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Though he had bit me, should have stood that night
Against my fire; And wast thou fain, poor father,
To hovel thee with swine, and rogues forlorn,
In short and musty straw? Alack, alack!
'Tis wonder, that thy life and wits at, once
Had not concluded all.3—He wakes; speak to him.

I have endur'd
" Another night would tire a perdu,

“ More than a wet furrow and a great frost.” Again, in Cartwright's Ordinary:

as for perdues,
« Some choice sous’d fish, brought couchant in a dish
“ Among some fennel or some other grass,

“ Shows how they lie i’ th' field." Steerens. In Polemon's Collection of Battles, printed by Bynneman, p. 98, an account of the battle of Marignano is translated from Jo. vius, in which is the following passage: :-" They were very chosen fellowes taken out of all the Cantons, men in the prime cf youth, and of singular forwardenesse: who by a very auntient order of that country, that by dooyng some deede of passyng prowesse they may obtaine rare honour of warrefare before they be growen in yeares, doe of themselves request all perillous and harde pieces of service, and often use with deadlye praise to runne unto proposed death. These men do they call, of their immoderate fortitude and stoutnesse, the desperats forlorne hopen, and the Frenchmen enfans pordus: and it is law full for them, by the prerogative of their prowesse, to beare an ensigne, to have conducte and double wages all their life long. Neyther are the forlorne knowen from the rest by anye other inarke and cognisance than the plumes of white feathers, the which, after the manner of captaines, they doe tourn behinde, waveryng over theyr shoulder with a brave kynde of riot."

Again, in Bacon's Apology, touching the late Earl of Essex, 12mo. 1651, p. 105: “ — you have put me like one of those that the Frenchmen call Enfans perdus that serve on foot before horsemen.”

Reed. Amongst other desperate services in which the forlorn hope or en. fans perdus, were engaged, the night-watches seem to have been a common one. So, Beaumont and Fletcher:

“ I am set here like a perilu,

- To watch a fellow that has wrong'd my mistress.” Little French Lawyer, Act II, sc.ii. Whalley. With this t’in helm?] With this thin covering of hair. Malone.

Mine enemy's dog,] Thus the folio. Both the quartos read, Mine injurious dog. Possibly the poet wrote-Mine injurer's dog.

Steevens. 3 Had not concluded all.] It is wonder that thy wits and life had not all ended. Johnson. So, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, c. viii:

Ne spared they to strip her naked all."


Phys. Madam, do you; 'tis fittest.
Cor. How does my royal lord? How fares your ma-

Lear. You do me wrong, to take me out o’the grave:
Thou art a soul in bliss; but I am bound
Upon a wheel of fire, that mine own tears
Do scald like molten lead.

Sir, do you know me? Lear. You are a spirit, I know; When did you die? Cor. Still, still, far wide! Phys. He's scarce awake; let him alone awhile. Lear. Where have I been? Where am I?--Fair day

light?-I am mightily abus’d.--I should even die with pity, To see another thus.--I know not what to sayI will not swear, these are my hands:-let's see; I feel this pin prick. 'Would I were assur’d Of my

condition, Cor.

O, look upon me, sir,
And hold your hands in benediction o'er me:-
No, sir, you must not kneel.5

Pray, do not mock me:6
I am a very foolish fond old man,
Fourscore and upward ;; and, to deal plainly,
Again, in Timon of Athens :

“ And dispossess her all.Steevens. 4 I am mightily abusod.] I am strangely imposed on by appear

I am in a strange mist of uncertainty. Fuhnson. 5 No, sir, you must not kneel.] This circumstance I find in the old play on the same subject, apparently written by another hand, and published before any edition of Shakspeare's tragedy had made its appearance. As it is always difficult to say whether such accidental resemblances proceed from imitation, or a similarity of thinking on the same occasion, I can only point out this to the reader, to whose. determination I leave the question. Steevens.

The words, No, sir, are not in the folio. Malone.
6 Pray, do not enock me :] So, in The Winter's Tale, Act V:

Let no man mock me, " For I will kiss her.” Steevens. 7 Fourscore and upward;] Here the folio (and the folio only) adds -not an hour more or less. The authenticity of this passage Sir Joshua Reynolds justly suspects. It was probably the interpolation of some player, and is better omitted, both in regard to sense and versification.

Steevens. The words not an hour more or less, are judiciously reprobated by


I fear, I am not in my perfect mind.
Methinks, I should know you, and know this man;
Yet I am doubtful: for I am mainly ignorant
What place this is; and all the skill I have
Remembers not these garments; nor I know not
Where I did lodge last night: Do not laugh at me;
For, as I am a man, I think this lady
To be my child Cordelia.

