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who was separated from them by no worldly rank or wealth, and was drawn very close to them in brotherhood by Christian love. Others who shared his enthusiasm gathered about him, all devoting themselves to poverty; and they formed an order of brothers, Fratres, Friars, for whom a rule was drawn up that had Papal approval in 1210, and was approved by the Lateran Council in 1215. The enthusiasm of Francis, and the reaction of many a pure heart from the worldliness that had crippled
Friars, Brothers of men going amongst them, putting aside all worldly ambitions, and devoting themselves wholly to diffusion of what they held to be the vital truths of God. They were to be practised in a profound study of the Scriptures, armed with knowledge, and trained to skill in its use that they might detect heresy in its beginnings, and triumph over it when at its strongest. The followers of Dominic, in the Black robe which gave them their name of Black Friars, were to be devoted guardians of the faith. Dominic's first followers adopted the rule of St. Augustine. They were first enibodied with Papal assent in 1215 and 1216 as Predicants or Preaching Friars, afterwards called Dominicans from their founder, and Black Friars from their dress. This order also degenerated in the course of time. It had a great house in the part of London still known as Black Friars, and from this house came, as we shall find, from the custodians of orthodoxy condemnation of what were regarded as the heresies of Wiclif.
A FRANCISCAN. (From Dugdale's " Monasticon.")
the Church, gathered so many to his ranks, that at a chapter of the order held in 1219, 5,000 Franciscan Friars were present. The Franciscans in their early days would not allow great houses to be built for them. When a house of stone was built for them at Oxford, they had it pulled down and replaced by
a building with mud walls, and it was placed in A Dominicax. (From Dugdale's “Monasticon.")
the lowest haunts of the poor. In London they
lived by the shambles in a place called “Stinking The Franciscan Order of Gray Friars or Minorites Lane.” They put aside the pride of knowledge, was founded nearly at the same time as the Domini-| left book-learning to the Dominicans, called themcan, and represented another form of effort to put | selves the Lesser Friars, Fratres Minores, Minorites, truer life into the ministrations of the Church and trusted to humility of love. This order also Francis, son of a wealthy merchant, was born in degenerated as the days of the pure enthusiasm that 1182 at Assisi, in Umbria. He was twelve years established it were left more and more in the past. vounger than Dominic, whose birth year was 1170. | But it is a significant fact that the putting away Francis of Assisi, bred as a merchant, became deeply of books in which science lay as petrified, and devout, pitied the poor, abandoned his own worldly from which people took forms of opinion to be wealth, and made it the work of his life to bring exactly reproduced, caused the Franciscans presently home to the poor the comforts of religion, as one
to become leaders of knowledge. They went among the poor, and sought to win from them goodwill and
confidence. They sympathised with their troubles, 1 Representations of the several religious orders that first appeared
sought to pacify their quarrels, and heal their inin the “Monasticon" were used again for the "History of Warwick.
firmities of body or of mind. In seeking means to heal the bodily infirmities the Franciscans were led | Grosseteste's pupil, the famous Franciscan, Roger to observe nature, to draw knowledge from expe- | Bacon, was born in 1214, and died in 1292. In the rience; and minds of active, intellectual men thus year 1267 he was pouring out his knowledge for the trained in a forced contact with Nature alone as Pope in a spirit of philosophy, kindred in some their chief teacher, were soon on the way to many a respects to that of the Francis Bacon who was born truth that was not written in the books they might three centuries later. Roger Bacon dwelt upon the not read. After some years Franciscans were need of exact knowledge by Churchmen. He conteaching in the universities, and drew the largest demned the ignorance that propagated false transaudiences to their lecture-rooms. As the order lost lations for want of right training in language, and its singleness of purpose, the positions fairly won when he spoke emphatically of mathematics as a were weakly held; and Wiclif, in his earlier year's most essential study, he argued that it was essential at Oxford, earned much goodwill in the university by to divines if they would read and explain the Bible opposing what was then undue predominance of the with intelligence, and help men rightly to admire the Franciscans, and of the Dominicans who arrogated works of the Creator. to themselves the teaching of theology.
