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the whole extent. From this dread the country was delivered. The surrender of a second royal army, the Americans deemed an event decisive of the independence of the United States, and which would speedily terminate the war.
The day after the capitulation General Washington ordered, “ that those who were under arrest should be pardoned and set at liberty;" and announced, that “ Divine service shall be performed to-morrow in the different brigades and divisions. The Commander in Chief recommends, · that all the troops that are not upon duty do assist at it with a serious deportment, and that sensibility of heart, which the recollection of the surprising and particular interposition of Providence in our favour claims.” Congress as soon as they received General Washington's official letter giving information of the event, resolved to go in procession to the Dutch Lutheran Church, and return thanks to Almighty God for the signal success of the American arms; and they issued a proclamation, recommending to the citizens of the United States to observe the thirteenth of December as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer. The news of the capture of Earl Cornwallis was every where received with exultation and public rejoicing.
Congress for this achievement voted the thanks of the United States to General Washington, to Count Rochambeall, to Count de Grasse, to the officers of the allied army generally, and to the corps of artillery and engineers in particular. They also resolved that a marble column should
be erected at Yorktown in Virginia, bearing emblems of the alliance between the United States and bis Most Christian Majesty, inscribed with a succinct narrative of the surrender of the British army under the command of Earl Cornwallis. Two stands of colours taken from the royal troops, were presented to General Washington, two field pieces to Count Rochambeau ; and application was made to the French Court that Count de Grasse might be permitted to accept a testimonial of the approbation of Congress, similar to that which Rochambeau had received.
To the Commander in Chief the most affectionate and respectful addresses were presented by the governments of the states, by the authorities of cities, and by the corporations of literary institutions.
The decided superiority of the allies in naval and land force, General i ashington wished to direct to the conquest of the British posts at Carolina and Georgia. He addressed a letter to Count de Grasse on this subject, requesting his co-operation in measures directed to these objects. But the Count declined, declaring that the service of his King demanded his immediate return to the West Indies.
Orders were of course issued for the disposition of the allied armies for the approaching winter. Major General St. Clair was detached with two brigades to South Carolina to reiníorce General Green. The French forces remained in Virginia. The Eastern troops einbarked early in November
for the Head of Elk, under the command of General Lincoln, who was ordered to march them from the place of their landing into New Jersey and New York, and to canton them for the winter in those states. Count de Grasse with his fleet sailed for the West Indies, and General Washington proceeded to Philadelphia.
Preparations for another Campaign-Sir Guy Carlton arrives
at New York and announces the vote of Parliament to ac· knowledge American Independence- Army anxious for their
Pai—Anonynious Address exciting them to a Revolt—General Washington convenes and addresses the Officers Their resólutions—Preliminary Articles of Peace receited-Cessation of Ilostilities proclaimed—General Washington addresses a Cir. cular Letter to the Executives of the Several States--Army disa banded— New Levies of Pennsylvania revolt — The Commander in Chief enters New York-Takes leares of his Officers-Resigns his Commission to the President of Congress-Retires to Mount Vernon.
1781.7 THE brilliant issue of the last campaign did not relax the vigilance of General Washington. He deemed it true policy to call forth all the resources of the country, that the United States might be prepared for the conflicts of another year, or might take a commanding attitude in a negotiation for peace. From Mount Vernon, on his way to the seat of government, he wrote General Green, “ I shall attempt to stimulate Congress to the best improvemeut of our success, by taking the most vigorous and effectual measures to be ready for an early and decisive campaign the next year. My greatest fear is that, viewing this stroke in a point of light which may too much magnify its importance, they may think our work
too nearly closed, and fall into a state of languor and relaxation. To prevent this error, I shall employ every means in my power, and, if unhappily we sink into this fatal mistake, no part of the blame shall be inine."
He reached Philadelphia the 27th of November, and on the next day had an audience of Congress. The President informed him that a committee was appointed to arrange the military establishment of the next year, and that he was requested to remain in Philadelphia to assist in this important business. At the consultations of this committee, the secretary at war, the minister of finance, and the secretary for foreign affairs assisted. The arrangements were made with dispatch, and on the 10th of December, Congress passed the resolves for the requisitions of men and money for the year 1782 upon the several states; and the personal intiuenico of the Commander in Chief was on this occasin used, to persuade the state governments seasonably to comply with the resolutions of Congress.
1782.] The first intelligence from the British government, after the surrender of Earl Cornwallis, indicated a design to continue the American war; but early in May, Sir Guy Carlton arrived at New York, to supercede Sir Henry Clinton as Commander in Chief of the British army ;, and he and Admiral Digby were appointed commissioners to treat with the United States upon terms of peace. He comunicated to General Washington a vote of the British Parliament against the prosecution of the American war;