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a Nickname commonly given to one born and bred in the City of London; also a fondling child, tenderly brought up and cocker'd." Phillips's New World of Words, 1670. The etymology of 'cockney' has not been determined; but it seems to me that both it and 'cocker' — of old spelled coker — are connected with 'cook' (but of course only indirectly with coquere) — of old spelled coke, — the essential idea in both being that of pampering the appetite and solicitously nourishing, and a cockney being originally one who is cockered or cooked for, and made a dainty, effeminate milksop. As the close connection between effeminacy and city breeding has been always recognised, this etymology would account for the signification which alone the word has now, and which, as we have seen, it had fully attained in Shakespeare's day. But whatever the origin of the word, it seems in this passage to be clearly used for 'Londoner' or * native' as opposed to 'stranger.' The original has, "this great lubber the world," — a palpable corruption to all who cannot accept Johnson's extraordinary exegesis that the Clown fears that "foppery and affectation will overspread the world." But can there be a doubt that 'lubberly word' was mistaken for * lubber ye world'? This correction was made by the present editor before he knew of the existence of Mr. Collier's folio of 1632, where, however, only the first part of it, 'lubberly' for 'lubber ye' appears; and where, of course, the partial change rests upon an entirely different apprehension of the passage.
8." after fourteen years' purchase" : — That is, after
paying an excessive price for it; twelve years' purchase having been the usual price of land in Shakespeare's day.
p. 219." though I struck him first": — The original has
"I stroke him first," in which, perhaps, as that form of the verb was used, it ought to be followed.
p. 220. "I am not tall enough," &c.: — Farmer, because of a supposed reference to good housekeeping in the last clause of the Clowns reply, and a required antithesis to «lean,' proposed, "lam not fat enough," and has been very generally followed. But the supposition is gratuitous, and the change inadmissible. The text has a clear and consistent meaning; and we may reasonably suppose the Clown to have been too small to assume the clerical office with dignity.
p.221. "Fie, thou dishonest Satan!" — In this passage all modern editors hitherto have printed Saihan. But why preserve this orthography here and not elsewhere? The name was almost universally spelled Sathan, and pronounced Satan. As to this sound of th, see the Introduction to Much Ado about Nothing and these Notes passim.
p. 221." and the clear stories " : — The original has
"cleere stones" an obvious typographical error for "cleere stories;" the clear story of a gothic building being that part lighted by windows in a wall which rises clear above the other parts of the structure: the correction was made by Blakeway, and appears also in Mr. Collier's folio of 1632.
p. 222." this sport to the upshot": — The folio omits
"to;" an error of the press hardly worth mentioning.
n "Hey Robin," &c.:— This ballad, of which the Clown sings snatches, is to be found in Percys Reliques.
p. 224. "Adieu, goodman Devil" :— Dr. Johnson would have read "goodman mean-evil" as a translation of Malvolio's name, and Farmer, "goodman drivil," to avoid a repetition which is of a kind common enough in Shakespeare's time. This is evidently a part of an old popular song: the allusion is to the Vice of the old Moralities. See the Account of the Rise and Progress of the English Stage, Vol. I.
"" there I found this credit": — i. e., this belief;
— the radical meaning of the word.
p. 225. "That is deceivable ": —i. e., able to deceive, deceitful.
;/ "While you are willing" : — i. e., until you are will
ing. The original has "whiles," which most modern editors retain. But throughout the folio that corrupt orthography is common, and there seems no reason for retaining it in one instance and not in the others.
ACT FIFTH. Scene I.
p. 226." conclusions to be as kisses," &c.:—It can hardly
be necessary to explain the Clown's allusion, —
Which they would have the profferer construe 'Ay.'" In this speech we have direct evidence of Shakespeare's acquaintance with the rule of English grammar with regard to double negation, which he continually violates, See the Note on "nor Nature never lends," (Measure for Measure, Act I. Sc. 1,) for an instance, at once osculatory and grammatical, from Sidney's Astrophel and Stella, in which "your four negatives makes your two affirmatives."
p. 228." but distraction" : — This line has its complement of ten syllables; 'distraction' furnishing four of them. See Note on " spruce affection." Love's Labour s Lost, Act V. Sc. 2. This pronunciation of words ending in ion obtained till toward the beginning of the last century. See Sir Charles Sedley's Mulberry Garden, 1675. "And 1 some meaner time might make thee oume The injustice of thy mean asperse-on."
Act IV. p. 58, ed. 1675.
