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went to his father, and kissed him sweetly, and said, “Fair a little, for him thought that the priest was so greatly sweet father, I wot not when I shall see you more, till I charged of the figure, that him seemed that he should fall see the body of Jesu Christ.” “I pray you," said Launcelot, to the earth. And when he saw none about him that would pray you to the high Father that he hold me in His ser | help him, then came he to the door a great pace, and said, vice.” And so he took his horse ; and there they heard a | “Fair Father Jesu Christ, ne take it for no sin though I help voice that said, “ Think for to do well, for the one shall never the good man, which hath great need of help." Right 3) see the other before the dreadful day of doom.” “Now, son entered he into the chamber, and came toward the table of Galahad," said Launcelot, "since we shall depart, and never silver; and when he came nigh he felt a breath that him see other, I pray to the high Father to preserve both me and thought it was intermeddled with fire, which smote him so you both.” “Sir," said Galahad," no prayer availeth so much sore in the visage that him thought it burnt his visage; as yours.” And therewith Galahad entered into the forest. and therewith he fell to the earth, and had no power to And the wind arose, and drove Launcelot more than a month arise, as he that was so araged that had lost the power of throughout the sea, where he slept but little, but prayed to his body, and his hearing, and his saying. Then felt he God that he might see some tidings of the Sancgreal. So many hands about him, which took him up and bare him it befell on a night, at midnight he arrived afore a castle, out of the chamber door, without any amending of his on the back side, which was rich and fair. And there was swoon, and left him there seeming dead to all people. So a postern opened towards the sea, and was open without any | upon the morrow, when it was fair day, they within were keeping, save two lions kept the entry; and the moon shone arisen, and found Launcelot lying afore the chamber door. clear. Anon Sir Launcelot heard a voice that said, “ Launce All they marvelled how that he came in. And so they lot, go out of this ship, and enter into the castle, where looked upon him, and felt his pulse, to wit whether there thou shalt see a great part of thy desire." Then he ran to were any life in him; and so they found life in him, but his arms, and so armed him, and so he went to the gate, and he might neither stand, nor stir no member that he had; saw the lions. Then set he hand to his sword, and drew it. and so they took him by every part of the body, and bare Then there came a dwarf suddenly, and smote him on the him into a chamber, and laid him in a rich bed, far from arm so sore that the sword fell out of his hand. Then heard all folk, and so he lay four days. Then the one said he wis he a voice say, “O man of evil faith and poor belief, where on live, and the other said nay. “In the name of God," said fore trowest thou more on thy harness than in thy Maker ? an old man, “ for I do you verily to wit he is not dead, but he for He might more avail thee than thine armour, in whose is so full of life as the mightiest of you all, and therefore I service thou art set.” Then said Launcelot, “Fair Father Jesu counsel you that he be well kept till God send him life Christ, I thank thee of thy great mercy, that thou reprovest

again." me of my misdeed. Now see I well that ye hold me for your servant.” Then took he again his sword, and put it up in his sheath, and made a cross in his forehead, and came

Early in the reign of Henry II. there was an to the lions, and they made semblant to do him harm. Not

Englishman living in France named Hilarius. He withstanding he passed by them without hurt, and entered

had gone to France that he might study under into the castle to the chief fortress, and there were they Abelard, and he was a poet. From him we have all at rest. Then Launcelot entered in so armed, for he | the earliest extant example of a Miracle Play or found no gate nor door but it was open. And at the last Mystery. There were no such plays in this country he found a chamber whereof the door was shut, and he set his before the Conquest, but after the Conquest they hand thereto to have opened it, but he might not.

must have been soon introduced, for in the Chronicle Then he enforced him mickle to undo the door. Then he of Matthew Paris there is chance reference to the listened, and heard a voice which sang so sweetly that it acting of a Miracle Play of St. Katherine at Dunseemed none earthly thing; and him thought the voice said, stable, before the year 1119, by the pupils of a “ Joy and honour be to the Father of Heaven!” Then learned Norman named Geoffrey, who afterwards Launcelot kneeled down tofore the chamber, for well wist he became abbot of St. Alban's. We know also that that there was the Sancgreal within that chamber. Then said the acting of Miracle Plays was established in he, “ Fair sweet Father Jesu Christ, if ever I did thing that London by Henry II.'s time ; for William Fitzpleased the Lord, for thy pity have me not in despite for

stephen, a clerk of Becket's household, who wrote my sins done aforetime, and that thou shew me something

the life of his patron, says in his Life of Becket that of that I seek!” And with that he saw the chamber door

