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aid of steam and electricity. We are accustomed to the length of the President's Message, as compared with the scanty speeches delivered by European monarchs to their assembled Houses, Chambers, or Landtags; but the variety of topics, national and international, which the President is oalled upon to consider, and to present to his countrymen, is an ample justification for a deviation from the routine of ancient governments. The author of the Report before us may quote Parliamentary Bluebooksas a precedent for the ample manner in which he discourses upon the subject he has chosen; but though we have often in those ponderous tomes found copious food for consideration and digestion, we have never met with that succulence and artistic display which meets us here.
It is a new feature, too, to see works like the one before us published in another country than that for which it is specially intended; until at least the public press and public opinion shall have put a stamp upon the work which removes it from the category of mere reports, and shows that the arguments and facts tl'at it contains have a wider bearing than the title alone might imply. In the volume before us, London is put very prominently and in large capitals upon the title-page; while New York, the real place of publication, and the place which is supposed to be specially concerned in the Report, vanishes into an insignificance of type which may be complimentary to Englishmen, but is not unlikely to rouse the bile of our irritable cousins. We are great advocates for the freest interchange of opinions, and wish to see a community of thought and feeling fostered and perpetuated on both sides of the Atlantic, and shall therefore be glad to find a more real reciprocity established between the literary men and publishers of the United States and Great Britain than we have hitherto enjoyed; but we protest at the same time against having American or any other works foisted upon us as literary and scientific productions, which, under the guise of an official report or of a philanthropic scheme, pander to prurient and morbid imaginations. We know full well that it is necessary at times to purify the moral atmosphere by painful and disgusting proceedings; we have not shrunk from handling subjects in these pages that' we would willingly have refrained from, but for a feeling of duty. Moral disease may no more be ignored in a Review like this than physical disease, even when they are not as intimately associated as they are in the subject under consideration; but as the sons of Noah walked backwards as they covered the nakedness of their father, so, too, when we have recognised a foul spot in our country, though seeking to prevent its contagion either to ourselves or to our contemporaries, by neutralizing its effluvia, or by burning out the unhealthy tissues, we would not unnecessarily and profanely expose it to public gaze. Much less is it requisite to bring forward prominently the evidence that such plague-spots have existed in all nations, and to show how mankind have fostered and perpetuated them at all times, unless by so doing some moral purpose is gained. In the work before us there is not a tittle of evidence to prove that the author has pursued such a purpose; and, whatever his intentions may have been, we maintain that his details of the forms and varieties in which prostitution has existed at all times and in all nations, can serve no other end than that of stimulating a depraved appetite.
We all know, even the Governors of the Almshouse of the city and county of New York must know, that there is, and ever has been, no more prevalent vice than prostitution; what the history of prostitution, the details of the manner in which it was or is carried on in Palestine, in Egypt, Greece, Rome, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Algeria, England, and other countries, have to do with the measures to be employed for its prevention, or the cure of its results, in New York, Dr. Sanger does not inform us. But we do see that it is the intention of the parties connected with the work that this "History of Prostitution" should be sold in England, if possible; and it is because we desire, as far as in us lies, to prevent the circulation of such a work, that we devote as much attention and as much space to it as we do.
The chapters that are specially devoted to the consideration of the subject as it affects New York can have no peculiar interest for our readers, and the suggestions offered by the author may be summed up in this, that they are a recommendation to adopt, as far as possible, a system of control similar to that existing in Paris. The moral aspects of the question, the real causes of the extent and spread of the vice, the influence of education in promoting or checking it, are not even glanced at. Our own views have too recently been put before our readers to render it necessary to go fully into the subject again; but we cannot refrain from placing once more on record the concluding remarks which we then made, and which we recommend to the Governors of the Almshouse of the city and county of New York, no less than to all governments who have the real welfare of their subjects at heart.
