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TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.
LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE. THIS tragedy was written about the year 1602, and Shakspeare is supposed to have taken the greatest part of no
materials from the Troye Boke of Lydgate, an author who derived many of his particulars from a History of Troy, ia Latin, by Gaido of Columpna. Chaucer had previously celebrated the loves of Troilus and Cressida, in a translation from a Latin poem of one Lollius, an old Lombard author. The characters in this play (*bich was not originally divided into acts) are strikingly assimilated to the portraits which history has preserred of them---the aged loquacity of Nestor---the insinuatiog eloquence of Ulysses--- the boasting confidence of Ajax---the sullen self-importance of Achilles---the conscious dignity of Agamemnon, and the speaking insignificance of the cuckold Menelaus, are excellently displayed in the development of the piece ; whilst the Karrile malignity of Thersites most humorously and ingeniously advances its interest throughout. The mode of Hector's death is, however, at variance with historieal record, and was probably accompanied with sach baseness on the part of Achilles, to perfect the amiable attributes in which the poet chose to invest the sbaracter of his Trojan opponent. Troilus, the hero of the play, has little to recommend him beyoud personal intrepidity, and the sincerity of a youthful attachment---some authors rank him among the elder of Prian's sons : others (and among them Virgil, who describes in the 1st book of the Æneid, line 474, the manner of his death by the hand of Achilles) call him the youngest. Anachronisms are of frequent occurrence in this play ; such as Hector's citing Aristotle, and Ulysses alluding to the "bull-bearing Milo," who did not live till many years after the Trojan war. It must, nevertheless, be remembered, that the greater part of Shakspeare's library consisted of ancient romances; and nothing could be less correct than their computation of dates. The language of the piece is greatly tinctured with the peculiarities of the age in which he lived ; and although Dr. Johnson considers it more correctly written than many of its companions, he exempts it from any extent of view or elevation of fancy. “The vicious characters (says that discriminating critic) soractimes disgust, but cannot corrupt; for both Cressida and Pandarus are detested and condemned. The comic characters seem to have been the favourites of the writer : they are of the superficial kind, and ex. kibit more of manners than nature ; buz they are copiously filled, and powerfully impressed."
DRAMATIS PERSONA PRIAX, King of Troy.
THERSITES, a deformed and scurrilous Gren HECTOR, TBOLS USE Parus; } His Sons.
cian. , HELENUS,
ALEXANDER, Servant to Cressida. ÆNEAS, ANTENOR, Trojan Commanders. Servant to Troilus.-Servant to Paris.-Ser. CALCHAS, a Trojan Priest, taking part with
vant to Diomedes. the Greeks. PANDABUS, Uncle to Cressida.
HELEN, Wise to Menelaus. MARGARELON, a bastard Son of Priam. ANDROMACHE, Wife to Hector. AGAMEMNON, the Grecian General.
CASSANDRA, 'Daughter to Priam ; a Pro.' MESELAUS, his Brother.
phetess. ACHILLES, AJAX, ULYSSES,
CRESSIDA, Daughter to Calchas.
Trojan and Greek Soldiers, and Attendants. SCENE : Troy, and the Grecian Camp before it.
PROLOGUE. Is Troy flere lies the scene. From isles of their brave pavilions : Priam's six-gated city, Greece.
Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan, The princes orgulous, their high blood chard, And Antenorides, with massy staples, Have to the port of Athens sent their ships, And corresponsive and fulfilling bolts, Fraught with the ministers and instruments Sperr * up the sons of Troy. of cruel war : Sixty and nine, that wore Now expectation, tickling skittish spirits, Tbeir crownets regal, from the Athenian bay On one and other side, Trojan and Greek, Put forth toward Phrygia : and their vow is Sets all on hazard :- And hither am I come made,
A prologue arın'd,-but not in confidence To ransack Troy; within whose strong immures or author's pen, or actor's voice ; but suited The ravish'd Helen, Menelaus' queen,
In like conditions as our argument, With wanton Paris sleeps : Aud that's the To tell you, fair beholders, that our play uarrel.
