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excuse for

of Otterburn, whom she comniend

ed as a sure guide in the labour experience of a cultivated layman,
he was about to undertake.
five steps of the ladder corre- described, but from what the author
sponded to as many periods which had been told by his father, also
serve, four of them being histori- constantly in the active service of

The fifth and highest-le Edward I. and Edward II. in the
scinkisme bastoun--he was warned Scottish and Continental wars. This
not to attempt, for it embraced portion of the 'Scalacronica,' then,
the future, and he would only get forms a personal narrative, extend-
into difficulty if he attempted to ing over two generations of a
deal with the prophecies of Mer- period—the very heyday of chivalry
lin, Banister, and Thomas
captive knight set about his labours
at once, in the design of dividing to Gray by recent historians of the
the work into four books, com-
prising the periods, and compiled

from the authors, indicated by the !

!

hardly anything else to do at the and Sir Edward Grey, Bart.,
time”-he conceived the idea of M.P., of Falloden--namely, a scal:
making an abbreviated translation ing ladder or, hooked and pointed
of the chronicles of Great Britain. sable.
One night he dreamt that the Sibyl Were the 'Scalacronica' no more
appeared to him, accompanied by thana compilation from the sources,
a cordelier friar who supported a most of them well known, men-
ladder of five rungs. Mounting tioned by Gray in his Prologue,
the steps one by one, the Sibyl there would be no
showed the knight in succession detaining the readers of Maga'to
the works of Walter of Exeter, discuss it, although it amplifies
Gildas, Breda, John of Tynemouth, the brief allusions made by extant

writers to certain important events.
William of Malmesbury, Roger de

What impart to it special interest
Hoveden, and many others. She

are the original passages intro-
introduced the cordelier as Thomas

duced, not only from the personal

The actively engaged in the events enjoined to ob- named Sir Thomas Gray, who was

of --embracing the establishment of
Waking from his dream, the ing may be among the causes why

Scottish independence. The follow-
so little attention has been paid
fourteenth century.

The only
four lower rungs of the ladder. He exists in the library of Corpus
gave his manuscript ? the title of Christi at Cambridge.
Scalacronica,' or the ladder chron is the
icle-in allusion, no doubt, to his

same manuscript from

which John Leland made bis dream ; but inasmuch as this dream abstract in the first half of the is only a literary affectation, intro

sixteenth century, then we have duced as a prologue, such as John to deplore its grievous mutilaof Tynemouth prefixed to his ‘His tion since that time.

Had the toria Aurea,' the real reference was thief been content to abstract some to the crest of the Grey family, still of the contents of the first three carried by Earl Grey of Howick rungs of the ladder, we should

Sir Thomas was

cal.

A Soldier's Chronicle. have owed him little grudge : un- and slew the Sberiff, Gray got his luckily the rascal has purloined head broken, and, lying senseless, them from the fourth step, where was stripped to the skin and left Gray was writing of what was for dead. Luckily the warmth of passing daily under his watchful two houses, blazing one on either eyes, and the loss is irreparable. side of him, kept the life in him The annals of sixteen years, from till dawn, when William de Lurdy 1340 to 1355, have disappeared, found him, took him to shelter comprising such interesting events and ly fist garir — "made him as the institution of the Order of recover.” the Garter by Edward III., the Of the battle of Falkirk, where campaign of Creci, the siege and the power of Wallace was broken capture of Calais, the defeat of in 1298, the accounts have varied David II. at Neville's Cross, and hugely in respect to the losses of his long captivity.

the Scots. Walsingbam puts the Besides Leland's abstract, the number of slain at the preposonly part of the manuscript which terous figure of 60,000, and Hem. has been made public is that begin. ingburgh at 50,000. Both of ning with the Norman Conquest these writers were monks, and down to 1367, when the chronicle knew nothing except from bearsay; closes. This was admirably edited but it is significant of the awful by Father Joseph Stevenson for scale of that disaster that Gray, the Maitland Club, and published well accustomed to deal with miliin 1835; but the missing folios, tary figures, says that not less of course, are not included, and than 10,000 Scots perished. as only 108 copies were printed, After the defection of Robert Scalacronica' remains accessiblé de Brus, the national party in very few readers.