And so I am, I am.
Lear. Be your tears wet? Yes, 'faith. I pray, weep

If you have poison for me, I will drink it.
I know, you do not love mé; for your sisters
Have, as I do remember, done me wrong:
You have some cause, they have not.

No cause, no cause.
Lear. Am I in France ?

In your own kingdom, sir. Lear. Do not abuse me.

Phys. Be comforted, good madam: the great rage You see, is cur’do in him: [and yet it is danger To make him even o'er the time he has lost.?]


Mr. Steevens as the interpolation of some foolish player. We should therefore read:

Fourscore, and upward; and, to deal plainly with you. Ritson. $ I fear, I am not in my perfect mind.] The quarto reads:

I feur, I am not perfect in my mind. Johnson. So one of the quartos. The other reads according to the present text. Steevens.

is curd -] Thus the quartos. The folio reads:

is kill'd. Steevens.

[and yet &c.] This is not in the folio. Fohnson. 2 To make him even o'er the time he has lost.] i.e. To reconcile it to his apprehension. Warburton.

The uncommon verb—to even, occurs again in Cymbeline, Act III, sc. iv:

"There's more to be consider'd; but we 'll even

“ All that good time will give us." The meaning there seems to be, we will fully employ all the time we have. So here the Physician says, that it is dangerous to draw from Lear a full relation of all that he felt or suffered while his reason was disturbed ; to make him employ as much time in the recital of what has befallen him as passed during his state of insanity.

Malone. I believe, Dr. Warburton's explanation is just. The poor old king:

Desire him to go in; trouble him no more,
Till further settling.

Cor. Will’t please your highness walk ?

You must bear with me: Pray now, forget and forgive: I am old, and foolish.

[Exeunt LEAR, Cor. Phys. and Attendants. [Gent. Holds it true, sir,3 That the duke of Cornwall was so slain? Kent.

Most certain, sir. Gent. Who is conductor of his people? Kent.

As 'tis said,
The bastard son of Gloster.

They say, Edgar,
His banish'd son, is with the earl of Kent
In Germany.

Kent. Report is changeable.
'Tis time to look about; the powers o'the kingdom
Approach apace.

Gent. The arbitrement is like to be a bloody. Fare you well, sir.

[Exit. Kent. My point and period will be throughly wrought, Or well, or ill, as this day's battle 's fought.] [Exit.

had nothing to tell, though he had much to hear. The speaker's meaning therefore I conceive to be-it is dangerous to render all that passed dur the interval of his insanity, even (i. e. plain or level,) to his understanding, while it continues in its present state of uncertainty. Steevens.

3 Holds it true, sir,] What is printed in crotchets is not in the folio. It is at least proper if not necessary; and was omitted by the author, I suppose, for no other reason than to shorten the representation.

Fohnson. It is much more probable, that it was omitted by the players, after the author's departure from the stage, without consulting him. His plays have been long exhibited with similar omissions, which render them often perfectly unintelligible. The loss however is little felt by the greater part of the audience, who are intent upon other matters.



The Camp of the British Forces, near Dover.
Enter, with Drums and Colours, EDMUND, REGAN,

Officers, Soldiers, and Others.
Edm. Know of the duke, if his last purpose hold;
Or, whether since he is advis'd by aught
To change the course: He's full of alteration,
And self-reproving :-bring his constant pleasure.5

[To an Officer, who goes out.
Reg. Our sister's man is certainly miscarried.
Edm. 'Tis to be doubted, madam.

Now, sweet lord, You know the goodness I intend upon you: Tell me,—but truly,—but then speak the truth, Do you not love my sister? Edm.

In honour'd love. [Reg. But have you neveró found my brother's way To the forefended place ?? Edm.

That thought abuses you.

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of alteration,] One of the quartos reads

of abdication. Steevens.

his constant pleasure.] His settled 'resolution. Johnson. So, before :

“ We have this hour a constant will" &c. See p. 135, n. 4. Steevens.

6 But have you never &c.] The first and last of these speeches, printed within crotchets, are inserted in Sir Thomas Hanmer's, Mr. Theobald's, and Dr. Warburton's editions; the two intermediate ones, which were omitted in all others, I have restored from the old quartos, 1608. Whether they were left out through negligence, or because the imagery contained in them might be thought too luxuriant, I cannot determine ; but sure a material injury is done to the character of the Bastard by the omission ; for he is made to deny that flatly at first, which the poet only meant to make him evade, or return slight answers to, till he is urged so far as to be obliged to shelter himself under an immediate falsehood. Query, however, whether Shakspeare meant us to believe that Edmund had actually found his way to the forefended place? Steevens.

forefended place?] Forefended means prohibited, forbidden. So, in King Henry VI, P. I:

Now, heaven forefend! the holy maid with child ?" Steevens. 8 That thought abuses you.] That thought imposes on you: you

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