Roger Bacon had spent a little fortune upon study In the earlier half of the thirteenth century, not before he became a Franciscan at Oxford, denied the very long after the establishment of the Franciscan use of books, and of pens, ink, and paper. The fame order, its first rector in Oxford was Robert Grosse of his knowledge reached Pope Clement IV., who teste, who was appointed to that office in 1224, asked him to write down what he knew. The result when he was about fifty years old. Grosseteste was a sequence of writings, poured out with wonderonly about five years younger than Dominic, and ful rapidity, in which he went the round of all the seven years older than Francis of Assisi—was a knowledge of his day, with additions of his own, and great scholar, born of poor parents in Suffolk. He | philosophial suggestions of the highest interest. Even studied at Paris and Oxford, graduated in Divinity, the four “ Idols” condemned by Francis Bacon were was rector at one time of St. Margaret's, Leicester, almost anticipated in the assertion of Roger Bacon became afterwards Archdeacon of Leicester, and had that there are four grounds of human ignoranceother preferment when the corruption of self-seeking trust in inadequate authority, the force of custom, among churchmen caused him to begin his own the opinion of the inexperienced crowd, and the efforts towards reform by resigning all that he held hiding of one's own ignorance with the parading of himself except one office, a prebend at Lincoln. In a superficial wisdom. When in passing through the 1235 he was made Bishop of Lincoln, but caused sciences he comes to music, we have these notes from violent agitation among the monks and clergy of his Roger Bacon on diocese by bold punishment and repression of corruption. A monk tried to poison him ; the canons preached against him in his own cathedral ; the
Then follows prayer that God will grant us to think and work as se
should, before statement of the subject of the poem, which is first king's power was used to check the strictness with
the happiness of Adam in Paradise till all was lost; and then bow all which he enforced their duties on his clergy. He was redeemed by the High King's Son. opposed the bestowal of English benefices, as mere The High King had four daughters-Mercy, Truth, Right, and pieces of income, upon Italians nominated by the
Peace. He had also a thrall, who having done amiss was set in
prison and delivered to his foes. Mercy pleaded for him, but Right Pope ; and in the last year of his life boldly refused
had called for his punishment, and this Truth urged. Right tben to induct a nephew of the Pope himself into a judged in accordance with the words of Truth. Then Peace-who canonry at Lincoln. Grosseteste died in 1253, was banished by the execution of the Righteous dooms-joined in tbe
plea of Mercy. The King's Son, when he had heard the pl leaving to the Franciscans his library, and to his
offered to wear the clothing of the thrall, and suffer for him all that country a memory of which the good fame might Truth and Right required, so that Peace might come back into the rest upon his patriotic and religious zeal in the land, and Righteousness and Peace might kiss each other. The contest for Church reform ; but he was also one of parable is then applied to the sacred story, and through praise of
the love of God the poem passes to the birth of Christ. When the profoundest scholars and teachers of his age
God came to bless us he chose to alight Roger Bacon was among his pupils—and he had a
" In a castel wel comeliche keen sense of the graces of life, a love of music
Muche and feir and loveliche; and of old romance. This caused him to put in the
That is the castel of alle flour, form of French romance a religious poem upon the
Of solas and of socour." Virgin. It was written in French and called the Then follows a description of the castle wherein God "chose his “ Chasteau d'Amour,” There was more than one inn"early version of it translated into English.'
“ This is the castel of love and lisse,
Of solace, of socour, of joye, and blisse,
And ful of allé swetenesse; 1 One early translation was edited very thoroughly with notes and
This is the Mayden bodi so freo, glossary by Dr. R. F. Weymouth, for the Philological Society, in
Ther never nas non but heo, 1864. Another version had been printed in 1849 by Mr. J. 0. Halli
That with so fele thewes iwarned wes, wellPhillipps for private circulation. This is the beginning :
So that swete Mayden Marie wes." “ He that good thinketh, good may do,
Every detail of an elaborate description of the castle is the And God will helpen him thereto;
explained into allegory, with praise of the Virgin. The coming of For there was never good work wronght
Christ to earth, his birth, his resistance of temptation, his death and Without beginning of good thought,
passion, and the pain of Mary in the agony he sufered for the sins Nor ever was wrought evil thing
of man, his resurrection, descent into hell, Godbead, power, sure the But evil thought was beginning."
