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government and people and their progress during the last decade. We have also introduced throughout the work a larger variety of topics, and a far greater copiousness of treatment, than will be found in any publication of this class which has preceded the present. Indeed, the purpose has been to exhibit, for immediate use and future reference, a complete representation of the actual condition of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT and the respective STATES, in their manifold interests, whether political, social, industrial, agricultural, commercial, financial, ecclesiastical, educational, or literary. We hope to present, for each year, in the National Almanac a faithful summary and analysis of the elements of our national life, and thus to make up a record which will possess the value, and merit the permanence, as it will assuredly contain the materials, of history.

On all topics connected with the present state of hostilities, special pains have been taken to insure fulness and reliability. Hence we have prepared a minute and accurate narrative of facts and events; and, in order to render the same complete, it has been carried back to the origin of the struggle, so that there may be found in this and the succeeding numbers of the National Almanac a detailed and unbroken diary of the occurrences of the war from its outbreak, and an obituary record of the officers who have fallen in the contest.

For the carefully prepared sketch of each of the coins of the United States we are indebted to the forthcoming new edition of Bouvier's Law Dictionary. The article was prepared for that work by the Hon. J. Ross Snowden, whose former official connection with the National Mint gives assurance of its entire accuracy. Our thanks are also due to A. Dallas Bache, LL.D., Joseph Henry, LL.D., Professor Gillespie, Professor Coppée, Hon. James Pollock, LL.D., Pliny Earle, M.D., W. V. McKean, Esq., the heads of the Departments at Washington, the Governors and Secretaries of the various States, and to other contributors and correspondents, who have kindly furnished aid and extended facilities to us in the preparation of the work. We regret that most of the valuable material transmitted by various officers of the army and navy reached us at a period too late for use in this volume. It is, however, duly appreciated, and will be embodied in our next year's issue.

The publisher will, at all times, be happy to receive contributions and suggestions from all who may feel an interest in the undertaking.

G. W. C.': PHILADELPHIA, January 1, 1863.

Note.—The National Almanac will hereafter be issued about the 15th of December of each year.

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73

United States.

Executive Government, Cabinet.....

Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Officers of the United States, from the Revolu-

tion to the present time.............

United States......................................................................................

Department of State.........

***.........................72-87

Ministers and Consuls in Foreign Countries.

Countries .............................................

Foreign Ministers and Consuls in the United States.............

82

War Department.....

.......... ............. ....... ....................................

.........88-104

.......00-10

Army List .............

90

Army Pay Table...........

102

Navy Department..........

05-120

Navy List.................................................................................................. 107

Navy Pay Table..........................

Treasury Department.........

................. 121-169

Finances and Resources of the United States.

139-147

United States Mint .........

....... 170-184

Post-Office Department........

.....................100UVU

....185-209

List of Postmasters in the United States..................

Interior Department............

....... 210-219

Judiciary, Supreme Court, &c................

.220-226

UOn r ess........................................................................ .....................227-202

Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws................................................................ 233-267

Appropriations by Congress for 1862 and 1863..

268

......................

Alphabetical Summary of Excise Tax................

.269-282

New Tariff....

........283-301

Laws relating to Direct and Excise Taxes ....

......... 301

Changes in Relative Position of States from 1790 to 1860.............

.302-303

Growth of the States.....

304–305

Progress of Population......

.. 306

Eighth Census of the United States, 1860....

...307-338

Condition of Banks in the United States, 1854 to 1862..................

............. 339

Prices of Leading Articles in the New York Market, 1855 to 1862...........

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THE

NATIONAL ALMANAC AND ANNUAL RECORD

FOR THE YEAR

1863,* Being the latter part of the 87th and the beginning of the 88th yoar of the Independence of the

United States of America; also,
The year 6576 of the Julian Period;

7371-72 of the Byzantine era;
5623–24 of the Jewish era;
2616 since the foundation of Rome, according to Varro;
2610 since the beginning of the era of Nabonassar, which has been assigned to Wednesday,

the 26th of February, of the 3967th year of the Julian Period, corresponding, according
to the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the astronomers, to the 746th year

before the birth of Christ; 2639 of the Olympiads, or the third year of the 680th Olympiad, commencing in July, 1861,

if we fix the era of the Olympiads at 775) years before Christ, or near the beginning

of July of the year 3938 of the Julian Period; 4 2175 of the Grecian era, or the era of the Seleucidæ;

1579 of the era of Diocletian. The year 1280 of the Mohammedan era, or the era of the Hegira, begins on the 18th of June, 1863.

The first day of Jannary of the year 1863 is the 2,401,507th day since the commencement of the Julian Period.