Scotland regarded John Comyn as The personal part of the narra- their chief-gardein et cheuetaine tive--the part, that is to say, de lour querel

. The success which which deals with events in which he obtained at Roslyn over Sir Thomas Gray, either the father or John de Segrave-Edward's lieuthe son, take part begins with a tenant in Scotland-in February brief but vivid account of the fa. 1303, made it necessary for the mous camisade with which Wallace king to undertake another ininaugurated his rising in 1297, In vasion. Gray accompanied the May of that year the elder Gray army, and describes how the royal was at Lanark in the suite of household found accommodation King Edward's Sheriff of Clydes at Dryburgh Abbey. But Sir dale. Gray calls him William de Hugh de Audley, not content with Hesilrig, but we know from an en- lying in a tent, rode on with Gray quiry held upon his effects in 1304 and sixty men-at-arms to Melrose, that the sheriff's real name was where they quartered themselves Andrew de Livingston." Prob- upon the abbot. It was a dear ably be owned lands called Hazel- night's lodging. The lynx-eyed rig, and the chronicler made a foresters of Ettrick marked where slip between the two Williams their foes had sought harbour about whom he was writing. aparceyroit lerbigage du dit Hugh Wallace made a night attack on mmstole into the town after nightthe town, surprised the garrison, fall

, burst open the doors of the

to

Ercildoune.

If this

1 Some doubts have been expressed whether a plain soldier could be found at that period capable of writing so much with his own hand.

It would be very unusual, no doubt ; but even if Gray employed an amanuensis, that would not impugn his authorship.

1 Documents relating to the History of Scotland (Bain), ii, 417.

have owed him little grudge : un and slew the Sheriff. Gray got his luckily the rascal has purloined head broken, and, lying senseless, them from the fourth step, where was stripped to the skin and left Gray was writing of what was for dead. Luckily the warmth of passing daily under his watchful two houses, blazing one on either eyes, and the loss is irreparable. side of him, kept the life in him The annals of sixteen years, from till dawn, when William de Lundy 1340 to 1355, have disappeared, found him, took him to shelter comprising such interesting events and ly fist garir — "made him as the institution of the Order of recover.” the Garter by Edward III., the Of the battle of Falkirk, where campaign of Creci, the siege and the power of Wallace was broken capture of Calais, the defeat of in 1298, the accounts have varied David II. at Neville's Cross, and hugely in respect to the losses of his long captivity:

the Scots. Walsingham puts the Besides Leland's abstract, the number of slain at the preposonly part of the manuscript which terous figure of 60,000, and Hemhas been made public is that begin- ingburgh at 50,000. Both of ning with the Norman Conquest these writers were monks, and down to 1367, when the chronicle knew nothing except from hearsay; closes. This was admirably edited but it is significant of the awful by Father Joseph Stevenson for scale of that disaster that Gray, the Maitland Club, and published well accustomed to deal with miliin 1835; but the missing folios, tary figures, says that not less of course, are not included, and than 10,000 Scots perished. as only 108 copies were printed, After the defection of Robert • Scalacronica' remains accessible de Brus, the national party in to very few readers.