"The grand battle, however, with prostitution must, we are convinced, be fought in the heart of man himself; there alone can the labour of regeneration be worked out. Instruct the young better to regulate their passions. Bring men to a true knowledge of what the thing called prostitution really is. Teach them to judge it as a crime, and to shun it as a dishonour. Strive to assuage idl those many miseries of society which drive the wretched into crime. Struggle against the unrighteous fallacies forced by fashion upon the world around us. Thrust the seducer from decent life, as you would expel the slave-dealer from your home. Set the brand of society's scorn upon him. Here is the field of labour, and herein every one of us may work successfully; and these and such like are the lessons, in the teaching of which our profession can act well the instructor's part; and so lead society to struggle successfully against this pernicious enemy of the souls and bodies of mankind."*
Art. VI.—Brief Exposition of Rational Medicine; to which is prefixed, the Paradise of Doctors: a Fable. By Jacob Bi-elow, M.D., late President of the Massachusetts Medical Society, Physician of the Massachusetts General Hospital, &c.— Boston, 1858. pp. 69.
The title of this little book, and its dedication to Sir John Forbes, as the author of 'Nature and Art in the Cure of Disease,' sufficiently indicate its scope. It is a succinct and modest statement of the medical creed which directs the scientific and practical views entertained by Dr. Bigelow, and though not likely to bo extensively read in this country, we may express our satisfaction at seeing such excellent doctrine so well and clearly expounded in a country where the extreme of medical interference is more likely to be favoured than the extreme of loissez aller.
The following extract contains the quintessence, the crime de la crime of our author's views:—
"Anatomy, physiology, and to a certain extent pathology, may be considered, so far as our discoveries have advanced, to be entitled to rank with the exact sciences. But therapeutics, or the art of treating diseases, like ethics and political economy, is still a conjectural study, incapable of demonstration in many of its great processes, and subject to various and even opposite opinions in regard to the laws and means which govern its results.
"The methods which at the present day are most prevalent in civilized countries in the treatment of disease, may be denominated the following:
"1. Tfle Artificial method, which, when carried to excess, is commonly termed heroic, and which consists in reliance on artificial remedies, usually of an active character, in the expectation that they will of themselves remove diseases.
"2. The Expectant method. This consists simply in non-interference, leav.ing the chance of recovery to the powers of nature, uninfluenced by interpositions of art.
"3. The Homaopathic method. This is a counterfeit of the last, and consists in leaving the case to nature, while the patient is amused with nominal and nugatory remedies.
"4. The Exclusive method, which applies one remedy to all disease, or to a majority of diseases. This head includes hydropathy, also the nse of various mineral waters, electrical establishments, &o. Drugs newly introduced, and especially secret medicines, frequently boast this universality of application.
"6. The Rational method. This recognises nature as the great agent in the cure of diseases, and employs art as an auxiliary, to be resorted to when useful or necessary, and avoided when prejudicial."
While we claim to be rational physicians, and, as far as we gather from Dr. Bigclow's volume, entirely agree with his estimate of medicines, of regimen, of diet, and of the
• British and Foreign Meico-Chlrurglcal Review, April, 1S58.
powers of nature, we could wish some more definite term than the latter selected to convey the author's meaning. Rousseau -and his followers put as forced an inteqiretation upon nature as a homceopathist or a mesmerist of recent days does; and we fear that it would be difficult to define nature in a medical sense more satisfactorily than the French philosopher. Wc attach a more definite meaning to the word "physiology," and its derivative, "physiological," and as technical language is unavoidable, it is well to use such terms only as shall leave room for as little ambiguity as possible. Physiological pathology, physiological medicine, the physiological laws which govern the body, are terms derived from what Dr. Bigelow himself admits to be one of the exact sciences. If Dr. Bigelow will kindly accept our suggestion, and modify his definition of the rational method accordingly, he will remove the only objection which we have to raise to his little volume, which we sincerely trust will be extensively circulated in the United States.
Art. VII.— Veterinary Medicines, their Actions and Uses; with a copious Appendix on the Diseases of the Domesticated Animals. By Finlay Dun, V. S., formerly • Lecturer on Materia Mcdica and Dietetics at the Edinburgh Veterinary College. Second Edition.—Edinburgh, 1859. pp. 520.
Truly Edinburgh bids fair to outstrip all competitors in the race «f veterinary science, as it has long rivalled the most important schools of the world in human medicine. Only in our last number we introduced to our readers Mr. Garagee's 'Veterinarian's Vade-Mecum,' and in the previous number we had occasion to notice the ' Quarterly Veterinary Review,' both works of high merit, and issuing from the northern metropolis. We now bring before them the second edition of a valuable work on veterinary materia medica, which not six years ago was first presented to the public. By far the greater part of the volume (408 pages) is devoted to the consideration of medicines and their properties, the remainder of the work is an appendix, in which the author gives a brief account of the diseases to which domestic animals arc subject, and their appropriate treatment.