Leaps o'er the vaunt † and firstlings of those To Tenedos they come;
broils, And the deep-drawing barks do there disgorge 'Ginning in the middle ; starting thence away Their warlike fraughtage ; t Now on Dardan To what may be digested in a play. plains
Like, or find fault; do as your pleasures are ; The fresh and yet unbruised Greeks do pitch Now good, or bad, 'tis but the chance of war, • Prend, disdaioful * Freight.
† Araun «hat went before.
an she be not, she has the mends in her own
hands. SCENE 1.---Troy.-Before Priam's Palace. Tro. Good Pandarus! How now, Pandarus
Pan. I bave had iny labour for my travel ; ill. Enter TROilus arm'd, and PANDARUS.
thought on of her, and ill-thought on of you : 7'ro. Call here my varlet,. l'll unarm again : gone between aud between, but small thanks for Why should I war without the walls of Troy,
may labour. That find such cruel battle here within ?
Tro. What, art thou angry, Pandarus ? what, Each Trojan that is master of his heart,
with me? Let him to field : Triolus, alas ! hath none. Pan. Because she is kin to me, therefore, Pan. Will this geer ne'er be mended ?
she's not so fair as Helen : an she were not kin Tro. The Greeks are strong, and skilful to to me, she would be as fair on Friday, as Helen their strength,
is on Sunday. But what care 1? I care not, Fierce to their skill, and to their fierceness va- an she were a black-a-moor ; 'tis all one to me. liant ;
Tro. Say I, she is not fair? But I am weaker than a woman's tear,
Pan. I do not care whether you do or no. Tamer than sleep, fouder + than ignorance ; She's a fool to stay behind her faiher ; let her to Less valiant than the virgin in the night,
the Greeks; and so I'll tell her the next tiine I And skilless as unpractis'd infancy.
see her: for iny part, I'll meddle nor make no Pan. Well, I have told you enough of this; more in the maiter. for my part, i'll not meddle nor make no further. Tro. Pandarus,He that will have a cake out of the wheat must Pan. Not I. tarry the grinding.
Tro. Sweet Pandarus,Tro. Have I not tarried ?
Pan. Pray you, speak no more to me; I will Pan. Ay, the grinding; but you must tarry leave all as I found it, and there an end. the bolting.
[Erit PANDARUS. An Alarum. Tro. Have I not tarried ?
Tro. Peace, you ungracious clamours ! peace, Pan. Ay, the bolting; but you must tarry the
rude sounds ! leavening.
Fools on both sides ! Helen must needs be fair, Tro. Still have I tarried.
When with your blood you daily paint her thus. Pan. Ay, to the leavening; but bere's yet, in I cannot fight upon this argument; the word, hereafter, the kneading, the making It is too starv'd a subject for my sword. of the cake, the heating of the oven, and the But Pandarus-o gods, how do you plague me ! baking : nay, you must stay the cooling too, or I cannot come to Cressid, but by Paudar; you may chance to burn your lips.
And he's as tetchy to be woo'd to woo, Tro. Patience herself, (what goddess e'er As she is stubborn-chaste against all suit. she be)
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphine's love, Doth lesser blencbt at sufferance than I do What Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we At Priam's royal table do I sit,
Her bed is India ; there she lies, a peail: And when fair Cressid comes into my thoughts, Between onr llium and where she resides, So, traitor !-when she comes !When is she Let it be call'd the wild and wandering flood; thence ?
Oursell, the merchant; and this sailing Pan Pan. Well, she looked yesternight fairer than
dar, ever I saw her look, or any woman else.
Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark. Tro. I was about to tell thee,-When my heart,
Alarum. Enter ÆNEAS. As wedged with a sigh, would rive $ in twain, Æne. How now, prince Troilus? wherefore Lest Hector or my father should perceive me,
hot afield ? I have (as when the sim doth ligbi a storm,) Tro. Because not there. This woman's anBuried this sigh in wrinkle of a smile :
swer sorts But sorrow that is couch'd in seeining glad-For womanish it is to be from thence. ness,
Wbat news, Æneas, from the field to-day? Is like that mirth rate turns to sudden sadness. Æne. That Paris is returned home, and hurt.
Pan. An her hair were not somewhat darher Tro. By whom, Æneas ? than Helen's, (well, go to,) there were no more Ane. Troilus, by Menelaus. comparison between the women,-But, for my Tro. Let Paris bleed: 'lis but a scar to part, she is my kinswoman: I would not, as they
scori; term it, praise her,--But I would somebody had Paris is gor'd with Menelairs' horn. [Alarum, heard ber talk yesterday, as I did. I will not Ene. Hark! what good sport is out of town dispraise your sister Cassandra's wit; but
to-day ! Tro. O Pandarus ! I tell thee, Pandarus, Tro. Better at home, if would I might, were When I do tell thee, there my hopes lie drown'd,
(ther? Reply not in how many fathoms deep
But to the sport abroad ;- Are you bound this They lie indrench'd. I tell thee, I amı inad
Ene. In all swift haste. In Cressid's love : Thou answer'st, she is fair; Tro. Come, go we then together. (Exeunt, Pour'st in the open ulcer of my heart Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait, her voice; SCENE 11.-The same.-A Strect. Handlest in thy discourse, oh! that her hand, In whose comparisou all whites are ink,
Enter CRESSIDA and ALEXANDER.
Alex. Queen Hecuba, and Helen.
Whose height coinmands as subject all the vale
Is as a virtue fix'd, to-day was mov'd : Thou lay'st in every gash that love hatlı given me He chid Andromache, and struck bis armourer ; The kuife that made it.
And, like as there were husbandry in ar, Pan. I speak no more than truth.
Before the sun rose he was barness'd light, Tro. Thou dost not speak so much.
And to the field goes be ; wbere every flower Pan. 'Faith, I'll not meddle in't. Let her be Did as a prophet weep what it foresaw as she is : if she be fair, 'tis the better for ber ; In Hector's wrath.
Cres. What was his cause of anger i • A servan. sa knight. + More foolish. 1 Sariuk Split.
• Is hecoming.
Scene II. TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.
me another tale, when the other's come to't,
Cres. He shall not need it, if he bave his own.
Pan. Nor his qualities ;-
Pan. Nor his beauty.
if she praised him above, his complexion is
the other higher, is too flaming a praise for a
Pan. I swear to you, I think Helen loves him
better than Paris.
Cres. Then she's a merry Greek, índeed.
Pan. Nay, I am sure she does. She came to
him the other day into a compassed window,
-and, you know, he has not past three or four Aler. As may be in the world, lady.
hairs on his chin.
Cres. Indeed, a tapster's arithmetic may soon
bring his particulars therein to a total.
Cres. Is he so young a man, and so old a
him ;--she, came, and puts me her wbite hand
Cres. That were we talking of, and of bis ven? anger.
Pan. Why, you know, 'tis dimpled : I think, Pan. Was he angry?
his smiling becomes him better than any man in Cres. So he says here.
all Phrygia. Pan. True, he was so; I know the cause too ; Cres. Oh ! he smiles valiantly. he'll lay about him to-day, I can tell them that: Pan. Does he not? and there is Troilus will not come far behind Cres. O yes, an 'twere a cloud in autumn. him; let them take heed of Troilus; I can tell Pan. Why, go to then :-But to prove to you them that too.
that Helen loves Troilus, Cres. What, is he angry too?
Cres. Troilus will stand to the proof, if you'll Pan. Who, Troilus ? Troilus is the better nian prove it so. of the two.
Pan. Troilus? why, he esteems her no more (res. O Jupiter ! there's no comparison. than I esteem an addle egg.
