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After Whitefield had spent a year in this way, his The young men so called because they lived by Rule and mother failed, and was obliged to leave the inn; but | Method, were then much talked of at Oxford. I had heard it was made over to a son who had been bred to the
of and loved them before I came to the University; and so business, and who then married. George remained
strenuously defended them when I heard them reviled by the at the “ Bell” as an assistant, until he found that he
students, that they began to think that I also in time should could not agree with his brother's wife ; for that
| be one of them. cause he left, and went to his eldest brother at Bristol.
For above a twelvemonth my soul longed to be acquainted There his religious enthusiasm deepened for a time,
with them, and I was strongly inclined to follow their good
example, when I saw them go through a ridiculing crowd to and he resolved never again to serve in a publichouse. He kept this resolve when he returned to
receive the holy Sacrament at St. Mary's. At length God
was pleased to open a door. It happened that a poor woman Gloucester, “and therefore,” he says, “my mother
in one of the workhouses had attempted to cut her throat, gave me leave, though she had but a little income, to
but was happily prevented. Upon hearing of this, and have a bed upon the ground, and live at her house,
knowing that both the Jr. Wesleys were ready to every till Providence should point out a place for me.”
good work, I sent a poor aged apple-woman of our College to
inform Mr. Charles Wesley of it, charging her not to discover Having lived thus for some considerable time, a young
who sent her. She went; but, contrary to my orders, told student who was once my schoolfellow, and then a Servitor
my name. He having heard of my coming to the Castle and of Pembroke College, Oxford, came to pay my Mother a visit.
a Parish Church Sacrament, and having met me frequently Amongst other conversation, he told her how he had dis
walking by myself, followed the woman when she was gone charged all College expenses that quarter, and received a
away, and sent an invitation to me by her, to come to breakpenny. Upon that my Mother immediately cried out, " That
fast with him the next morning. will do for my Son.” Then turning to me, she said, “Will
I thankfully embraced the opportunity. He put into my you go to Oxford, George?" I replied, “ With all my heart."
hands Professor Franks' Treatise against the Fear of Man; Whereupon, having the same friends that this young student
and in a short time let me have another book entitled “The had, my Mother, without delay, waited on them. They pro Life of God in the Soul of Man." mised their interest to get me a Servitor's place in the same
At my first reading it, I wondered what the author meant College. She then applied to my old master, who much
by saying, “That some falsely placed Religion in going to approved of my coming to school again.
Church, doing hurt to no one, being constant in the duties of
the closet, and now and then reaching out their hands to give When near his seventeenth year, Whitefield re alms to their poor neighbours.” Alas! thought I, “If this solved to prepare himself for taking the Sacrament be not Religion, what is ?" God soon shewed me. For in on Christmas Day.
reading a few lines further, that “true Religion was an Union
of the Soul with God, or Christ formed within us,” a ray of I began now to be more and more watchful over my divine light instantaneously darted in upon my soul, and from thoughts, words, and actions. The following Lent I fasted that moment, but not till then, did I know that I must be a Wednesday and Friday thirty-six hours together. .... new creature. Near this time I dreamed that I was to see God on Mount Upon this I had no rest till I wrote letters to my relations, Sinai, but was afraid to meet him. This made a great im acquainting them there was such a thing as the New Birth. pression upon me; and a gentlewoman to whom I told it, I imagined they would have gladly received them. But, said, “ George, this is a Call from God.”
alas! they thought that I was going beside myself, and by For a twelvemonth I went on in a round of duties, re. their letters confirmed me in the resolutions I had taken not ceiving the Sacrament monthly, fasting frequently, attending to go down into the country, but continue where I was, lest constantly on public worship, and praying often more than that by any means the good work which God had begun in twice a day in private. One of my brothers used to tell me, my soul might be obstructed. " He feared this would not hold long, and that I should forget all when I came to Oxford.”.