London, instead of the ancient shows of the theatre, open, and there came out a great clearness, that the house

“has entertainments of a more devout kind, either was as bright as all the torches of the world had been

representations of those miracles which were wrought there. So came he to the chamber door, and would have

by holy confessors, or those passions and sufferings in entered. And anon a voice said to him, “Flee Launcelot, and enter not, for thou oughtest not to do it: and if thou

which the martyrs so rigidly displayed their fortienter thou shalt forthink it.” Then he withdrew him aback

tude." right heavy. Then looked he up in the midst of the chamber,

It will be observed that this description limits and saw a table of silver, and the holy vessel covered with

the representation to the acts of the saints-Miracle red samite, and many angels about it, whereof one held a

Plays. The Mystery Plays, which dealt with the candle of wax burning, and the other held a cross, and the

sacred history itself, and drew from the Bible story ornaments of an altar. And before the holy vessel he saw

representations of those incidents which are cona good man clothed as a priest, and it seemed that he was

nected with the mysteries of faith, seem to have at the sacring of the mass. And it seemed to Launcelot

been acted abroad for some time before their inthat above the priest's hands there were three men, whereof | troduction into this country. After they had been the two put the youngest by likeness between the priest's introduced, the old naine of Miracle Play, which had hands, and so he lift it up right high, and it seemed to become familiar when all our plays were such as show so to the people. And then Launcelot marvelled not ! Fitzstephen defined, remained common, and WIS

applied still as a general term to the Mystery Plays

Sed tu, Deus, miserere, also; but abroad the distinction made by use of

Quique potes, tu medere. the several terms Mystery and Miracle Play was well

(0 sad lot, o hard lot, of which heavy is the thought; understood.

For even now by your ordinance fades away our brother, our At first the plays, like the offices of the Church,

care. Our brother withers away, and makes us indeed to were spoken in Latin. Perhaps everywhere the

share his pain. But thou, God, have pity, and heal hin, for Miracle Play was first introduced. On the day of

thou canst.] the saint to whom a church was dedicated there would be high celebration, and a great desire to attract wor

The Jeu's shall say for their consolation : shippers to the shrine. The reading in the service

Karissime, flere desinite, of the day of a pertinent chapter from the “Acts of

Nec adstantes ad fetum cogite, the Saints," instead of from the Gospel or the Acts of

Immo preces ad Deum mittite the Apostles, edified few. It occurred to somebody

Lazaroque salutem poscite. to act a chapter telling of some miracle of the saint, or setting forth his undaunted faith in God, visibly (Cease, dearest, to weep, nor compel those who stand by to within the church, before the people's eyes, at that | weeping; nay, rather send up prayers to God and ask health part of the service; and then, going on with the psalms for Lazarus.] or prayers ordained by the rubric to succeed the

To whom they shall say : lesson for the day, proceed to the completion of the

Ite, fratres, ad summum medicum, offices. This device succeeded, of course, in fixing

Ite citi regem ad unicum, attention; larger attendance was obtained; there was

Fratrem nostrum narrate languidum, a more lively sense communicated to the untaught

Ut veniat et reddat validum. crowd of the piety or power of the saint. Experience would then justify bolder advance, and attempt [Go, brothers, to the highest physician, go quick to the would be made to bring home in the same way to the | only king, tell that our brother is withering, that he may minds of the people incidents from the Bible history come and restore him to strength.] that involved vital truths of religion. In England, certainly, the incidents in lives of saints were acted

But they, when they shall have come to Jesus, shall say : for some time before men ventured to deal in the

Quia tu diligis infirmatum graviter, same way with incidents from Scripture history.