next themes; then follows judgment, and a prayer for salvation.
pattern of other hymns and such pieces so made, they count CHURCH MUSIC AND PREACHING."
syllables at haphazard, and do not in anything observe metrical [He had said that there were three kinds of harmony,
law. And, therefore, this is a mockery before God and the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic, the last-named adopted
| holy angels, and all who have any real knowledge of this art. by the Church ; had dwelt on the importance of music, and For the saints who first composed in this way, as St. Ambrose, complained that church singing in his time had lost gravity, and Augustine, and Beda, and others, knew perfectly the and slipped into a voluptuous softness ; that the old manly
laws and principles of metre and rhythm; and wrote accordtone was in some of our greatest cathedrals spoilt by falsetto ing to the ways of art as having the power of science, and voices and the womanish singing of boys. He then dwelt
not working at haphazard as the moderns do, who fashion as on music as an aid to devotion, as allayer of evil passions,
they please. and as healer of disease, and spoke of its power over irrational
The next thing in which the philosophy of Music can creatures. But, he went on, besides all this)
powerfully serve the Church is in the office of preaching, The force of music is very agreeable and useful in the
although at first sight that may seem absurd. But this office Church. It has been said that one kind of music is by metre,
does not belong to study, because it consists in reading and another by rhythm. But hymns, and histories, and prose | disputation. But preaching is to the faithful and to the narratives of the saints ought to be made according to the faithless, to laity and clergy. true art of metre and rhythm, as the saints made them from
Now, some cannot preach unless they are sent by the the beginning. Common metres are of hexameter and authority of prelates. Whence this is the office proper to pentameter verses, which are alone now used by the com.
prelates, and conceded by them to others, who exercise it in munity of the Latins. But hymns and rhythmical prose their place; and, therefore, it does not pertain to study absowritings, and pieces of that kind, do not follow common laws lutely, but to the Church. But that philosophy will minister of metre and rhythm, but have special methods; as, when it to a great power of persuasion is patent enough from what I is said:
have said when speaking of Moral Philosophy; for there I Ut queant laxis Re-sonare tibris
have traced the roots of persuasion, according to the doctrines Mi-ra gestorum Fa-muli tuorum,
both of the saints and of the philosophers, and because of Sol-ve pollutos La-bii reatus Sancte Johannes,
the ignorance of these roots, the whole method of preaching
to the people comes to nothing, and the art itself is unknown. Here is a beautiful metre with distinct verses, but of | And since the infidels have proper methods of persuasion in fewer feet, five and six ; and so of the hymns, &c. And those things which concern them, therefore this manner of these metres are not only used with the three recognised persuasion is philosophical, because it is common to Christian feet, dactyl, spondee, and trochee, but with others which
and Pagan. And, therefore, there descends from the springs mount up to twenty-eight, of which Augustine teaches in his
of philosophy one method special for this purpose, though books of music, and other musical writers. When, therefore, also another method may be taken from the teaching of the hymns, &c., of this kind resound sweetly in the Church | saints. But the method of philosophy is first, and leads of God, and excite the souls of the faithful to devotion, us towards the higher way, and is necessary to it as the and this, chiefly, because of the charm of metre and rhythm, servant to the master. Wherefore, if philosophy in other it is necessary that the Church should have knowledge of things is necessary to the Church, it is most so in this, seeing this metrical and rhythmical science for church use, that that the first intention of the Church and its last end is the when saints are canonised, or churches dedicated, or other work of preaching; that infidels may be converted to the solemnities appointed, which for special devotion require faith, and that believers be maintained in faith and honesty hymns and rhythms of their own in the divine offices, the of living. But because the crowd knows nothing of either devout handmaid of the church, called Music, may be ready way, it turns all to supreme and unending curiousness, as by to do her aptest service.