The medicinal substances employed in veterinary surgery are arranged alphabetically, according to their English names; under each head, after giving the history and mode of preparation of the drug, with such chemical information as may be necessary to the veterinarian,the author analyses the physiological and pathological effects; the mode of exhibition and the dose constitute the concluding section of each chapter.
In the introductory part, the theory of the action of medicines is discussed, and here, as throughout.the work, Mr. Finlay Dun proves himself to be well acquainted with the researches of modern science, while his own practical experience, of which evidence is frequently afforded, raises the work above the rank of a mere compilation. In the field of therapeutics, where so much is yet uncertain, the veterinarian may often be able to enlighten the physician, and we doubt not that many of our readeTg would gather useful suggestions as to the theory and practice of the healing art in the diseases of man, from Mr. Finlay Dun's well-digested and well-written work.
Art. VIII.—1. The Pathology and Treatment of Stricture of the Urethra, and Urinary Fistula. By Henry Thompson, F.R.C.S., M.B., London, Assistant-Surgeon to University College Hospital, ifcc. Second Edition.—London, 1858. pp. 417.
2. The Pathology and Treatment of Stricture of the Urethra. By John Harrison, F.R.C.S. Second Edition.—London, 1858. pp. 108.
3. On Stricture of the Urethra, including an Account of Perineal Abscess, Urinary Fistula, and Infiltration of Urine. By Samuel G. Wilmot, M.D., Fellow and Member of Council of the Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland, Ac. ifec.—Dublin, 1858. pp.219.
Notwithstanding the number of works that continue to appear on stricture^a practical work, embodying in a small compass all that is known on the subject, is still, perhaps, a desideratum for the student. This want Dr. Wilraot has endeavoured to supply. In the first chapter he treats of the division of stricture, and its pathology. The muscularity of the urethra is fully considered, and the part it plays in certain morbid phenomena. The situation of stricture, its causes and symptoms, form the subject of the second chapter, and here the different kinds of urinary fever are considered, together with the differential diagnosis of stricture. The third chapter is devoted to the results of stricture. The remaining chapters have to do with the treatment of different forms of stricture, of the impediments and complications met with in the treatment. _ We are very glad to sec Dr. Wilmot's work in its present form, and cordially recommend it to the notice of students of medicine.
Mr. Harrison's work we have already had occasion to notice. It is clearly and distinctly written, is practical throughout, and well adapted for the use of the surgeon engaged in general practice who wishes to be informed in a few words what he is to do in any particular case.
Mr. Thompson's work, the first edition of which we have also formerly noticed at length, contains a much more circumstantial and detailed account of the diseases of the urethra than either of the other works which we have inentioned. It is illustrated by thirty-nine well-executed wood engravings, and contains a considerable amount of new and original matter. We would particularly notice in this respect a careful collection of cases in which Mr. Syme's operation by external division of the stricture has been performed by various surgeons. The mortality from this operation Mr. Thompson makes about six per cent.; but upon this subject it is importantsto notice, that in none of the works above mentioned, nor, in fact, in any of the surgical works at present published in London, is a clear distinction drawn between those cases in which Mr. Syme's operation is admissible and those in which it is not.
According to Mr. Syme's own description of his operation, it appears evident that he makes his incision into the urethra in front of the membranous portion, and as he then cuts forward, it is equally clear that he leaves both the membranous portion of the urethra and the deep perineal fasciae uninjured. Now, this mode of operating is obviously adapted only for cases in which the stricture is in front of the membranous portion. To attempt to apply this operation to any other kind of stricture is obviously 1o confound together two essentially different operations, and we strongly suspect that the greater mortality that has occurred in the practice of some surgeons than in that of others has depended upon this want of discrimination.
No one is better aware than Mr. Thompson of the different positions in which stricture occurs, for, as he himself informs us (p. 82), he has himself submitted to close and careful inspection not less than three hundred preparations of stricture of the urethra. Mr. Thompson's first class includes strictures which occur in the canal an inch before and three-quarters of an inch behind the junction of the spongy and membranous portions (p. 83): a more practical division would be into strictures which involve the membranous portion of the urethra and those which do not. The latter.kind are alone proper cases for Mr. Syme's operation, and if restricted to these we believe the mortality resulting from the operations which have been performed under this name would be much less than it has hitherto appeared to be.