Ad te juxi (sic) fuimus venire celeriter. But when only Miracle Plays properly so called were

Qui summus es medicus, egrum nostrum visita, acted in England, we find Hilarius, an Englishman

Ut tibi deserviat, sospitate reddita. in France, writing for the Church not only a Miracle Play of St. Nicholas, but also a representation of the

[Because thou hast strong love for him who is made infirm,

we have been commanded to come to thee quickly. Thou story of Daniel, and enforcing the mystery of the

who art the chief physician, visit our sick man, that he may Resurrection by a play written to be represented

do service to you when his health has been restored.] during the church service, at the time of the reading from Scripture, when the eleventh chapter of the

Jesus replies : Gospel of St. John happened to be the lesson of the

Morbus iste fratris mei day. The story was so shown to the eye that it

Non ad mortem erit ei, would come home to the understanding of the people

Sed evenit ut per eum although sung in Latin rhymes; and Hilarius ven

Manifestem vobis Deum. tured to quicken their feelings by the addition of little refrains in their mother-tongue. This is the

[That sickness of my brother shall not be for him unto Mystery Play of Lazarus, designed, it will be seen,

death ; but it happens that through him I may make God to produce clear, homely realisation of the narrative manifest to you.] for which it stands. I simply translate the directions to the actors, but give the play exactly as it has come In the meantime, when they shall have returned, Lazarus down to us :

being already dead, tuo from among them shall lead Mary

to him. To whom she shall sing : THE RAISING OF LAZARUS.

En culpa veteri

Dannatur posteri To which these persons are necessary : the person of Lazarus,

Mortales fieri. of his two sisters, of four Jews, of Jesus Christ, of the

Hor ai dolor, Twelve Apostles, or six at least.

Hor est mis frere morz: At first, Lazarus being sick, his two sisters Mary and Martha

Por que gei plor shall come with four Jews afflicting themselves greatly, and sitting down by his bed shall sing these verses :

Per cibum vetituun

Nobis interitum
O sors tristis, O sors dura,

Constat impositum.
Cujus gravis est censura ;

Hor ai dolor,
Nam per tua modo jura

Hor est mis frere morz:
Languet, frater, nostra cura.

Por que gei plor.
Languet frater, et nos vere
Facit sibi condolere.

1 Damnantur.

Facta sum misera,
Et soror altera
Per fratris funera.
Hor ai dolor,
Hor est mis frere morz :
Por que gei plor.

Ex fratris funere
Recuso vivere:
Ve mihi misere!

Lase', chative!
Dès que mis frere est mor:

Porque sue vire ?

Cum de te cogito,
Frater, et merito,
Mortem afflagito
Hor ai dolor,
Hor est mes frere mor: :
Por que gei plor.

[Death to be execrated! Death to be detested ! Death to be wept by me! Unhappy, wretched one! Since that my brother is dead, why am I living? The destruction of my brother, heavy and sudden, is a cause for sobbing. Unhappy, wretched one! Since that my brother is dead, why am I living For my dead brother I do not refuse to die, nor do I fear death. Unhappy, wretched one! Since that my brother is dead, why am I living? Because of the burial of my brother I refus to live. Woe to me, miserable! Unhappy, wretched one! Since that my brother is dead, why am I living?]

(For an ancient sin those who live after are doomed to be made mortal. Now I have grief, Now is my brother dead, Wherefore I weep. Through the forbidden food death is firmly laid upon us. Now I have grief, Now is my brother dead, Wherefore I weep. I am made a wretched woman, and my sister another by the burial of our brother. Now I have grief, Now is my brother dead, Wherefore I weep. When I think of thee, brother, and thy worth, I passionately call for death. Now I have grief, Now is my brother dead, Wherefore I weep.]

Two of the Jeu's shall say for her comfort :

Tolle fletum, quesumus,
Nichil enim possumus

Per fletum profiscere.
Insistendum fletibus
Esset si quis talibus

Posset reviviscere.

Then two of the Jews consoling, shall say to her :

Cesset talis gemitus,
Cesset meror penitus.

Cessent que suspiria ;
Talis lamentacio
Talis ejulacio

Non est necessaria.

Quare non consideras
Quia dum te macheras!

Nichil prodes mortuo ?
Quare tu non respicis,
Quia nichil (proficis)

Ut jam vivat denuo ?

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Pro fratre mortuo
Mori non abnuo,
Nec mortem metuo.

Lase, chatire !
Dès que mis frere est mort

Porque sue rire ?

[Behold, Lazarus sleepeth, whom it is fit that I should visit: I will go thither, therefore, thut I may awake him out of sleep.)

1 Maceras.

The Disciples again :

he who living shall believe in me, death shall not approach Postquam dormit, salvus erit;

to him. Do you believe, Martha, that it is true that such is

the order of things ?] Salus enim somnum querit. [After he sleeps, he shall be well; for health demands

But Martha shall answer : sleep.]