Charles Wesley, now become Whitefield's friend, At eighteen Whitefield went to Pembroke College,
introduced him to the rest of the Methodists. Like Oxford, in the desired way, a friend lending ten
them he lived by rule, and sought to gather up the
fragments of his time that none might be lost. He pounds to pay the first expense of entering.
took the sacrament every Sunday at Christ Church, Soon after my admission I went and resided, and found my
fasted on Wednesdays and Fridays, visited the sick having been used to a public-house was now of service to me.
and the prisoners, and made it a custom to spend an For many of the Servitors being sick at my first coming up,
hour every day in outward acts of charity. Then, Hy my diligent and ready attendance I ingratiated myself
he says,into the gentlemen's favour so far, that many who had it in their power chose me to be their Servitor. This much lessened I daily underwent some contempt from the Collegians. my expense; and indeed God was so gracious that with the Some have thrown dirt at, and others took away their pay prufits of my place, and some little presents made me by my from me. And two friends, that were very dear to me, soon kind tutor, for almost the first three years I did not put all grew shy of and forsook me. My inward sufferings were of my relations together to above £24 expense. . . . . . . a more exercising nature.... God oniy knows how
I now began to pray and sing psalms thrice every day, many nights I have lain upon my bed, groaning under what besides morning and evening, and to fast every Friday, and I felt. Whole days and weeks have I spent lying prostrate to receive the Sacrament at a parish church near our College, on the ground, in silent or vocal prayer; and having nobody and at the Castle, where the despised Methodists used to | to shew me a better way, I thought to get peace and purity receive once a month.
by outward austerities. Accordingly by degrees I began to leave off eating fruits and such like, and gave the money I usually spent in that way to the poor. Afterwards I always chose the worst sort of food, though my place furnished me with variety.
espousals, a day to be had in everlasting remembrance. At first my joys were like a spring tide, and as it were overflosed the banks. Go where I would, I could not avoid singing of psalms almost aloud.
Then he detected spiritual pride in this kind of The buoyancy of returning health settled again humility, and began to seclude himself, even from his into the natural and wholesome course of life, or 28 religious friends, to leave all for Christ's sake. At Whitefield wrote, “Afterwards it became more settled last Charles Wesley came to his room, warned him and, blessed be God, saving a few casual intervak of the danger he was running into if he would not have abode and increased in my soul ever since." take advice, “and recommended me to his brother Samuel Wesley, the elder, died in 1735, when the John, Fellow of Lincoln College, as more experienced age of his son John was thirty-two, and George than himself. God gave me,” says Whitefield, “a Whitefield's age was about twenty-one. After his teachable temper; I waited upon his brother, who father's death, John Wesley came to London to advised me to resume all my externals, though not to present to Queen Caroline the Dissertations me depend on them in the least, and from time to time Job, which the old gentleman had scarcely lived to he gave me directions as my pitiable state required." finish.
Soon after this the Lent came on, which our friends kept i To the close of his life it was a delight of Juba very strictly, eating no flesh during the six weeks, except on | Wesley when he came to London to pay a vist Saturdays and Sundays. I abstained frequently on Saturdays | to the old school-buildings and playground of the also, and ate nothing on the other days (except on Sunday) Charterhouse, where he had been under-fed ani but sage-tea without sugar, and coarse bread. I likewise
fagged, but not the less had left the place people constantly walked out in the cold mornings, till part of one
for all his after days with happy recollections of s of my hands was quite black. This, with my continued
boy's life among boys. As Wesley advanced in abstinence, and inward conflicts, at length so emaciated my
years and grew in spiritual life, outward austerity body, that at Passion week, finding I could scarce creep up.
abated, and his gentleness of heart must have mad. stairs, I was obliged to inform my kind tutor of my condition,
pleasant to the boys of a new generation these com who immediately sent for a physician to me. This caused no small triumph amongst the gownsmen, who
sional visits from an old Carthusian who was makia: began to cry out “ What is his fasting come to now?” But,
great stir in the world. Times had changed sine however, notwithstanding my fit of sickness continued six or
the first old Carthusians—twenty-four monks of seven weeks, I trust I shall have reason to bless God for it
rigid order—were settled here in a priory built up through the endless ages of eternity.
ground bought for interment of the plague-stricka
in 1349, and in which there had actually been bur! It was at the end of the seventh week from the fifty thousand of the victims of that memorable e beginning of this illness that Whitefield felt like lence. The dissolved priory, with a great house hou Christian when his burden fell in presence of the on its site by the Duke of Norfolk, was bought ose Cross.