Scotland regarded John Comyn as The personal part of the narra their chief-gardein et chevetaine tive--the part, that is to say, de lour querel. The success which which deals with events in which he obtained at Roslyn over Sir Thomas Gray, either the father or John de Segrave-Edward's lieuthe son, take part—begins with a tenant in Scotland-in February brief but vivid account of the fa- 1303, made it necessary for the mous camisade with which Wallace king to undertake another ininaugurated his rising in 1297. In vasion. Gray accompanied the May of that year the elder Gray army, and describes how the royal was at Lanark in the suite of household found accommodation King Edward's Sheriff of Clydes- at Dryburgh Abbey. But Sir dale. Gray calls him William de Hugh de Audley, not content with Hesilrig, but we know from an en- lying in a tent, rode on with Gray quiry held upon his effects in 1304 and sixty men-at-arms to Melrose, that the sheriff's real name was where they quartered themselves Andrew de Livingston. Prob- upon the abbot. It was a dear ably he owned lands called Hazel- night's lodging. The lynx-eyed rig, and the chronicler made foresters of Ettrick marked where slip between the two Williams their foes had sought harbourabout whom he was writing. aparceyvoit lerbigage du dit lugh Wallace made a night attack on -stole into the town after nightthe town, surprised the garrison, fall, burst open the doors of the

1

a

1 Documents relating to the History of Scotland (Bain), ii. 417.

abbey, and slew or made prisoners was struck in the face by a quarrel the whole party within. Sir from a heavy crossbow, which inThomas Gray was in a house out- flicted such a frightful wound that side the gate, which he held in his comrades bore him out of the hopes of a rescue till it began to fray, believing him to be dead. burn over his head, when he and A parade was formed for his his men were made prisoners also. burial, when somebody noticed a His ransom must have been movement in the supposed corpse. promptly paid, for he reappears at He revived, and eventually rethe siege of Stirling in the follow- covered (il comensa a mouoir et ing spring of 1304. Comyn and regardir et garry apres). his friends had made submission One is tempted to dwell on the at Strathord in February, and incidents of this siege, they are so Bruce was in the south, looking picturesquely described, and conafter the succession to his English vey such an excellent picture of estates,-finding, however, plenty Edward I., than whom nobody of time to devote to King Ed more thoroughly enjoyed life in ward's service, forwarding engines the trenches, or was more eagerly and munitions of war by sea for alive to the importance of having the campaign in Scotland. Daunt- the very latest inventions in less Sir Williain Oliphant — vn military science. He was so full jouen bacheler Descoce-disdained, of energy and fire that he was imsays Gray, to be bound by the patient of those who were more conditions submitted to by Comyn, leisurely. Just as he was setting but claimed to hold authority from out for Stirling, on March 4, he the Lion (se clamoit a tenir du wrote a stinging letter to the Earl Lioun), a somewhat obscure allu- of March, reproaching him for sion, wherein the lion seems to be want of energy in the pursuit of used figuratively to denote the Wallace. “We cannot conceive,” Scottish cause.

he said, "why you are so slow, Oliphant armed and provisioned unless it be to fulfil the proverbhis castle, and prepared to defy all the power of the mighty Edward.

Quant la guerre fu finee, 1

Si trest Audegier sespee.'
Wallace, almost the only other
commander still resisting the Eng. (When the war was over,

then
lish king, was at large in the Len- Audegier drew his sword.)” Who,
nox, with a heavy price on his by the bye, was Audegier, and
head. Oliphant was practically what is the allusion ?
single-handed in his splendid en It was natural enough that
terprise. The siege began. Gray Edward should urge on his gen-
was in the retinue of Sir Henry erals the importance of securing
de Beaumont, and his son describes Wallace, though a letter written
an exciting scene which took place by him the following day is not
during an assault on the barriers. such agreeable reading for Scots-
Among the engines of defence were It is addressed to Robert
some which flung grapnels (tenails) de Brus, Earl of Carrick, begging
among the assailants. The hooks him earnestly, “as the cloak is
of one of these grapnels fastened well made, so also to make the
on De Beaumont, who was being hood.” The meaning of this is
drawn rapidly over the wall, when shown by the context to be that
Gray dashed forward and relieved it was good to have quelled the
his chief. Immediately after, Gray rising of Comyn, De Soulis, Fraser,

