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MACBETH.

LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE.
In this wa eh ass tragedy Shakspeare has closely adhered to historical fact, excepting that Banquo, out of com

pliment to bis descendant James I. is excluded from all participation in the murder of Duncan. Tu the reiga
of Charles II, the songs of the witches were set to music by the celebrated Matthew Luck, and the play re.
garded as a semi-opera. The ghosts and witches, though admirably pourtrayed, have been cer.sured as an insalo
to common sense ; and cautions have been held out to the young and uninformed against imbibing the absurd
principles of fatalism which are seemingly countenanced in many parts of this piece. But in the time of
Shakspeare, the doctrine of witehcraft was at once established by law and by fashion, and it became not only
bopolite, but criminal, to doubt it.---King James himself in his dialogues of Demonologie, re-printed in Lou-
den soon after his succession, has speculated deeply on the illusions of spirits, the coinpact of witches, &c. ;
and ser dramatist only turned to his advantage a system universally admitted. In representation, some un
isteresting scenes are omitted ; many of the witches' dialogues adapted to beautiful music, and a song or two,
probably written by Sir W. Davenant, added to the parts. Betterton, amidst many bad alterations, hit upon
the plan of making the witches deliver all the prophecies, by which a deal of the trap-work is avoided, and
Garrick substituted some excellent passages to be uttered by Macbeth, whilst expiring, in lieu of the disgusto
ing exposure of his head by Macduff. The neatest criticism upon the play, and the most concise record of its
historical facts, are contained in the following extract from a standard publication : "Macbeth Hourished in
Scotland about the middle of the tenth century. At this period Duncan was king, a mild and humane prince,
but not at all possessed of the genius requisite for governing a country so turbulent, and so infested by the in-
wrigues and animosities of the great Macbeth, a powerful nobleman, and nearly allied to the crown. Not con-
tented with curbing the king's authority, carried still further his mad ambition ; he murdered Duncan at lo-
verness, and theu seized upon the throne. Fearing lest his ill-gotten power should be stripped from him,
he chased Malcolm Kenmore, the son and heir, into England, and put to death Mac Gill and Banquo, the two
most powerful men in his dominions. Macduff next becoming the object of his suspicion, he escaped into
Esgland; but the inbuman usurper wreaked his vengeance on his wife and children, whom he caused to be
cruelly butebered. Siward, whose daughter was married to Duncan, embraced, by Edward's orders, the pro-
tection of his distressed family. He marched an army into Scotland, and having defeated and killed Macbeth
ie battle, be restored Malcolm to the throne of his ancestors. The tragedy founded upon the history of Mao-
berb, though contrary to the rules of the drama, contains an infivity of beauties with respect to language,
character, passion, and incident ; and is thought to be one of the very best pieces of the very best masters in
this kind of writing that the world ever produced. The danger of ambition is well described, and the passious
are directed to their true ends , 80 that it is not only admirable as a poem, but one of the most moral pieces
existing."

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Doxalbain,} his Sons.

DRAMATIS PERSONÆ.
DUNCAN, King of Scotland.

SEYTON, an Officer attending on Macbeth.
Son to Macduff.

An English Doctor.-A Scotch Doctor.
MACBETH, Generals of the King's Army.

A Soldier:-A Porter.-An old Man.
BANQUO.
MACDCYF,

LADY MACBETH.
LEXOX,

LADY MACDUFF.
Rosse,
Noblemen of Scotland.

Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth.
MENTETH,

HECATE, and three Witches.
ANGUS,
CATHNESS,

Lords, Gentlemen, officers, Soldiers, Mur.
FLEASCI, Son to Banquo.

derers, Attendants, und Messengers. SIWARD, Earl of Northumberland, General of the English Forces.

The Ghost of Banquo, and several other
Yuxc ŠIWARD, his Son.

Apparitions.
SCENE, in the end of the fourth act, lies in England ; through the rest of the play, in Scotland ;

and, chiefly, at Macbeth's Castle.

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ACT I.

SCENE 1.-An open Place.
Thunder and Lightning. Enter three WITCHES.

1 Witch. When shall we three meet again
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ?

2 Witch. When the hurlyburly's * done, When the battle's lost and won :

• Tumult.

3 Witch. That will be ere set of sun.
1 Witch. Where the place ?
2 Witch. Upon the heath :
3 Witch. There to meet Macbeth.
1 Witch. I come, Graymalkin!

Al. Paddock calls :- Anon.
Fair is foul, and foul is fair :
Hover through the fog and filthy air.

(WITCI ES vanish,

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SCENE II.--A Camp near Fores.

Confronted him with self-comparisons,

Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm, Alarum within. Enter King DUNCAN, MAL-Curbing his lavish spirit : And, to conclude,

COLM, DONALBAIN, LENOX, with ATTEND-The victory fell on us ;-
ANTS, meeting a bleeding SOLDIER.

Dun. Great happiness!
Dun. What bloody man is that? He can re.

