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and myriads move with no freedom, although, in another sense,
political cunning is little prepared for.' Meanwhile the com-
and all his is his own ! Such are the naked facts of the case.
distance of time, may be anticipated. Many factories have been erected by the government; and many more by princes, counts, and barons. The greater concerns seem to be altogether passing into their hands. Many nobles have already succeeded by these means in clearing off the incumbrances
from their vast estates, and so releasing themselves from their dependence on court favor. Their serfs are at once workmen ' and machines,' under the auspices of this singular spectacle of a twofold titled class, passing their nights in palaces and their days in counting-houses; all this, too, with an absolute master watching the entire concern, for the success of which none can be so deeply concerned as himself. Meanwhile the rapid multiplication of the nobility is a matter of much statistical interest. The European provinces contain within Russia alone about 540,000 hereditary, and 160,000 personal nobles, making up 700,000 individuals,-a seventieth part of the whole population. In Poland, there were in 1837 no less than 283,420 nobles, or about one fourteenth portion of her total inhabitants. Hungary, as is well known, presents a somewhat similar spectacle.
The burgher-class in Russia is rising very gradually; for the inhabitants of the towns (exclusive of Poland), according to the last census, of the middle and lower classes, amounted to 4,175,869 persons; of which only 251,961 belonged to the commercial families, and 2,773,416 to the guilds of handicraft and tradesmen. The whole number of burghers in 1834, according to the journal of the home department, was 835,071. Five years later (1839) the entire number of Russian merchants was 36,617, of which only 889 were in the first guild, with a declared trading capital of £1,932,608; 1874 merchants were in the second guild, with £1,630,000 ; 33,808 were in the third guild, with a capital of £11,759,300 ; besides which there were 46 foreigners with a capital of £100,000. Add to these 5299 trading peasants, the nature of whose traffic is accurately defined by their trading certificate; only 22 of these belonged to the first two, the remaining 5277 fell into the third and fourth classes. In the class of peasants were included the military settlers and their families, the Cossacks, Calmucks, and Baschkirs; their united numbers were of. ficially reckoned at 1,932,165. The same documents for that year gave 44,826,288 as the number of individuals belonging to the class of peasants; of which 21,463,993 were the property of the crown, and 23,362,595 belonged to different landed proprietors.'--pp. 180, 181.
With respect to spiritual matters, the emperor, as we have already perceived, is head of the Greek Catholic church, comprising within the limits of Russia Proper about nine-elevenths of the population, or 45,000,000. A religious war of conquest has been for nearly half a generation going forward against the Romanists, as wet as the Armenians. The old Greek Roman
Union, on the terms that, retaining the Greek forms, the pope
may fall into good ground, and in time may send forth bloom‘ing fruits amidst the widely-extended field of tares. Their effects may be looked for long after the present races shall ' have passed away from the face of the earth.'
We have only space left us for glancing cursorily at the Forces, the Finances, and the probable. Foreign Policy of Nicholas and his immense empire. The two vast armies, existing down to 1835, have since that year been consolidated into one, with a considerably reduced staff in consequence. Its subdivisions consist of six corps of infantry, each 48,000 strong, with 12,000 cavalry attached to it, and 120 pieces of artillery.
south and west Russia, are said to have undergone no slight improvement. The forests cover 486,000,000 acres of ground, of which 326,000,000 are crown property,—notwithstanding, too, that vast injury has been inficted upon many of them through immoderate or injudicious cutting. The average export of timber may be stated at £400,000 per annum, of which at least a moiety comes to ourselves. Manufacturing skill is in its transitionary state, perhaps requiring factitious protection, until the different products attain greater excellence. The number of manufactories has augmented prodigiously, from 2270 in 1801, to 3724 in 1820, to 6450 in 1837, and to 6855 in 1838, employing 412,931 masters and workmen. Of these establishments 606 were for woollen goods, 227 for silks, 446 for weaving, 1918 for leather-dressing, 444 for candle-making, 486 for metallic hardware, and the rest for saltpetre, sugar, potash, chemical, color, tobacco, and paper works. The internal trade circulates through the means of such busy and crowded fairs as are held at Novogorod, whither goods are often brought to the value of nearly £8,000,000, of which at least one-tenth comes from China ! The five other fairs of Korennaja, Irbit, Rostow, Kretchensk, and Romny, in the governments respectively of Kursk, Perm, Poltawa, and Jakutzk, presented wares, taken altogether, in 1838, to the estimated amount of £2,500,000. The total of Russian imports from foreign countries for 1838 came to something under £11,000,000, of which one-twelfth came by land; one-fourth consisted of consumables, one-half was for the use of manufactories, and one-fourth was manufactured goods. The gross exports for the year 1838 came to nearly £14,000,000, of which a fifth passes through Riga, a tenth through Odessa, a twentieth through Archangel and Taganrog:
As to Foreign Policy, the able diplomacy of the cabinet at St. Petersburg has grown into a proverb all over Europe. It cannot be reproached with losing by the pen what was won with the sword.' Scions of the aristocracy must consult national and not class interests there, or else they quickly find their
way to the snows and wildernesses of Siberia. Nature herself seems to have traced the boundaries of a stupen. dous empire within the Baltic, the Icy Sea, the Ural Mountains, the Caspian, the Caucasian range, the Black Sea, and the Carpathians : in the west alone she left it open for the arms and policy of nations to diminish or increase its extent: for Siberia Proper can only be regarded as a wide and waste court-yard attached to the main edifice of the Russian state: but southern Siberia is capable of improvement, and will probably serve as a base of operations from whence European culture may penetrate into central Asia, which, though now benumbed, is not hopelessly dead. When the Russian power reached the gates