In conclusion, we have only to express our conviction that the thanks of the profession are due to Mr. Thompson for the great care and assiduity he has bestowed in collecting evidence with regard to disputed points, and to state that the second edition of his work is well calculated to sustain the favourable impression produced by the first.
Art. IX.— Observations and Notes on the Arteries of the Limbs. By Thomas William Nunn, F.R.C.S., Demonstrator of Anatomy and Lecturer on Pathology at the Middlesex Hospital.—London, 1858. pp. 27.
Descriptive Anatomy is such weary work, both for teacher and pupil, as it is usually followed—the former grinding over, time after time, a tune which has no meauing or music in his ears, the latter floundering about in a chaos of hard words which he can hardly repeat, and tries in vain to remember, that we cannot refuse an expression of gratitude to any author who will strive to connect the description of the parts of the body at fresh points with the rest, to which they are subordinate; strive, in one word, to teach anatomy physiologically. It is the merit of Mr. Nunn's pamphlet, and a very great one, to endeavour after this end in a rather remote part of anatomy—that which treats of the course and distribution of the arteries of the limbs.
Mr. Nunn uses as the base of his theory a fact which is stated implicitly rather than expressly in most anatomical works—viz., that there is in most segments of each- limb a main artery, which runs through that segment without giving off any important branches, and another which breaks up into numerous branches for the supply of the parts contained in that segment. Thus in the pelvis, the external iliac belongs to the first category, and the internal iliac to the second; in the thigh, the superficial femoral to the former, and the profunda femoris to the latter; in the leg, the posterior tibial runs through without giving off any important brauches, while the femoral breaks up to supply the various parts, ifcc.
From this arrangement, which, however, is much less obvious in the upper extremity than the lower, Mr. Nunn derives a scheme which divides all the arteries of the limbs into four classes:—I. Segmental, those, namely, which supply the segment of the limb in which they arise. II. Transegmental, which run through the segment and carry blood to the parts below. III. Anastomotic, or communicating, which provide for the collateral circulation; and IV. Composite, which partake of the nature of the others, and which Mr. Nunn appears to regard as deviations from the archetypal structure, necessitated by the requirements of the individual organism.
The classes above indicated differ in their course as well as in their function; the segmental arteries branching'frequently and at large angles; the transegmental pursuing a nearly straight course; the anastomosing having no special direction. The physiological reason or import of this fact Mr. Nunn thus explains:
"The straight tubes transmitting the blood to distal parls, with the least loss of original velocity, thereby provide against the loss of heat by the blood, and consequently maintain the parts most distant from, at a temperature little below that of those nearest to, the heart. The segmental branching and diminishing tube, by delaying the blood, allows it to impart its heat to the tissues traversed; and besides, renders the supply to the capillary system more steady and uniform, and less liable to be interfered with by temporary disturbing causes." (p. 24.)
The glaring exception to his scheme of classification furnished by the axillary brachial trunk, Mr. Nunn endeavours to dispose of#by classing it as an anomaly; and by very ingeniously dwelling on the tendency that that trunk has, in so-called abnormal dis tributions, to recur to the type normal to the arteries of the lower limb, which he regards as the typical condition of the vascular supply of limbs generally. He also endeavours to show how the arteries of the forearm conform to his scheme; but we cannot say that this part of the paper is to our minds very satisfactory; nor can Ve see why Mr. Nunn should have limited himself to the arteries of the limbs (including those of the pelvis), and have declined the consideration of those of the neck, where the relation of the common carotid to the branches of the thyroid axis, and of the internal to the external carotid, appear at first sight so analogous to those on which he dwells.
The paper is illustrated with appropriate diagrams, and will be found interesting and suggestive.
Art. X.— On the Vesico-Vaginal Fistula. By I. Barer Brown, F.R.C.S., &c.— • London, 1858. Pamphlet.
The pamphlet of Mr. Baker Brown contributes eleven cases illustrating the value Oi Dr. Bozeman's operation for the cure of vesico-vaginal fistula. The peculiarities of this method have been on a former occasion described in this Journal; and an analysis of Dr. Bozeman's pamphlet on the same subject has also appeared. The interest of Mr.