Par. Wbat, not between Troilus and Hector ? Cres. Il you love an addle egg as well as you Do you know a man if you see him?
love an idle head, you would eat chickens i'the Cres. Ay; if ever I saw him before, and knew shell,
Pan. I cannot choose but laugh, to think how Par. Well, I say, Troilus is Troilus.
she tickled his chin ;-Indeed, she has a mar. Cres. Then you say as I say; for I am sure vellous white hand, I must needs confess. be is not Hector.
Cres. Without the rack. Pan. No, nor Hector is not Troilas, in some Pan. And she takes upon her to spy a white degrees.
bair on his chin. (res. 'Tis just to each of thein ; he is himself. Cres. Alas, poor chin ! many a wart is richer. Pan. Himself? Alas, poor Troilus ! I would,
Pan. But there was such laughing ;-Queen
Hecuba laughed, that her eyes rau o'cr.
Cres. With mill-stones. I
-'Condition, I have gone barefoot to Pan. And Cassandra laughed.
Cres. But there was a more temperate fire Cres. He is not Hector.
under the pot of her eyes ;-Did her eyes ruu Pan. Himself ? no, he's not himself.-'Would o'er too?
were himself! Well, the gods are above; Pan. And Hector laughed. fime must friend, or end : Well, Troilus, well, Cres. At what was all this laughing? -I would my heart were in her body 1-No, Pan. Marry, at the white hair that Heleu spied Hector is not a better man than Troilus.
on Troilus' chin. Cres. Excuse me.
Cres. An't had been a greep hair, I should Pon. He is elder.
bave laughed too. Cres. Pardon me, pardon me.
Pan. They laughed not so much at the hair,
as at his pretty answer.
1 Mingled with.
• Bow window. + Thief. * A proverbial saying
Cres. What was his answer ?
Cres. Can Helenus fight, uncle ? Pan. Quoth she, Here's but one and fifty Pan Helenus ? no ;-yes, he'll fight indiffer hairs on your chin, and one of them is white, ent well :-I marvel, where Troilus is |--Hark ! Cres. This is her question.
do you not hear the people cry, Troilus 2-HePan. That's true ; make no question of that. lenus is a priest. One und fifty hairs, quoth he, and one white : Cres. What sneaking fellow comes yonder ? That white hair is my father, and all the rest are his sons. Jupiter ! quoth she, which of
TROILUS passes over. these hairs is Paris my husband? The forked one, quoth he; pluck it out and give it him. 'Tis Troilus! there's a inan, niece !-Hein
Pan. Where? yonder ? that's Deiplobus : But, there was such laughing ! aud Helen so Brave Troilus! the prince of chivalry! blushed, and Paris so chafed, and all the rest so
Cres. Peace, for shame, peace ! laughed, that it passed." Cres. So let ii now; for it has been a great Ins ?-look well upon him, niece; look yon, bow
Pan. Mark him ; note him ;-0 brave Troi. while going by. Pan. Well, cousin, I told you a thing yester-hack'd than Hector b; And how he looks, and
his sword is bloodied, and his helm more day; think on't.
bow he goes 1-0 admirable youth, he ne'er saw Cres. So I do.
three and twenty. Pan. I'll be sworn, 'tis true; he will weep thy way; bad I a sister were a grace, or a
Go thy way, Troilus, go you, an 'twere + a man born in April. Cres. And I'll spring up in his tears, an daughter a goddess, he should take bis choice.
O admirable man ! Paris Paris is dirt to bim ; 'twere a nettle against May.
[A Retreat sounded.
and I warrant, Helen, to change, would give an
eye to boot. Pan. Hark, they are coming from the tield: Shall we stand up here, and see them as they
Forces pass over the stage. pass toward thium ? good niece, do; sweet uiece Cressida.
Cres. Here come more. Cres. At your pleasure.