Porphyrian divisions, by foolish consonances of words and But if it may be said that these things can be done, and little clauses, and by vocal concords, in which is nothing but are done, without the science of music; that its grammar is a wordy vanity, wanting in every ornament of rhetoric and sufficient. C'learly that is not so, for reasons already given, power of persuasion. Some phantasm is displayed in puerile because it is the business of the musician to give cause and fashion, invented by boys void of all wisdom and power of reason of these things that they may rightly produce rhythmic eloquence, as is plain to any one who looks at it; such as I and metrical work; but grammar is only mechanical in this have set forth in my second work, and this my third, among respect, ignorant of these causes and reasons. And if it may the sins of theology. Nevertheless, over all this there is be said that no great art is required for this, because men the greatest consumption of time. For on account of the easily produce such things in the offices of the saints and superfluity of curiousness they labour ten times more over the others whenever they please, it is to be said of them that construction of this sort of spider's web than over the thought they do nothing rightly nor truly, but it is a mockery of of the sermon. Since the books of Aristotle's Logic on these divine service. For all that has been done during the last matters, and the commentaries of Avicenna, are not to be thirty years is false to art and truth, because composers of had in Latin, and the few things that are translated are not this kind know neither what feet they ought to use, nor how brought into use or read, it is not easy to express what ought many feet, nor what kind of metre, nor how they are to be to be done. But that Aristotle did write two books of Logic put together according to the ways of art; but after the on this kind of persuasion, concerning sects and morals, I have
shown in the third part of the “Opus lajus," and in the
seventh; and there can be no doubt that they were excellent 1 Chapter lxxiv. and part of chapter lxxv. of the “Opus Tertium," first edited by Professor Brewer in the important series of " Chronicles
books, though the Latin writers are ignorant of them, as they and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages," were ignorant of the new logic when they only had the old. published under direction of the Master of the Rolls. Roger Bacon For in them would be taught how sublime discourses should wrote, of course, in Latin.
be made, as well in the utterance as in the thought, with all 9 The verses are an appeal to St. John to loosen lips that they may sound his praise, so worded as to introduce the syllables of the scale
true ornaments of speech, in metre, rhythm, or prose; that the -Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La.
soul may be hurried unexpectedly towards that for which the
persuader puts forth all his power, and suddenly fall in love rection. The Lion sleeps with his eyes open. So with good, and into hate of evil, as teaches Alpharabius in | watchful over us is Christ. his book De Scientiis. And these arguments of preaching do | When the Eagle is old he regains eyesight by not consist only in the beauty of the speech, or greatness of hovering over a well in the light of the su, drops the wisdom touching things divine; but in the feelings, in the then into the well, and comes out renewed, except gesture and fitly-proportioned movement of the body and the his beak, which he puts right by pecking at a stone. limbs, to which the instruction of the saints comes near when | Man not yet Christian is old in sins. He goes to they teach the preacher to imploro in his opening the grace church and regains sight in the sunshine of God's of the Holy Spirit, and abundantly to shed tears of devotion
love, he falls naked into the font and comes out while he is persuading. For thus Augustine teaches the way
renewed, save that his mouth has not yet uttered to preach the Gospel in his fourth book upon Christian
creed or paternoster. But he may soon set his Doctrine, and so he confesses that he preached himself. ..
himself. :: mouth right upon that rock which is Christ, and .. But some one may say, What has all this to do with
obtain bread for his soul in Christ, who is the bread the properties of Music? Surely much ; indeed they have a
of life. chief relation to it: and this I will show, that we may see
The old SERPENT fasts for ten days, and when his what is proper to one science, what to another. For I cannot
skin is slack creeps through a stone with a hole in deny that many sciences take this into account. The moral
it, so scrapes it off'; then drinks at a spring, casts philosopher knows the use of pleasant speech and fit gestures
out the venom bred in his breast since his birth, and suited to an agreeable utterance. So does the logician and grammarian. But it is the part of none of those to assign
drinks again from the pure stream until he is renewed. the causes and reasons, for they are of another science. And
The Christian needs renewal when he has broken the this is Music.