and James the Steward; but the oriel window in a house in the business would not be complete town, whence the queen and ber till Wallace should be taken also. ladies might view the progress of Researches during recent years by the siege. For nineteen werks Messrs Bain, Stevenson, and others the fortress resisted the thundering have brought to light an immense missiles and streams of wild tire ; number of original letters and then, when all their provender was papers of this period, and one can- gone, Oliphant surrendered unconnot but reflect to what excellent ditionally. But Edward was not use Lord Hailes would have put quite satisfied. He sent word to this material in compiling his the garrison to get into shelter till Annals, and how he would have he tried a shot with his war-wolf rejoiced in the light therein re (tauntz il eit ferru ove le Lup de fected upon persons and events. guerre).

Very full details have thus been How clearly the scene rises bip. exhumed of the siege of Stirling, fore one! The eager king, inand the volumes of Historical tensely interested in the etfect of Documents' prepared from these the new machine, explaining its papers and printed by direction of merits to the ladies in the oritl; Parliament ought to be read side the groups of knights, profus. by side with Sir Thomas Gray's sionally critical; the straining narrative

. Edward set to work ropes and creaking wheels; the in earnest as soon as he had dis- stout men of Lincoln sweating solved his mid-Lent Parliament at under the July sun as they poiad St Andrews. He wrote to the the mighty missile ; then-silence! Prince of Wales, directing him to a sharp word of command, the obtain material for his siege-engines trigger is released, the wheels ily by stripping the lead from all the round, the rock goes hurtling church roofs between Perth and through the air, and plunges with Danblane, being careful to leave a a crash against the much-dinted covering over the altars. All this walls. Then what a buzz of com

material

, be it noted, was scrupu- ment and criticism, to be hushed lously paid for at a subsequent in turn as the order is given for date

. The siege-engines, thirteen the garrison to come forth, Oiof them, were tharoughly up to phant being the last to leave the date in the latest improvements

. gates

. They were brought before
Each bore a distinctive name, re- the queen, half - starved and in
gistered as precisely as that of a their rags, then shipped off to
battleship-the Lincoln and the various prisons in England, after
Segrave, the Robinet and the which, says Gray, the king held a
Kingston, the Vicar and the Par. grand tournament before breaking
son, the Berefrey, the Linlithgow, up his camp.
the Bothwell, the Prince, the

Among the prisoners taken in
Gloucester

, the Dovedale, and the Stirling was one Ralf de Halibur-
Tout-le-monde, besides a mighty ton. A line is drawn through his
“ war-wolf," the like of which had name in the list, apparently show-
never been seen.

ing that he had been released, and
Aloft

, on their precipitous rock, it is not unreasonable to identify William de Oliphant and his stout him with “le vallet qui espia Will garrison looked down on the de Waleys," and received a reward gathering storm. They could see of 40 merks. It is known from a the masons busy constructing an paper in the Arundel collection

VOL. CLX-NO, DCCCCLXXV.

men.

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nd James the Steward; but the oriel window in a house in the usiness would not be complete town, whence the queen and her ill Wallace should be taken also. ladies might view the progress of Researches during recent years by the siege. For nineteen weeks Iessrs Bain, Stevenson, and others the fortress resisted the thundering ave brought to light an immense missiles and streams of wild-fire; umber of original letters and then, when all their provender was apers of this period, and one can gone, Oliphant surrendered unconot but reflect to what excellent ditionally. But Edward was not se Lord Hailes would have put quite satisfied. He sent word to his material in compiling his the garrison to get into shelter till Annals, and how he would have he tried a shot with his war-wolf ejoiced in the light therein re- (tauntz il eit ferru ove le Lup de Lected upon persons and events. guerre).