Pan. Asses, fools, dolts ! chaff and bran, chaff Pan. Here, here, here's an excellent place; and bran! porridge after meat! I could live and here we may see most bravely : l'll tell you them die i'the eyes of Truilus. Ne'er look, ne'er look ; all by their names as they pass by : but mark the eagles are gone; crows and daws, crows and Troilus above the rest.
daws! I had rather be such a man as Troilus,
than Agamemnon and all Greece. ÆNEAS passes over the stage.
Cres. There is among the Greeks, Achilles ; a (res. Speak not so loud.
better man than Troilus. Pan. That's Æneas ; Is not that a brave nau ? Pun. Achilles ? a drayınan, a porter, a very he's one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell you ; camel. But mark Troilus ; you shall see anon.
Cres. Well, well. Cres. Wbo's that ?
Pan. Well, well ?-Why, have you any dis
cretion ? have you any eyes? Do you know what ANTENOR passes over.
a man is ? Is not birth, beauty, good shape, disPan. That's Antenor ; he has a shrewd wit, course, manhood, learning, gentleness, virtue, I can tell you; and he's a man good enough; youth, liberality, and such like, the spice and he's one o'the soundest judgments in Truy, salt tbat season a man ? whosoever, and a proper man of person ;- Cres. Ay, a minced man ; and then to be When comes Troilus 8-1'll show you Troilus baked with no date in the pye,-for then the anon : if he see me, you shall see him rod at man's date is out. me.
Pan. Yon are such a woman ! one knows not Cres. Will he give you the nod ?
at what ward | you lie. Pan. You shall see.
Cres. Upon my back, to defend my belly ; upon Cres. If he do, the rich shall have more. my wit, to defend my wiles ; upon my secrecy, HECTOR passes over.
to defend mine honesty ; my mask, to defeud
my beauty; and you, to defend all these : and Pan, That's Hector, that, that, look you, that ; at all these wards Tie, at a thousand watches. There's a fellow 1-Go thy way, Hector ; --There's Pan. Say one of your watches. & brave man, niece.-0 brave Hector 3-Look, Cres. Nay, I'll watch you for that ; and that's how be looks! there's a countenance : Is't not a one of the chiefest of them too : if I cannot brave man?
ward what I would not have hit, I can watch you Cres. Oh ! a brave man!
for telling how I took the blow; unless it sweh Pan. Is a not? It does a man's heart good past hiding, and then it is past watching. Look you what hacks are on bis helmet ? look
Pan. You are such another ! you yonder, do you see ? look you there! There's no jesting : there's laying on ; take't oft who
Enter TROILUS' Boy. will, as they say : there be backs!
Boy. Sir, my lord would instantly speak with Cres. Be those with swords ?
Pan. Where ?
Boy. At your own house ; there he urma Pan. Swords? any thing, he cares not : an him. the devil conie to him, it's all one : By god's Pan. Good boy, tell him I come: [Eril lid, it does one's heart good :-Yonder comes Boy.) I doubt he be hurt.-Fare ye well, goud Paris, yonder comes Paris : look ye yonder, niece. niere; Is't not a gallant man too, is't not ? - Cres. Adieu, uncle. Wny, this is brave now.-Who said he came Pan. I'll be with you, niece, by and by. hurt home to-day? he's not hurt : why this will Cres. To bring, uncle,-do Helen's heart good now. Ha! 'would I
Pan. Ay, a token from Troilus. could see Troilus now |--you shall see Troilus Cres. By the same token you are a bawd.
(Exit PANDARES. Cres. Who's that?
Words, vows, griefs, tears, and love's tulis HELENUS passes over.
He offers in another's enterprize : Pan. That's Helenus,-1 marvel, where Troi. But more in Troilus thousand fold I see us is :-That's Helenus ;-1 think be went not Than in the glass of Pandar's praise may be ; forth to day :-That's Helenus.
• Helmet. + An ingredient in all ancient pastry. • Expeeded all bounds
+ As if 'twere.
$ A metaphor from the art of defence.