Duke of Norfolk's son by Thomas Sutton, and
founded by him in James I.'s reign as a school se The weight of sin went off; and an abiding sense of the | boys and a home for eighty decayed gentlemenpardoning love of God, and a full assurance of faith broke in this country the noblest private benefaction o13 upon my disconsolate soul. Surely it was the day of my day or any day before it. The history of the pise
O great design! if executed well,
itself might join with his own boyish recollections of it in making for John Wesley a visit to Charterhouse always one incident of a return to London.
Soon after his return to London, in the year 1735, Wesley's attention was drawn very strongly to James Oglethorpe's plan of a settlement in Georgia. James, third son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, was born in the year 1689, completed his early education at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and appears then, while still very young, to have served as a gentleman volunteer abroad, before entering the English army as an ensign in 1710. In 1714 he was Captain-Lieutenant of the first troop of the Queen's Life Guards, and afterwards he served abroad as aide-de-camp to Prince Eugene. In 1718 he returned to England, and soon afterwards, on the death of a brother, succeeded to the family estate at Westbrook, near Godalming. In October, 1722, he entered Parliament as member for Haslemere. In 1729, he began his career of beneficence as a reformer of prisons. A friend of Oglethorpe's who fell into poverty had been carried to a sponging-house attached to the Fleet Prison. While he could fee the keeper, he was allowed the liberty of the rules; when he could do so no more, he was forced into the sponginghouse, at a time when small-pox raged among its inmates. Oglethorpe's friend, an accomplished man, had never had small-pox, and pleaded for his life that he might be sent to another sponging-house, or to the jail. His petition was refused; he was forced in, caught small-pox, and died, leaving a large family in distress. The member for Haslemere then brought the subject before Parliament, obtained a Jail Committee, and was named its chairman. Painful disclosures were made in the reports of the committee, and some vigorous action was taken upon them. It is to the labour of this Jail Committee in 1729 that James Thomson referred in the following passage then added to his “ Winter," a poem which had been first published in 1726, followed by “ Summer" in 1727, “ Spring" in 1728, and “Autumn" in 1730; when the four poems were collected as “ The Seasons," and followed by the closing Hymn. It was then that Thomson added his tribute to the labours of Oglethorpe's Jail Committee in 1729 :
After such effectual following of that doctrine of Christ which had caused the Wesleys and their companions at Oxford to make prison visiting a part of the service of God,? Oglethorpe proceeded to the enterprise that brought the Wesleys into close relation with him.
The borderland in North America between the English province of South Carolina and the Spanish province of Florida was a debatable ground on which there had been schemes for forming a new colony from England, as one of the schemes said, “ in the most delightful country of the universe.” Such scheming suggested to Oglethorpe a plan of his own that he had energy and ability enough to carry out. He would form a colony on this ground, south of the Savannah River, for the restoration to social happiness and usefulness of ruined gentlemen who had in this country become poor debtors. With this object in view, Oglethorpe obtained the support of men with influence and money, and procured, in June, 1732, a charter for the settlement of the proposed colony, which was to be called Georgia, in honour of King George II. Parliament granted £10,000; and the associates who formed the corporation caused themselves to be shut out by their charter from all personal profit. All money obtained was to be applied to the maintenance, transport, and establishment of the selected colonists, on fertile land that cost them nothing and would repay abundantly their labour. A pamphlet published by James Oglethorpe to explain his scheme, thus tells who were to be
And here can I forget the generous band,
THE FIRST COLONISTS OF GEORGIA. Let us cast our eyes on the multitude of unfortunate people in this kingdom, of reputable families and liberal education: some undone by guardians, some by lawsuits, some by accidents in commerce, some by stocks and bubbles, some by suretyship; but all agree in this one circumstance that they must either be burthensome to their relations, or betake themselves to little shifts for sustenance which, it is ten to one, do not answer their purposes, and to which a welleducated person descends with the utmost constraint. These are the persons that may relieve themselves and strengthen Georgia by resorting thither, and Great Britain by their departure.