Very full details have thus been How clearly the scene rises bexhumed of the siege of Stirling, fore one ! The eager king, innd the volumes of Historical tensely interested in the effect of Documents' prepared from these the new machine, explaining its apers and printed by direction of merits to the ladies in the oriel; Parliament ought to be read side the groups of knights, profesy side with Sir Thomas Gray's sionally critical ; the straining arrative. Edward set to work ropes and creaking wheels; the a earnest as soon as he had dis- stout men of Lincoln sweating olved his mid-Lent Parliament at under the July sun as they poised St Andrews. He wrote to the the mighty missile; then-silence ! Prince of Wales, directing him to à sharp word of command, the btain material for his siege-engines trigger is released, the wheels fly py stripping the lead from all the round, the rock goes hurtling hurch_roofs between Perth and through the air, and plunges with Dunblane, being careful to leave a a crash against the much-dinted overing over the altars. All this walls. Then what a buzz of commaterial, be it noted, was scrupu ment and criticism, to be hushed ously paid for at a subsequent in turn as the order is given for late. The siege-engines, thirteen the garrison to come forth, Olif them, were thoroughly up to phant being the last to leave the late in the latest improvements. gates. They were brought before Each bore a distinctive name, re the queen, half - starved and in istered as precisely as that of a their rags, then shipped off to attleship- the Lincoln and the various prisons in England, after egrave, the Robinet and the which, says Gray, the king held a Kingston, the Vicar and the Par- grand tournament before breaking on, the Berefrey, the Linlithgow, up his camp: he Both well, the Prince, the Among the prisoners taken in Hloucester, the Dovedale, and the Stirling was one Ralf de Halibur"out-le-monde, besides a mighty ton. A line is drawn through his

war-wolf,” the like of which had name in the list, apparently showever been seen.

ing that he had been released, and Aloft, on their precipitous rock, it is not unreasonable to identify Villiam de Oliphant and his stout him with “le vallet qui espia Will arrison looked down on the de Waleys," and received a reward athering storm. They could see of 40 merks.

of 40 merks. It is known from a ne masons busy constructing an paper in the Arundel collection VOL. CLXI. --NO, DCCCCLXXV.

D

that Wallace was arrested in the

son, and brought Comyn safely to house of one Rawe Raa, in Glas- Dumfries, where their brother gow; and this Rawe or Ralf may Robert was waiting for them. have obtained his liberty on con “Sir,” they said to their future dition of betraying Wallace. The king, “he gave us such a handobloquy of this deed has usually

some reception and such large been attached to Sir John de gifts, and won so upon us by his Menteith; but that knight was

open countenance, that we could Edward's Sheriff of Dunbarton, not bring ourselves to hurt him.” and would be doing no more than "Indeed," replied Robert; “you his duty in receiving Wallace when

are mighty particular,

Let me
brought to him for imprisonment. meet him.” (Voir, bien estez lectous,

The next point in the 'Scala- lessez moi convenir.)
cronica' which throws an original Then Bruce led Comyn before
light on historical events is an the altar, and Gray gives a lengthy
account of the circumstances of report of the interview, which, as
the murder of John Comyn by it is impossible that the substance
Robert de Brus. The statements could be known to any but the
of historians are so various and two principals, who, it is supposed,
irreconcilable on this subject that had drawn apart, is not worth
it would be hardly worth while repeating afresh. He mentions,
to add another, even under the however, that Sir Robert Comyn,
hand of a contemporary, but for immediately on his nephew falling
the curious fact that all Bruce's wounded, struck Bruce with his
biographers have overlooked or sword, which glanced from his
intentionally suppressed the story armour, and incontinently Sir
told by Gray. It is distinctly un Robert was cut down. The ampli-
favourable to Bruce, which tells tude of detail which Gray has put
all the more seriously against him, into this incident is in marked
because Gray generally writes in a contrast to the brevity of his
remarkably impartial way, taking, style in dealing with some of the
as a man of the world, a broad

most important transactions.
view of characters and actions.