laws to which he was pledged ; avoidance of pride is
the fast, repentance the hole in the stone through The man whose scientific mind was thus applied to which he must pass, in the temple of God he will all subjects of human study in his time is the same find the healing stream. The serpent represents also Friar Bacon whose learning won for him a place
the devil, in the fact that he will attack a clothed in mediæval fable. His teacher, Robert Grosse man, and flee from the naked. The devil attacks the teste, Grosthead, or Greathead, called also Robert of man who is clothed in his sins, and flies from him Lincoln, was ranked with the conjurors, but Friar who has put them off. Bacon became especially a hero of legend. Samuel The Ant lays up store for the winter; prefers Butler, in his “Hudibras," paired “Old Hodge wheat, and avoids barley ; bites each grain of corn Bacon and Bob Grostead;" and we find from the in two to save it from perishing before it is used. fourth book of the “ Confessio Amantis" that Grosse Death is our winter-time, and if we have not made teste, as well as Bacon, was once associated with a provision here, we shall suffer after that has come. story of a brazen head.
Like the ant, let us avoid barley, the old law, and
take to us wheat, the new. The divided grain shows “ For of the great clerk Grosséteste
that the law is one, its ways are two, earthly and I rede how busy that he was Upon the clergie, an head of brus
heavenly. It feeds the body and the soul.
The Hart draws the stone out of the serpent,
swallows it and burns with its poison, till he drinks And seven yerés besinesse
greedily of water that makes it harmless. Then he He laidé, but for the lachesse
sheds his horns and renews himself. We draw the Of half a minute of an houre
poison from our forefathers, who have sinned through Fro firsté he began laboure
the serpent; but in our rage let us run to the living He loste all that he haddé do."
waters, and drink of the teaching of the Lord that quenches sin. Let us cast off pride as the hart casts
his horns, and be renewed unto salvation. Harts Let us next take, in brief, the substance of a keep together. If they cross a river, each lays his Bestiary which turned into religious allegory the shin-bone on another's loin-bone; if the foremost supposed attributes of divers animals. It was become tired, the others help him. So Christians clerived from the Latin verse of an Italian bishop, should draw together, and lighten one another's Theobald, whose book, called “Physiologus," was of | burdens. a class so ancient that Epiphanius, an opponent of The Fox seizes poultry, and entraps birds by lying Origen, at the close of the fourth century, referred to in a hole as dead, till they alight on him fearlessly the two natures of the serpent with the phrase, “as and peck at him as carrion food, then with his sharp the Physiologues say.” In this thirteenth-century teeth he tears them. The devil looks as if he would version of the “ Physiologus” of Theobald we read not harm us, and tempts us to do our carnal will. that
Whoso indulges in sin pecks at the fox's skin, and When the Lion hears or scents from a hill the has his reward. So also, he who hides evil under a hunter approaching, he flies and wipes out his traces | fair show is a fox and a fiend. with his tail as he is running to his den. The hill is The Spider who spreads his web, is the man who the kingilom of heaven, Christ the Lion, the Devil deceives another and brings him to ruin. the cunning hunter, who never knew whence the 1 The WHALE looks like an island when afloat. Loril came or how he housed himself in Mary. The When he is hungry he opens his wide jaws, and a Lion's cub is not called to stir till the sun has shone | sweet scent comes from them which draws to him three times upon it. This is an image of the resur- | the fishes. Only the little tish are swallowedl; be
because there are in the MSS. of them not only similar verbal and grammatical forms, but similar peculiarities of spelling. The manner of this poem may be illustrated by the part of it which ends the story of Genesis.
cannot seize the great ones. So the devil tempts man by pleasures that lead to ruin, but he beguiles only the weak in faith. In fair weather he is at the bottom of the sea, in storin he comes to the surface. Sailors, mistaking him for an island, anchor upon him, and light a fire on him to warm themselves. Feeling the heat, he dives and drowns them all. So is it with all who trust in the fiend for shelter and comfort.
Many men are like the Siren when they speak fair words and do evil, destroying another in his goods and in his soul by treachery.