I appeal to the recollection of the reader-though he be opulent, though he be noble-does not his own sphere of acquaintances furnish him with some instances of such
* See “Shorter English Poems," pages 364, 365.
· Mattbew xxv. 3445.
persons as have been here described ? Must they starve? He was palisading the town round, including some part of What honest heart can bear to think of it? Must they be the Common. In short, he has done a vast deal of work in fed by the contributions of others ? Certainly they must, the time, and I think his name deserves to be immortalized. rather than be suffered to perish. I have heard it said, and it is easy to say so, “Let them learn to work; let them subdue | The eight tribes of the Lower Creek Indians who their pride, and descend to mean employments; keep ale- | | were settled beside Oglethorpe's colony were very houses, or coffee-houses, even sell fruit, or clean shoes, for an friendly. They were well-grown men, great hunters, honest livelihood.' But alas! these occupations, and many and worshippers without idolatry of a Suprem others like them, are overstocked already by people who Being whom they called Sotolycaté, He-who-situra know better how to follow them than do they whom we have above. They welcomed the white brothers whi been talking of. As for labouring, I could almost wish that
offered friendship, and believed they had come for the gentleman or merchant who thinks that another gentle
the good of the red brothers, to whom they cor! man or merchant in want can thrash or dig to the value of
bring knowledge. One of the chiefs, Tomo Chuck, subsistence for his family, or even for himself; I say I could wish the person who thinks so were obliged to make trial of
said at the treaty-making : it for a week, or-not to be too severe-for only a day. He
When these white men came, I feared that ther world would then find himself to be less than the fourth part of a labourer, and that the fourth part of a labourer's wages could
drive us away, for we were weak; but they promised nät *
molest us. We wanted corn and other things, and they have not maintain him. I have heard a man may learn to labour by practice; 'tis admitted. But it must also be admitted
given us supplies; and now, of our small means, we libre that before he can learn he may starve. Men whose wants
them presents in return. Here is a buffalo skin, adir,
with the head and feathers of an eagle. The eagle a mis are importunate must try such expedients as will give immediate relief. 'Tis too late for them to begin to learn a trade
speed, and the buffalo strength. The English are swf a when their pressing necessities call for the exercise of it.
the eagle, and strong as the buffalo. Like the eagle there's hither over great waters, and, like the buffalo, nothing
withstand them. But the feathers of the eagle are sof, I. Prisons were visited by a committee of the trustees
signify kindness; and the skin of the buffalo is covering of the colony, to obtain the discharge of poor debtors
and signifies protection. Let these, then, reinind themsi who deserved their help. Another committee selected be kind, and protect us colonists, who were put through military drill, that they might be able to hold their own in their new Having successfully laid the foundations of the home, and serve also the political purpose of fixing state of Georgia. James Oglethorpe returned a an unsettled frontier. There was to be no slave England in the spring of 1734, bringing with me labour in the colony. When the first shipload of Tomo Chachi, with his wife and nephew, and wccolonists, thirty-five families, numbering one hundred
other native chiefs. They reached England in dem and twenty persons, was ready to sail from Gravesend, Tomo Chachi went to court, and presented the time
lethorpe resolved to give up ease at home, and go | feathers to King George II. Poems were write with them to secure the success of his undertaking.