Rosse. That now port,

Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition ; As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt

Nor would we deign him burial of his men, The newest state.

Till he disbursed, at Saint Colines' inch, Mal. This is the sergeant,

Ten thousand dollars to our general use. Who, like a good and bardy soldier, fought Dun. No more that thane of Cawdor sball 'Gainst my captivity :-Hail, brave friend I

deceive Say to the king the kuowledge of the broil,

Our bosom interest :-Go, pronounce his death, As thou didst leave it.

And with his former title greet Macbeth. Sold. Doubtfully it stood ;

Rosse. I'll see it done. As two spent swimmers, that do cling together, Dun. Wbat he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath Aud choke their art. The merciless Macdon

won.

[Ereunt. wald (Worthy to be a rebel ; for to that

SCENE III.-A Heath-Thunder,
The multiplying villanies of nature
Do swarm upon him) from the western isles,

Enter the three WITCBES, of kernes and gallowglasses is supplied ;

1 Witch. Where hast thou been, sister ? And fortune, on his damned quarrel + smiling, Show'd like a rebel's whore : But all's too weak :

2 Witch. Killing swine.

3 Witch. Sister, where thou? For brave Macbeth, (well he deserves that

1 Witch. A Sailor's wife had chesnuts in her name,)

lap, Disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel, Which sinok'd with bloody execution,

And mounch'd, and mounch'd, and mounch'd :Like valour's minion

Give me, quoth 1 :

Aroint thee, + witch! the rump-fed ronyon Carv'd out his passage, till he fac'd the slave; And ne'er shook bands, nor bade farewell to Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o’the

cries. him,

(Tiger : Till he unseain'd him from the nave to the chaps, But in a sieve I'll thither sail, And fix'd his head upon our battlements.

And, like a rat without a tail, Dun. O valiant cousin! worthy gentleman!

P'll do, I'll do, I'll do.

2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind. Sold. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection

1 Witch. Thou art kind. Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break;

3 Witch, And I anotber. So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to

1 Witch. I myself have all the other ; come, Discomfort I swells. Mark, king of Scotland, All the quarters that they know

And the very ports they blow, mark: No sooner justice had, with valour arm'd,

l'the shipman's card. Ø Compellid these skipping kernes to trust their I will drain him dry as hay: heels;

Sleep shall, neither night nor day, But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage,

Hang upon his peut-house lid; With furbish'd arms and new supplies of men,

He shall live a man forbid : 1 Began a fresh assault.

Weary sev'n-nights, nine lines nine, Dun. Dismay'd not this

Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine : Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ?

Though his bark cannot be lost, Sold. Yes ;

Yet it shall be tempest-toss'd.

Look what I have.
As sparrows, eagles ; or the hare, the lion.
If I say sooth, $ 1 must report they were

2 Witch. Show me, show me. As cannons | overcharg'd with double cracks ;

1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, So they

Wreck'd, as homeward he did come. Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe :

(Drum within. Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,

3 Witch. A drum, a drum ;

Macbeth doth come.
Or memorize another Golgotha, I

All. The weird sisters, hand in hand,
I cannot tell :
But I am faint, my gashes cry for help.

Posters of the sea and land,
Dun. So well thy words become thee, as thy Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine,

Thus do go about, about ;
wounds;
They smack of honour both :-Go, get him sur-

And thrice again, to make up nine :
geons, (Exit SOLDIER, attended.

Peace !--the charm's wound up.
Enter Rosse.

Enter MACBETH and BANQUO.
Who comes here?

Macb. So foul and fair a day I bare not seen, Mal. The worthy thane of Rosse.

Ban. How far is't callid to Fores ?-Wbat Len. What a haste looks through his eyes !

are these, So should be look,

So wither'd and so wild in their attire: That seems to speak things strange.

That look not like the inhabitants o'the earth, Rosse. God save the king!

And yet are ou’t ? Live you ? or are you aught Dun. Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane ? That man may question ? You seem to under Rosse. From Fife, great king,

stand me, Where the Norweyan banners flout ** the sky, By each at once her choppy finger laying And fan our people cold.

Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women, Norway himself, with terrible numbers,

And yet your beards forbid me to interpret Assisted by that most disloyal traitor

That you are so. The thane of Cawdor, 'gau a dismal conflict : Mucb. Speak, if you can ;-What are you? Till that Bellona's bridegroom,tt lapp'd in proof, It 1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth I hail to thee,

thane of Glamis ! • They were light and heavy armed troops. Cause. 1 The opposite to comfort. Truth. I Cannons were not invested until some centuries • A small island in the Frith of Edinburgh. after this period.

+ Avaunt, begone.

I A scabby woman. Make another Golgotha as memorable as the first.

Sailor's chart.

| Ascursed. • Mock. it Shakspeare means Mars. T Prophetic sistere : the fates of the northern natioas, 11 Defended by armour of proof.

the three band-maids of Odin.