The ELEPHANT is careful not to fall, because he can with difficulty raise himself. He rests by leaning against a tree. The hunter, marking his haunt, saws the tree, then when he leans he falls, and sets up a loud cry for help. Many of the herd labour in vain to raise him, then they all set up a loud cry, till a youngling comes who helps him up with his trunk, and so he is saved. Adam, through that hunter the devil, so fell by a tree. Moses and the prophets sought in vain to restore man. A great cry went up to heaven, and Christ came, who went, as it were, by death, under Adam, and so lifted him out of hell.
The Christian should be true to Christ as the TURTLE, who will never leave her mate or take a second love.
The Panther is beautiful. When he has eaten he sleeps in his cave for three days, then rises, cries aloud, and out of his mouth comes a smell sweeter than balsam. This draws to him many animals, but not the dragon, who lies trembling in his den. Christ is the fair panther, who, when he had lain three days, rose and ascended to heaven. The sweet smell is his holy teaching to which men are drawn, but the devil hides and trembles when he hears the word of God.
Seven good qualities of the Dove are to be imitated by the Christian. She has no gall. She does not live by plunder. She picks up seed only, and avoids worms; so let us feed only on Christ's teaching. She is as a mother to the young of other birds ; let us help one another. Her song is a plaint ; let us bewail our sins. In water she sees when the hawk comes ; in the Word of God we learn to shun the devil. She makes her nest in a hole of the rock; our best shelter is in that rock which is the mercy of our Lord.
That is the whole substance of the Bestiary, versified in the thirteenth century from Bishop Theobald." In the opinion of Dr. Richard Morris, who has edited them both, an English religious poem of the thirteenth century, which tells the story of Genesis and Exodus in free octosyllabic rhymes, is by the author of the rhymed version of this Bestiary;
THE DEATH OF JOSEPH. Hise brethere comen him thanne to His brethren then came to him And gunnen him biseken alle so; And began all to beseech him thus : “ Vre fader," he seiden, “or he was dead, “ Our father," they said, “ before he was diad, Vs he this bodeward seigen bead, He bade us say this message, Hure sinne thee him forgiue That thou for him our sin forgive With-thanne-that we vnder the liven." So that we under thee may live." Alle he fellen him thor to fot All they fell there at his feet To beden mede and bedden oth, To beg mercy and offer oath, And he it forgaf hem mildelike And he forgave it them mildly And luvede hem alle kinde-like. And loved them all according to nature. Osep an hundred ger was hold Joseph was a hundred years old And his kin wexen manige fold; And his kindred increased manifold ; He bad sibbe cumen him biforen He bade relations come before him Or he was ut of werlde boren Ere he was borne out of the world ; “It sal," quath he, “ ben soth, biforen “ It shall," quoth he, “ be true, before That god hath ure eldere sworen That God hath sworn to our elders, He sal gu leden in his hond He shall lead you in his hand Hethen to that hotene lond From hence to the promised land ; For godes luue get bid ie gu For God's lore yet pray I you Lesteth” it thanne, hoteth it nu, Perform it then, promise it now. That mine bene ne be forloren, That my prayers may not be lost, With gu ben mine bones boren." Let my bones be carried with you." He it him gatten and wurth he dead, They granted it him and he died (became dead), God do the soule seli red! God cause to the soul a happy gain! His liche was spice-like maked His body was embalmed And longe egipte-like waked, And long watched after the manner of Egypt, And tho biried hem biforen And then buried before them And sithen late of londe boren. And some time afterwards borne out of the land,
1 It will be found, as well as the Latin original, in one of the publico. tions of the Early English Text Society, "An Old English Miscellany, containing a Bestiary, Kentish Sermons, Proverbs of Alfred, Religious Poems of the Thirteenth Century, from Manuscripts in the British Museum, Bodleian Library, Jesus College Library, &c. Edited, with Introduction and Index of Words, by the Rev. Richard Morris, LL.D." The Bestiary has also been printed by Mr. Thomas Wright in the * Reliquiæ Antique."
2 Lesteth is not listen, from "hlystan;" but observe, execute, per. form, from “ læ'stan."