Te Christum, Dei filium,
Jesus again to them :

Ad hoc nostrum exilium
Non est sicut creditis : immo jam defunctus est ;

Venisse in auxilium Sed in Patris nomine nobis suscitandus est.

Ego credo. [It is not as ye believe: on the contrary, he is already [I believe thee Christ, the Son of God, to have come for dead; but in the name of the Father he is to be raised up our help to this our place of exile.] to us.] But Thomas shall say :

Martha, telling Mary that Jesus has come, shall say:
Ergo nos proficiscamus

Jesus adest, soror carissima;
Et cum illo moriamur.

Cesset luctus et cesset lacrima.

Ipsum prece flectas humillima, [Therefore let us go and die with him.]

Ut redeat ad fratrem anima.
Afterwards Martha shall say to Jesus :

[Jesus is here, dearest sister. Let cease the grief, let cease Si venisses primitus,

the tear. 'Bend thou himself by humblest prayer that the Dol en ai,

soul may return to our brother.]
Non esset hic gemitus.
Bais frere, perdu vos ai.

Then Mary shall say to Jesus :
Quod in vivum poteras,

Nullius solacio
Dol en ai,

Mea desolacio
Hoc defuncto conferas.

Valet unquam auferri.
Bais frere, perdu vos ai.

Sed credo consilium
Petis patrem quid libet;

Per te, Dei filium,
Dol en ai,

Posse mihi conferri.
Statim pater exibet.

Tu ergo qui potens es
Bais frere, perdu vos ai.

Qui mittis (sic) et clemens es

Ad tumulum venito. (If thou hadst come at first, Grief for it have I, There had

Fratrem meum suscita, not been this sobbing. Darling brother, I have lost you.

Quem mors carni debita What you had power for on the living, Grief for it have I,

Surripuit tam cito. This confer thou on the dead. Darling brother, I have lost you. Ask of the Father what you will, Grief for it have I, [By the solace of no man can my desolation ever be taken At once the Father will give it. Darling brother, I have lost away. But I believe that help can be brought to ne you.]

through thee, the Son of God. Come, therefore, to the tomb, Jesus shall say :

thou who art powerful, and merciful and mild, raise up my Nunc comprimas has lacrymas et luctum qui te urget. brother, whom death due to the flesh seized so suddenly.] Frater tuus est mortuus, sed facile resurget.

And Jesus to her : (Restrain now these tears and this lament that presses upon

Volo, soror, volo multum thee. Thy brother is dead, but readily will rise again.]

Me deduci ad sepultum,

Ut in vitam revocetur
And she to him :

Qui a morte detinetur.
Rexurgere et vivere

(I desire, sister, I desire greatly to be brought down to the Fratrem meum affirmo,

buried man, that he may be called back into life who is held Tunc denique cum utique

from you by death.] Rexurget omnis homo.

But she, leading Jesus to the sepulchre, shall say : [I know that my brother shall rise and live, then at last when in any case every man shall rise.]

Hic eum posuimus,

Ecce locus, Domine.
And Jesus again :

Quem in patris poscimus
Immo, soror, non despera,

Suscitari nomine.
Nam sum ego vita vera ;
Et quicumque credet ita

(Here we deposited him; behold the place, O Lord. Him Vivet in me, qui sum vita.

whom we ask to be raised up in the name of the Father.]
Et qui vivens in me credet,

Jesus to those standing around :
Mors ad illum non accedet.
Credis, Martha, fore verum

Sustollatis lapidem qui superest tumulo,
Quod sit talis ordo rerum?

Ut exurgat Lazarus coram omni populo. [Nay, sister, do not despair, for I am the true way, and [Lift ye up the stone which is upon the tomb, that whoever shall so believe shall live in me who am life. And | Lazarus may arise in presence of all the people.]

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They shall say :

a little west of Tenby. He was the scholar of a Fetorem non poteris sustinere mortui;

patriotic fighting family, as patriotic as any other of Namque ferens graviter funus est quatridui. his kindred, and combatant with spiritual weapons

for the Church of Wales. His ambition was to form [Thou wilt not be able to bear the stench of the dead, for in Wales a national church, with its primate at St. bearing him heavily the funeral was four days since.]

David's, and to make it a church free from the

corruption that had come of wealth and ease. He Then Jesus, looking up into Heaven, shall pray thus to the

was eager, as a strict Churchman, for church reform; Father :

became an archdeacon at six-and-twenty, and would Pater, verbum tuum clarifica,

have been made Bishop of St. David's if the King of Lazarumque, precor, vivifica.