Chronological Cycles. Dominical Letter ...

....... D Solar Cycle...... Epact

...... 11 Roman Indiction................... ... Lunar Cycle or Golden Number.............. 2 Julian Period.....

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Seasons.

8. . Spring begins...... ........... .. Mar. 20, 9 21 P.M. Summer"

.... June 21, 554" | Moan time at Autumn “

... Sept. 23, 8 9 A.M. | Washington. Winter “ ...................... Dec. 22, 2 4 "

Movable Peasts and Fasts for 1863. Septuagesima Sunday................. Feb. 1. | Ascension Day

May 14. Ash Wednesday.. ... Feb. 18. Whit Sunday.

........... May 24. Palm Sunday....

Corpus Christi..

............ June 4. Faster Sunday ............................. Apr. 5. First Sunday of Advent................ Nov. 29.

........ Mar. 29

Eclipses.t
There will be four eclipses this year,-two of the Sun, and two of the Moon.

I. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, May 17, visible in Europe, the northern coast of Asia, and the northWestern part of North America. This eclipse is not visible in any of the United States except Minna

• Prepared for the National Almanac by Georgo Searle, Professor Naval Academy, Newport, R. I.

† The times given for the eclipses aro the local times of the places referred to, unless otherwise stated.

sota, California, and Oregon. The line north of which it is visible connects the western extremity of Lake Superior with Los Angeles, on the California coast. This eclipse

Begins on the Earth generally, May 17, 5h. 4m. A.M., in longitude 69° W. of Washington, and latitude 32° 57' N.

Ends on the Earth generally, May 17, 7h. 25m. P.m., in longitude 80° 0' E. of Washington, and latitudo 47° 13' N.

The greatest obscuration is about 7 digits, and takes place May 18, 1h. 27m. A.M., in longitude 156° 18' W. of Washington, and latitude 69° 18' N.

II. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, June 1, partially visible in the Atlantic States.
The times of this eclipse are as follows:

H. M.
First contact with the Penumbra...................... June 1, 3 41.1 P.M.)
4
Shadow..........

4 37.8 "
Beginning of Total Phase ............. . ****************

5 44.8" Middle of the Eclipse ...........................................

6 17.8 « Mean time at End of Total Phase ...........................................

6 50.8

Washington.
Last contact with the Shadow ..............******....

757.8
.*. " Penumbra ............

8 54.5" For any other place, the times will be obtained by adding its longitude from Washington to the above times if it is east, and subtracting it if it be west. But, as the longitudes in common use are given in degrees and minutes, we must turn them into time first, -remembering that each degree

sanal to fomr minntes of time, and each minute of longitude equal to four seconds of time.

III. An Annular Eclipse of the Sun, November 11, visible in the Antarctic Continent as annular, and in the southern extremity of Africa, and the southern coast of Australia, as a partial eclipse. This eclipse

Begins on the Earth generally, November 11, 5b. 14m. A.m., in longitude 67° 58' E. of Washington, and latitude 23° 0' S.

Ends on the Earth generally, November 11, 6h. 50m. P.M., in longitude 157° 13' W. of Washington, and latitude 420 30° 8.

Central eclipse at noon, in longitude 126° 32' E. of Washington, and latitude 80° 33' S.
IV. A Partial Eelipse of the Moon, November 25, visible throughout the United States.
The times of this eclipse are as follows :-

H. M.
First contact with the Penumbra................. November 25, 0 55.4 A.M.
5
" Shadow .........

2 7.6 “

Mean time at
Middle of the Eclipse .................

Washington.
Last contact with the Shadow .........

5 28.0 -
6
« Penumbra ..........

4 6 40.2 « J For any other place, the times will be obtained as for the other eclipse of the Moon, above. This eclipso will be nearly total, only one-seventieth of the Moon's disc remaining unobscured.

3 47.8

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Morning and Evening Stars. Venus will be evening star till September 25, then morning star for the rest of the year. Mars will be evening star till September 28, then morning star for the rest of the year. Jupiter will be morning star till April 12, then evening star till October 31, then morning star the rest of the year. Saturn will be morning star till March 23, then evening star till October 2, then morning star the rest of the year.

Visibility of Mercury.

This planet will be seen most easily for a few days about May 18, in the evening, when it sets about 1h. 58m. after the sun. On January 26, the interval between its setting and that of the sun reaches & maximum of about lh. 34m., and on September 5 of about Oh. 52m. On February 28, the interval between its rising and that of the sun reaches & maximum of about 1h. 12m,, and on October 27 of about 1h, 36m.

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