"" in terms so bloody, and so dear" :—Johnson and Malone would have read "so dire;" but see the Note on "their own dear groans," Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. Sc. 2, and Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 2, «"Would I had met my dearest foe in Heaven!" 'Dear,' which, from meaning scarce, came to mean precious or highly rated, was applied superlatively in the latter sense as well to that which is pernicious as to that which is beneficial.
p. 230. "Like to the Egyptian thief" .- — Theobald gave from Heliodorus' Ethiopics the following synopsis of the story here alluded to : —
^ "This JEgyptian Thief was Thyamis, who was a Native of Memphis, and at the Head of a Band of Robbers. Theagenes and Chariclea falling into their Hands, Thyamis fell desperately in Love with the Lady, and would have married her. Soon after, a stronger Body of Bobbers coming down upon Thyamis's Party, He was in such Fears for his Mistress that he had her shut into a Cave with his Treasure. It was customary with those Barbarians, when they despair'd of their own Safety, first to make away with Those whom they held dear, and desired for Companions in the next Life. Thyamis, therefore, benetted round with his Enemies, raging with Love, Jealousy, and Anger, went to his Cave; and calling aloud in the JEgyptian Tongue, so soon as He heard himself answer'd towards the Cave's mouth by a Grecian, making to the Person by the Direction of her Voice, he caught her by the Hair with his left Hand, and (supposing her to be Chariclea) with his right Hand plung'd his Sword into her Breast."
A translation of Heliodorus had been published before this play was written.
p. 231. "A contract of eternal bond of love " : — Mr. Collier's folio of 1632 has "and eternal bond of love, — a plausible change, yet made doubtless because the construction of the text seemed old-fashioned to the corrector, or to the actor from whose lips he was in the habit of hearing the passage.
p. 232." and a passy measures paynim" : — Thus the original, except the obvious typographical error of panyn for "paynim," which, when the word was often spelled panym, was the slightest that could possibly occur. 'Paynim' = pagan, heathen, barbarian, was of old a common term of reproach; and Sir Toby, who uses another of a similar kind, «Catalan,' wishes to call Malvolio not only a paynim, but one passing measure = egregious, out of all bounds. Pope read "a past measure paynim," which expresses the knight's thought, but loses the whimsical conversion of his intended words, by his drunken tongue, into nonsensical gibberish. Sir John Hawkins explained 'passy measures' as a corruption of passamezzo, a favorite air in the days of Queen Elizabeth; and Malone, resting upon this explanation, and following in part the text of the second folio, "after a passy measures pavin I hate," &c, read "and a passy-measures pavin," — the pavin or pavan (from pavo = peacock) being a grave and stately dance — with the explanation that "Sir Toby means only by this quaint expression, that the surgeon is a rogue, and a grave andsolem?i coxcomb." This reading and explanation have been hitherto accepted. But the intentional calling of a man by the name of two dances is not quaint; and although it is absurd, it is not so with that whimsical and humorous sort of absurdity which Shakespeare, or even an inferior writer, would seek in such a situation. It has no drollery or character, and is simply senseless; whereas a drunken stumbling away from sense into nonsense, which yet has some likeness to what would be sense if it were appropriate, is droll and characteristic of the vinous condition. It is yet possible that the reading of the second folio, which is not entirely unsuited to Sir Toby's lips on this occasion, may give the true text. It is not disturbed in Mr. Collier's copy.
p. 233. "A natural perspective" :— ' Perspective' was applied to a glass, or any other aid to the sight.
p. 234. "I'll bring you to a captains" :— The original has "captain;" the correction, which is justified by " where '*' in the next line, was made in Mr. Collier's folio of 1632.
p. 235. "A most extracting frenzy" : — It occurred to Malone, as it must to every reader, that we might read «* detracting frenzy," and that change was found in Mr. Collier's folio of 1632; but in Shakespeare's day 'extracting' was used in a sense similar to that of 'distracting.' The second folio reads "exacting frenzy."
p. 235." has here writ," &c.: — So the original. Modern editors hitherto have read "he has here writ;" and the pronoun is found in Mr. Collier's folio of 1632. But it was common to omit 'he' as a nominative when it had occurred as such in an immediately precedent clause of the sentence. Numberless instances might be quoted.
""How now, art thou mad f " — Notes incomprehensibly from the purpose, even in editions of the present day, justify the otherwise impertinent exegesis, that the Clown, — beginning to read Malvolio's letter, which commences, "By the Lord, Madam, you wrong me, and the world shall know it," — as he utters the first four words, is instantly reproved by Olivia for his supposed profanity in her presence. What is his reply? — "I do but read madness." So in Ivanhoe, when the Templar begins to read the summons sent to Torquilstone, "I Wamba, the son of Witless," &c, Front de Boouf exclaims, "What! art thou mad?" See also the next two speeches. "You must allow vox," is the Clown's whimsical way of saying 'you must let me speak.'
p. 237." geek and gull" : — «Geek' is still used in the
North of England for 'fool.'
"" thou cam'st in smiling" : — The original has
"then cam'st," &c, from which no sense can be extracted. The obvious typographical error was strangely left for Zachary Jackson to point out, and has been hitherto retained. As he well remarks, the ou in manuscript might be easily mistaken for en. Indeed, in reading the best manuscript of Shakespeare's day, the closest examination can with difficulty distinguish one from the other. Then, the bow of e, usually very small, was turned to the left instead of the right.
p. 238." Sir Toby's great importance ": — i. e., importunity.
"" some have greatness thrown upon them " : —
Mr. Collier's folio of 1632 has "thrust upon them;" but it is not necessary or natural that the Clown, quoting from memory what he has heard but once, should be letter perfect.