lys (except on Sunday)
Charterhouse, where he had been under-fed and couse bread. I likewise
fagged, but not the less had left the place peopled the morning, till part of one
for all his after days with happy recollections of a This with my continued
boy's life among boys. As Wesley advanced in length so emaciated my
years and grew in spiritual life, outward austerity e I could scarce creep up
abated, and his gentleness of heart must have made a nd tutor of my condition,
pleasant to the boys of a new generation these occa
sional visits from an old Carthusian who was making ma mong the gownsmen, who
great stir in the world.
Times had changed since
rigid order—were settled here in a priory built upon son to bloss God for it
ground bought for interment of the plague-stricken
in 1349, and in which there had actually been buried iiw who pleuth week from the fifty thousand of the victims of that memorable pesti
it into plant Whitefield felt like lence. The dissolved priory, with a great house built s o toll in presence of the on its site by the Duke of Norfolk, was bought of the
Duke of Norfolk's son by Thomas Sutton, and re
founded by him in James I.'s reign as a school for .. . and hiding sense of the boys and a home for eighty decayed gentlemen-in
diandh Awalance of faith broke in this country the noblest private benefaction of its
w ho owns the day of my | day or any day before it. The history of the place
O great design! if executed well,
itself might join with his own boyish recollections of it in making for John Wesley a visit to Charterhouse always one incident of a return to London.
Soon after his return to London, in the year 1735, Wesley's attention was drawn very strongly to James Oglethorpe's plan of a settlement in Georgia. James, third son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, was born in the year 1689, completed his early education at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and appears then, while still very young, to have served as a gentleman volunteer abroad, before entering the English army as an ensign in 1710. In 1714 he was Captain-Lieutenant of the first troop of the Queen's Life Guards, and afterwards he served abroad as aide-de-camp to Prince Eugene. In 1718 he returned to England, and soon afterwards, on the death of a brother, succeeded to the family estate at Westbrook, near Godalming. In October, 1722, he entered Parliament as member for Haslemere. In 1729, he began his career of beneficence as a reformer of prisons. A friend of Oglethorpe’s who fell into poverty had been carried to a sponging-house attached to the Fleet Prison. While he could fee the keeper, he was allowed the liberty of the rules; when he could do so no more, he was forced into the sponginghouse, at a time when small-pox raged among its inmates. Oglethorpe's friend, an accomplished man, had never had small-pox, and pleaded for his life that he might be sent to another sponging-house, or to the jail. His petition was refused; he was forced in, caught small-pox, and died, leaving a large family in distress. The member for Haslemere then brought the subject before Parliament, obtained a Jail Committee, and was named its chairman. Painful dis. closures were made in the reports of the committee, and some vigorous action was taken upon them. It is to the labour of this Jail Committee in 1729 that James Thomson referred in the following passage then added to his “Winter,” a poem which had been first published in 1726, followed by “Summer" in 1727, "Spring" in 1728, and “Autumn" in 1730; when the four poems were collected as “ The Seasons," and followed by the closing Hymn. It was then that Thomson added his tribute to the labours of Oglethorpe's Jail Committee in 1729:-.
After such effectual following of that doctrine of Christ which had caused the Wesleys and their companions at Oxford to make prison visiting a part of the service of God,? Oglethorpe proceeded to the enterprise that brought the Wesleys into close relation with him.
The borderland in North America between the English province of South Carolina and the Spanish province of Florida was a debatable ground on which there had been schemes for forming a new colony from England, as one of the schemes said, “in the most delightful country of the universe." Such scheming suggested to Oglethorpe a plan of his own that he had energy and ability enough to carry out. He would form a colony on this ground, south of the Savannah River, for the restoration to social happiness and usefulness of ruined gentlemen who had in this country become poor debtors. With this object in view, Oglethorpe obtained the support of men with influence and money, and procured, in June, 1732, a charter for the settlement of the proposed colony, which was to be called Georgia, in honour of King George II. Parliament granted £10,000; and the associates who formed the corporation caused themselves to be shut out by their charter from all personal profit. All money obtained was to be applied to the maintenance, transport, and establishment of the selected colonists, on fertile land that cost them nothing and would repay abundantly their labour. A pamphlet published by James Oglethorpe to explain his scheme, thus tells who were to be
And here can I forget the generous band,
THE FIRST COLONISTS OF GEORGIA. Let us cast our eyes on the multitude of unfortunate people in this kingdom, of reputable families and liberal education: some undone by guardians, some by lawsuits, some by accidents in commerce, some by stocks and bubbles, some by guretyship; but all agree in this one circumstance that they must either be burthensome to their relations, or betake themselves to little shifts for sustenance which, it is ten to one, do not answer their purposes, and to which a well. educated person descends with the utmost constraint. These are the persons that may relieve themselves and strengthen Georgia by resorting thither, and Great Britain by their departure.