England could have trusted at the head of the Welsh Sic filium mundo notifica,

Church a man so able and uncompromising, and so Pater, in hac hora.

full of zeal for his own people. Henry II. liked Nec hoc dixi in difidencia,

Gerald personally, made him one of his chaplains, Sed pro gentis hujus presentia,

used him in the pacification of Wales, and sent him Ut de tua certi potencia

with Prince John upon his unsuccessful Irish expedi Credant absque mora.

tion. Gerald's energy caused him to make much [Father, make thy word manifest and, I pray thee, give use of his pen, and this visit of his to Ireland in life unto Lazarus, so declare thy Son to the world, Father, in 1185 caused him to write a “Topography of Ireland," this hour. Nor have I said this through want of faith, but and a “ History of the Conquest of Ireland." The because of the presence of this people, that, certain of thy zeal with which he sought to restore purity of life to power, they may believe without delay.]

Churchmen did not prevent Gerald from sharing the

ready faith of his time in any marvel that appeared Then shall he say to the dead :

to show the power of God, the full devotion to Him O Lazare, foras egredere,

of holy men, or God's love to His faithful servants. Aure dono vitalis utere;

Simplest traditions of the country-side were in the In paterne virtutis munere,

twelfth century accepted by a singularly shrewd, Exi foras, et vita fruere.

vigorous, and earnest man with unquestioning faith,

when there was worship at the heart of them. Thus, TO Lazarus, come forth, I give thee to use vital air. By

in his “Topography of Ireland,” one book is upon its the gift of the Father's power, come forth, and enjoy life.]

geography and natural history; and here the chapter Then after Lazarus shall have risen, Jesus shall say :

on the eagle is developed into religious allegory Ecce vivit: nunc ipsun solvite,

after the manner of the Bestiaries. The next book Et solutum abire sinite.

is on the “Wonders and Miracles of Ireland," and

the next on its “Inhabitants.” Here are, as told [Behold he lives : now loose him, and when loosened, suffer by Giraldus Cambrensis, a few miracles of a saint, him to go hence.]

said to have been born in the year 498, and to

have founded an abbey in the wilderness of GlendaLazarus unbound shall say to the bystanders :

lough (the valley of the two lakes) in the Wicklow Ecce que sunt Dei magnalia.

Mountains :-
Vos vidistis et hec et alia.
Ipse celum fecit et maria ;

MIRACLES OF ST. KEVIN.
Mors ad ejus tremit imperia.

When St. Kevin had become celebrated for his life and ( Behold what are the mighty things of God. You have sanctity at Glendalough, a noble boy, one of his scholar, seen both these and others. He made the heaven and the

happened to fall sick, and had a craving for some apples. seas; death trembles at his command.]

The saint, taking compassion on him, and having prayed to

the Lord, a willow-tree, which stood near the church, bore And having turned to Jesus he shall say:

apples, to the relief of the boy as well as of other sick Tu magister, tu rex, tu Dominus,

persons. And even to the present day that willow, and Tu populi delebis facinus.

other sets from it, planted in the neighbouring cemetery, Quod precipis, illud fit protinus.

produce apples every year, as if it were an orchard, although Regni tui non erit terminus.

in other respects, such as their boughs and leaves, the trees

retain their natural properties. These apples are white, and [Thou Master, thou King, thou Lord, thou wilt wash away of an oblong shape, and more wholesome than pleasant to the sin of the people. What thou orderest is straightway the taste. They are held in great reverence by the natives, done. Of thy kingdom there shall be no end.)

who call them St. Kevin's apples; and many carry them to

the most distant parts of Ireland, as remedies for various Which being finished, if it was done at Matins, Lazarus shall diseases. be zin Te Deum Laudamus. But if at Vespers, Magnificat ! On the feast-day of the same

On the feast-day of the same saint, the ravens at Glendaanima mea Dominum.

lough, in consequence of his curse for his scholars having accidentally spilt their milk, neither come on the ground nor taste food; but, flying round the village and church,

and making a loud cawing, enjoy no rest or refreshment on Giraldus Cambrensis, which means Gerald of Wales,

that day. was Gerald de Barri, born in the castle of Manorbeer, i St. Kevin, upon some occasion, when, during the season of

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