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CHAPTER XI.

Inauguration of the President His Address to Congress.com Ano

swers of the two HousesThe Arrangements of his Household -His Regulations for Visitors-The Reasons of their adoption--- The Relations of the United States with Foreign Powers ---Congress establishes the Departments of the Government The President fills themHe visits New England-His Reception--Addresses to hinHis AnswersNegotiations with the Indians Treaty with the Creeks-War with the Wabash and Miamis TribesGeneral Harmar's expedition-St. Clair defeated-General Wayne victorious, and makes a Treaty with them--Second Session of Congress-Fiscal Arrangements of the Secretary of thé TreasuryIndisposition of the PresidentHe visits Mount VernonMeets Congress at PhiladelphiaHis Tour to the Southern States-- Second CongressThe President refuses his Signature to the Representative Bill-Contemplates rctiring to Private Life-Consents to be a Candidate for the Second Presidency.

1789.] IN adjusting the ceremonies of the inauguration of the President, Congress determined that the oath of office should be administered to him in an open gallery adjoining the hall of the Sepate. Accordingly on the 30th of April, General Washington attended, and, in view of a vast assemblage of people, was constitutionally qualified

for the administration of the government. On his · being proclaimed President of the United States,

reiterated acclamations testified the interest and the

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pleasure, which the attending multitude felt in the transaction.

The President immediately entered the Senate chamber and made the following speech to the two branches of the Legislature.

as

Fellow Citizens of the Senate, and of the House of

Representatives. “ Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order, and received on the 14th day of the present month. On the one hand, I was summoned by my country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest predilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision as the asylum of my declining years: A retreat which was rendered every day more necessary as well as more dear to me, by the addition of habit to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my health to the gradual waste committed on it by time. On the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the trust to which the voice of my country called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most experienced of her citizens, a distrustful scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm with despondence one, who, inheriting inferior endowments from nature, and unpractised in the duties of civil administration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver is, that it has been my faithful study

to collect my duty from a just appreciation of every circumstance by which it might be affected. · All I dare hope is, that if in accepting this task • I have been too much swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances, or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendant proof of the confidence of my fellow citizens ; and have thence

too little consulted my incapacity as well as dis· inclination for the weighty and untried cares before me; ny error will be palliated by the motives which misled ine, and its consequences be judged by my country, with some share of the partiality in which they originated.

- Such being the impressions under which I have, in obedience to the public summons, repaired to the present station, it would be peculiarly improper to omit in this first official act; my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being, who rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations, and whose providential aids can! supply every human defect, that his benediction may consecrate to the liberties and bappiness of the United States, a government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable every instrument employed in its administration, to execute with success, the functions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the great Author of every public and private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own; nor those of my fellow citizens at large, less than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hænd, which conducts the affairs of men,

more than the people of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency. And in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their united government, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities, from which the event bas resulted, cannot be compared with the means by wbich most governments, have been established, without some return of pious gratitude along with an humble anticipation of the future blessings which the past seem to presage. These reflections arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You will join with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence of which, the proceedings of a new and free government can more auspiciously commence.

" By the article establishing the executive dcpartment, it is made the duty of the President' to recommend to your consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.' The circumstances under which I now meet you, will acquit me from entering into that subject, further than to refer you to the great constitutional charter under which we are assembled; and which in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far mpre congenial with the feelings which actuate

me to substitute in place of a recommendation of particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honourable qualifications, I be-hold the surest pledges, that as on one side, no lo-cal prejudices or attachments, no separate views nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of communities and interests: So, on another, that the foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality; and the preeminence of a free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens, and command the respect of the world.

"I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my country can inspire; since there is no truth more thoroughly established, than that there exists in the economy and course of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness between duty and advantage-between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity. Since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right, which Heaven itself bas ordained: And since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government,

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