and the Gentleman's Vagazine offered a prize for a Having made it a condition that he should receive medal to commemorate Mr. Oglethorpe's benevolen." no payment in any form, he was empowered to
and patriotism. They were introduced also to ? act as a colonial governor, and left for Georgia in Archbishop of Canterbury, and to him Tomo (bus November, 1732. The writer of a published account | expressed the desire of his people for religious b). of a voyage from Charleston to Savannah, in March,
ledge. After a stay of four months in Englanul link 1733, thus tells how he found the governor laying
natives were sent home to spread the impro the foundations of his colony :
they had received of English culture and of E.
kindness. Their coming had also in this cv." Mr. Oglethorpe is indefatigable, and takes a vast deal of drawn friendly attention to their people, and pains. His fare is indifferent, having little else at present thorpe's desire now was to bring the Gospel boer but salt provisions. He is extremely well beloved by all the
them. John Wesley's father had received pups people. The title they give him is Father. If any of them
kindness from Oglethorpe, who also at tuus are sick, he immediately visits them, and takes great care of
put down his name as a subscriber for seven uit them. If any difference arises, he is the person who decides it. Two happened while I was there and in my presence;
paper copies, at three guineas each, of the con
gentleman's “ Dissertationes in Librum Jobi, and all the parties went away to outward appearance satisfied and contented with the determination. He keeps a strict
portrait of the author seated in the character of discipline; I neither saw one of his people drunk nor heard
In the last year of his life, Samuel Wesler, tbeo* one swear all the time I have been here. He does not allow
wrote from Epworth, on the 6th of Juls, bies them rum, but in lieu gives them English beer. It is sur
“ Honoured Sir, may I be admitted, wie ! prising to see how cheerfully the men go to work, considering
crowds of our nobility and gentry are pouring they have not been bred to it. There are no idlers here;
congratulations, to press my poor mite of thank even the boys and girls do their part. There are four houses
the presence of one who so well deserves the ti already up, but none finished; and he hopes, when he has got
Universal Benefactor of Mankind. It is de more sawyers, to finish two houses a week. He has ploughed
your valuable favours, on many accounts, to mi * up some land, part of which is sowed with wheat, which is
late of Westminster” (Samuel, the eldest suu come up and looks promising. He has two or three gardens,
myself, when I was a little pressed in the worlds which he has sowed with divers sorts of seeds, and planted your extreme charity to the poor prisoners: 1 thyme, with other pot-herbs, and several sorts of fruit-trees. these only that so much demand my warmest & 5*
ledgements, as your disinterested and unmovable I am awhile secluded, and God hath opened me a attachment to your country, and your raising a new door into the whole Moravian Church.” colony, or rather a little world of your own, in the John Wesley drew attentive congregations to his midst of a wild wood and uncultivated desert, where preaching in Savannah, and caused them to abstain men may live free and happy, if they are not hindered from fine dressing for church and come in plain clean by their own stupidity and folly, in spite of the linen or woollen. He and one of his friends taught unkindness of their brother mortals.” In August, each a school. Some of the boys in the other school 1735, John Wesley, being in London, after his went barefoot, and were looked down upon by those father's death, with copies of the Latin Dissertations who were shod. Wesley asked his friend to change on the Book of Job, was urged by a friend, Dr. schools for a time, and astonished the boys of the Burton, of Corpus Christi College, who was one of the school tainted with vanity by coming among them trustees for the colony of Georgia, to aid Oglethorpe himself without any shoes and stockings. A little in his good work, by going out as missionary to the persistence in this lesson caused bare feet to be no settlers and Indians. He was introduced to Ogle- | longer a mark for scorn. The Wesleys abstained thorpe by Dr. Burton, hesitated, but was persuaded from meat and wine, and caused some difficulty by even by his widowed mother to assent. Wesley then their asceticism, by insisting upon baptism with imtook counsel with William Law, the author of the mersion and by rigid adherence to the letter of the “ Serious Call,” whose counsel in a former time had rubric of the