I appeal to the recollection of the reader-though he be opulent, though he be noble-does not his own sphere of acquaintances furnish him with some instances of such
1 See “Shorter English Poems,” pages 364, 365.
2 Mattbew xxv. 34-45.
verse. As the time came for taking orders, his fasted on Wednesdays and Fridays, practised strict mother urged him to make religion the business of examination, and strove “for a recovery of the image his life. He applied himself then closely to the study of God.” When, after a while, the question arose of divinity. The book by which he was most influ whether John Wesley should not apply for the next enced was Jeremy Taylor's “Rules for Holy Living presentation to his father's living of Epworth, to and Dying." He ascribed to the influence of Jeremy
keep the house for his mother and sisters, and take Taylor the resolve to dedicate all his life to God,
his position in the Church, his enthusiasm was “all my thoughts and words and actions ; being already straining towards a larger field of action, and thoroughly convinced there was no medium, but that no family reasoning, however prudent, conquered his every put of my life (not some only) must either be resolve to go on in the way of life to which his heart a sacrifice to God or myself.” John Wesley, whose was given. John Wesley's father died in April, younger brother Charles had followed him to Christ 1735. Church, was ordained in 1725, and obtained a Of the young Oxford Methodists who shared the fellowship at Lincoln College in 1726. The change enthusiasm of the Wesleys, the most famous in after of college enabled him to break with the acquaint years was George Whitefield, whose sketch of his own ances at Christ Church who had ceased to be congenial, | life begins with an account of the frowardness of his and to know none in Lincoln College but such as, he childhood, from the time of his birth in Gloucester afterwarls said, “I had reason to believe would help in the month of December, 1714, at the Bell Inn. me on the way to heaven.” In his new college he But, he says,was appointed Greek lecturer and moderator of the classes. There were disputations six times a week, I had early some convictions of sin, and once I remember, which caused him to observe closely the process of when some persons (as they frequently did) made it their argument, and gave him skill in the detection of
business to tease me, I immediately retired to my room, and fallacies. His religious feeling had deepened, and kneeling down, with many tears, prayed over that psalm he desired seclusion for devout thought, when the
wherein David so often repeats these words, “But in the growing infirmities of his father called John Wesley
Name of the Lord will I destroy them.” I was always fond to Wroote to act as his father's curate. He held the
of being a Clergyman, used frequently to imitate the Ministers curacy two years, and during this time he took priest's
reading prayers, &c. Part of the money I used to steal from orders, but the conditions of his fellowship then
my parent I gave to the poor, and some books I privately recalled him to Lincoln College. Before his return
took from others (for which I have since restored fourfold) I
remember were books of devotion. he had been impressed by the words of a friend, who
About the tenth year of my age, it pleased God to permit said to him, “Sir, you wish to serve God and go to
my Mother to marry a second time. It proved what the heaven. Remember you cannot serve Him alone;
World would call an unhappy match, but God overruled it you must therefore find companions or make them.
for good. The Bible knows nothing of solitary religion.”
When I was about twelve, I was placed at a school called When John returned to Oxford, he found that his
St. Mary de Crypt, in Gloucester, the last Grammar School I younger brother Charles had already formed for him
ever went to. Having a good elocution, and memory, I was such a body of companions. Just before Charles remarked for making speeches before the corporation at their Wesley went to Christ Church he had declined an annual visitation. But I cannot say I felt any drawings of offer of adoption by a namesake in Ireland on con God upon my soul for a year or two, saving that I laid out dition of his living with his patron. The fortune he some of the money that was given me on one of those forethus lost went to the grandfather of the Duke of mentioned occasions in buying Ken's “Manual for Winchester Wellington, who took the name of Wesley or Wel Scholars," a book that had much affected me when my brother lesley, and was first Earl of Mornington. Charles used to read it in my mother's troubles, and which, for some was of a lively temper, and when John left Oxford time after I bought it, was of great benefit to my soul. for Wroote he had not succeeded in bringing his brother into his own state of religious fervour. But
Before he was fifteen George Whitefield asked that while John was curate at Wroote, Charles at Oxford
| he might be taken from school, since he had no hope suddenly became strict in religious observances, and
of a University education. at once associated himself with others who agreed to live by Christian rule and take the sacrament
My mother's circumstances being much on the decline, and every week. These associates were soon ridiculed
being tractable that way, I from time to time began to assist as “ Sacramentarians," “ Bible-moths,” the “Godly
her occasionally in the public-house, till at length I put on Club." One of the names given to them had been
my blue apron and my snuffers, washed mops, cleansed rooms,
and, in one word, became a professed and common drawer. applied sometimes before in a sense like that given to “Precisian” and “Puritan," and this was “Methodist."
Notwithstanding I was thus employed in a large inn, and
had sometimes the care of the whole house upon my hands, John Wesley thought that the name had been given
yet I composed two or three sermons, and dedicated one of with reference to an ancient sect of physicians that
them in particular to my elder brother. One time I rememhad been so called. When John Wesley returned to
ber I was very much pressed to self-examination, and found Lincoln College, his standing at the University, his
myself very unwilling to look into my heart. Frequently I religious earnestness, and his seniority to Charles,
read the Bible when sitting up at night. Seeing the boys go caused him to become the leauler of this new society, by to school has often cut me to the heart. And a deir and he was styled by those who laughed at it, “the youth (now with God) would often come entreating me, Father of the Holy Club." It was a society of l when serving at the bar, to go to Oxford. My general about tifteen, who visited the sick and the prisoners, I answer was, “I wish I could."