There was plenty of work for Writing in his prison in Edin- the elder Gray in the long warburgh in 1355, forty-nine years fare brought about by Bruce's reafter an event of which he must volt, and it may be gathered from have heard his father's account, the public records how constantly Gray states that on the fatal 10th he was employed on the Borders of February Robert de Brus sent during these years.

But his son his two brothers, Thomas and has nothing to tell of his father's Neil, from Lochmaben to Dal- adventures till the spring of 1308. swinton, the residence of John The greatest of the Plantagenets Comyn, to invite him to an inter- had passed away before then, and view in the church of the Minorite

men had cause already to realise Friars at Dumfries. They were how little of his powerful spirit instructed to ride with Comyn, had descended on Edward of Carattack and kill him on the way.

Sir Thomas Gray was Comyn, however, received them so returning from the coronation of kindly and showed so much readi- Edward II. to the castle of Cupar, ness to ride with them and meet in Fife, of which he was governor, their brother, that Thomas and when a countryman warned him Neil thought shame of their trea- that Sir Walter de Bickerton -

51
1897.]
chiualer Descoce, qenherdaunt estoit Bras of Bannockburn--- Moray was
a Robert de Bruys-was lying in in command of a body of horse.
ambush for him with four hundred It could not be explained other.
men, about half a league farther wise how he was able to intercept
on. Gray's party contained only or overtake the cavalry of De
six-and-twenty men-at-arms. To Clifford and De Beaumont in their
these he explained the situation, attempt to reach Stirling Castle,
and with one voice they declared after they had got round the left
they would force the ambuscade. flank of the Scottish position, Un
The grooms and valets were di- the other hand, nobody could say
rected to fall behind ; a standard how Moray obtained cavalry for
was given to them, with instruc- the purpose, as it is known that
tions that they were on no account the only mounted troops in the
to show themselves till their Scottish army were the 500 lances
masters were engaged with the under Sir Robert de Keith. The
enemy. The clump of spears ditliculty is clearly explained in
moved on, and, as they had been 'Scalacronica.

'
warned, were fiercely attacked by According to Gray, it was the
De Bickerton's men. Gray was original intention of Edward II.,
ready for them ; down went the in advancing from Stirling, to
lances into rest, and the men-at- attack the Scots in their position
arins charged clean through the on the Bannock Burn on Sunday,
opposing force; wheeled, charged June 23. It is not quite clear
back, and again a tbird time. De whether Gloucester, in pressing
Bickerton's men had not bargained forward with the vanguard of
for this: they had reckoned on heavy cavalry, was aware that the
making an easy prey of such a main body had received orders to
small party. Just then the party halt on the rising ground about
of lads and grooms rode into view, Plean. At all events he held
the standard gaily Auttering above on his way – les iewes gentz
them. The Scots beat a retreat

, ne aresterent my tindrent lour
and, getting into bad ground, left chemyns--and the famous single-
nine score horses in a bog, which handed encounter took place be-
Gray extricated at leisure, and tween King Robert and Sir Henry
took home to his stables at de Bohun, or, as Gray avers, Piers
Cupar.

de Montfort. Meanwhile De
Perhaps the most interesting Clifford and De Beaumont had
episode in the elder Gray's ad been detached by Gloucester to
ventures related by his son was make their way with 300 horse?
his experience at Bannockburn. round the east flank of the Scots,
It is historically important, too, past the hamlet of St Sinians,
though it has received but little and effect communication with the
serious attention, and affords an garrison of Stirling. King Robert
insight into some of the circum- had foreseen this, and specially
stances of that great battle which charged his nephew, Randolph
have hitherto remained most ob- Moray, to prevent any such move,
scure. For instance, it has gene- ment. Now, Moray commanded
rally been assumed by historians the central of the three divisions
that

, in the skirmish on the day of the Scottish line, and from his
before the battle — the Quatre position commanded but an im-

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" Barbour says 800, but Gray is sure to be right in this instance.

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