English Church ; but John was also influenced his life. William Law, born in North- forming the most serious of his parishioners into a amptonshire in 1686, was educated at Emmanuel society for strictest observance of religious duties. College, Cambridge, but had been prevented by some His conscientious strictness caused John Wesley scruples from taking orders. He lived a retired life at last to leave Georgia. He had been tempted until his death in 1761, and acquired great influence to wish for marriage with the niece of the chief as a writer on religious subjects. His most popular magistrate of Savannah. The young lady for a time book was “A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy | courted him by affecting tenderness of conscience Life.” John Wesley depended much upon Law's | that called for ghostly counsel, but at last gave up counsel in the earlier part of his career, but after- | the thought of becoming Mrs. Wesley, took another wards thought his religious teaching insufficient. husband, and then became, in the chaplain's opinion, Having now taken advice from Law, Wesley agreed so worldly that, on one Sunday, he publicly refused to go to Georgia with his brother Charles and two | to admit her to the communion. This caused much · young men, one of them another of the young Oxford | scandal in Savannah, and the lady's husband obtained
Methodists, Benjamin Ingham. Charles Wesley had a warrant against John Wesley for defamation of meant to spend his life as a college tutor, but was character. The case was prolonged, and managed now ordained, and went to Georgia, as secretary to with the purpose of obliging Wesley to quit Georgia, the governor. In October, 1735, Oglethorpe and and he was thus really driven to leave the colony, the Wesleys sailed from England with two vessels after having preached there for a year and nine carrying 220 carefully selected English emigrants, | months. When he arrived at Deal, early in February, and about sixty Salzburgers who had been expelled 1738, he had been absent from England two years by their Roman Catholic Government, and other and four months. George Whitefield had just left poor Protestants from Germany, among whom were Deal for Georgia, and narrowly missed meeting twenty-six Moravians, led by David Nitschmann. Wesley. The Moravians went to join some of their brethren | Whitefield, during Wesley's absence in Georgia, from Herrnhut, who had gone out the preceding year. and after the illness which left him with a sense The calm and simple piety of these Moravians drew of religion happier than it had been, although not John Wesley into close companionship with them. less intense, was helped by a Sir John Philips, in They never resented injury or insult, and were | London, with promise of an annuity of £30 a year without fear of death. In a storm that set many if he stayed in Oxford and carried on the work screaming, and made Wesley fear because he doubted which otherwise might fail through the departure of whether he was fit to die, the Moravians calmly John and Charles Wesley. For change of air while sang their psalms. “Are you not afraid ?" Wesley seeking complete recovery from illness, he went home asked one of them. He replied, “I thank God, no." to Gloucester, where he still visited the poor and “ Are not your women and children afraid ?” “No; ! prayed with the prisoners. Dr. Benson, Bishop of our women and children are not afraid to die.” From Gloucester, observed him and asked his age. It was the Moravians Wesley drew lasting impressions of little more than twenty-one, and although he had what the spirit of a religious community should be resolved not to ordain any below the age of twentyand could be. At Savannah, John Wesley observed three, the bishop ordained Whitefield, helped him their behaviour in the settlement. “We were in one with a little money, and let him return to Oxford, room with them,” he says, “ from morning to night, with the annuity from Sir John Philips in place of a unless for the little time spent in walking. They cure. But now that Whitefield was ordained, occawere always employed, always cheerful themselves,
sions arose for his preaching, and when he preached, and in good humour with one another. They had his youth and fair presence—for when young, he put away all anger, and strife, and wrath, and bitter was slender, somewhat tall, fair, and well-featured, ness, and clamour, and evil speaking." John Wesley | with dark blue eyes-aided the charm of his native had been unwilling to part from his friends in eloquence and devout zeal towards the spiritual. He England, but in Georgia he wrote, “ From ten friends I called upon his hearers to be born again, and shape