.

2 Witch. All bail, Macbeth! hail to thee, in which addition, hail, most worthy thane ! thane of Cawdor !

For it is thint. 3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be Ban. What, can the devil speak true ? king hereafter.

Macb. The thane of Cawdor lives : Why do Ban. Good Sir, why do you start, and seein yoll dress me to fear

In borrow'd robes ? Things that do sound so fair ?--l'the name of Ang. Who was the thane, lives yet ; truth,

But under heavy judgment bears that life Are ye fantastical or that indeed

Which he deserves to lose. Wheiher be was Which outwardly ye show ! My noble partner Combin'd with Norway; or did line the rebel You greet with present grace, and great pre. With bidden help and vantage ; or that with diction

both of noble having, + and of royal hope, (not : He labour'd in his comitry's wreck, I know not; That be seems rapt withal; to me you speak But treasous capital, confess'd aud prov'd, If you can look into the seeds of time,

Hare over thrown him. And say which grain will grow, and which will Macb. Glamis and thane of Cawdor : not ;

The

greatest is behind. Thanks for your Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear

pains.Your favours nor your hate.

Do you not bope your children shall be kings, 1 Fitch. Haill

When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to 2 Witch. Hail!

Promis'd no less to thein ?

[me, 3 Uitch. Hail!

Ban. Thai trusted home, i Wilch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. Might yet enkiudle + you unto the crown, 2 Witch. Not so bappy, yet much happier. Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange : 3 Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, be none :

The instruments of darkness tell us truths; So, all bail, Macbeth and Banquo !

Win us with honest trifles, to betray us i Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail ! In deepest consequence.Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me Cousius, a word, I pray you. more :

Macb. Two trutbs are told, By Sinel's death $ I know I am thane of Glamis ; As happy prologues to the swelling act But how of Cawdor ? the thane of Cawdor lives, of the imperial theme.-I thank you, gentleA prosperous gentleman ; and, to be king, This supernatural soliciting :

(men.Stands not within the prospect of belief, Cannot be ill ; caunot be good :-If ill, No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence Why hath it given me earnest of success, You owe this strange intelligence ? or why Commencing in a truth? I am thane of Caw['pon this blasted heath you stop our way

dor : $ With such prophetic greeting ?-Speak, I charge if good, why do I yield to that suggestion 1] you.

(WITCHES vanish. Whose horrid image doth untis my bair, Bar. The earth hath bubbles, as the water and make my seated heart kuock at my ribs, bas,

(nish'd ? | Against the use of nature? Present fears And these are of them :-Whither are they va- Are less than borrible imaginings : [tical, Macb. luto the air; and what seem'd cor- My thought, whose inurder yet is but fautasporal melted

Shakes so my single state of man, that function As breath into the wind. 'Would they had is smother'd in surorise ; ** and nothing is, staid !

But what is not. Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak

Ban. Look, bow our partner's rapt. about ;

Macb. If chance will have me king, why, Or have we eaten of the insane root,

chance may crown me, Tbat takes the reason prisoner?

Without my stir. Macb. Your children shall be kings.

Ban. New honours come upon him Ban. You shall be king.

Like our strange garments; cleave not to the Macb. And thane of Cawdor too; went it

mould, not so ?

[here? | But with the aid of use. Ban. To the self-same tune and words. Who's Macb. Come what come may ;

Time and the hour #1 runs through the roughest Enter Rosse and ANGUS.

day. Rosse. The king hath happily receivid, Mac

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your

leisure. beth, The news of thy success; and when he reads

Macb. Give me your favour : it-my dull brain was wrought

[pains Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight,

With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your His wonders and his praises do contend,

Are register'd where every day I turn Which should be thine, or his : Silenc'd with The leaf to read them.-Let us toward the

that, In viewing o'er the rest oʻthe self-same day,

king;

(time,

Think upon what hath chanc'd; and, at more He finds thee in the stout Norweyan rauks, Nothing aseard of wbat thyself didst make,

The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak

Our free bearts each to other.
Strauge images of death. As thick as tale,

Ban. Very gladly.
Came post with post; and every one did bear
Thy praises in bis kingdom's great defence,

Macb. Till then, enough.-Come, friends.
And pour'd them down before him.

[Exeunt. Ang. We are sent, To give thee, from our royal master, thanks ;

SCENE IV.-Fores.-A Room in the Palace. To herald thee into his sight, not pay thee. Flourish. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALRosse. And, for an earnest of a greater ho- BAIN, LENOX, and ATTENDANTS. nour,

Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor 3 Are He bade me, from bim, call thee thane of

not Cawdor :

Those in commission yet return'd ?

• Sapernatural, spiritual.

+ Estate.
* Raptarously affected.

Sinel was Macbeth's father.
The root which makes insane.
As fast as they could be counted

• Title.
4 Stimulate.

1 Encitement. Glamis is still standing, and is the magnificent residence of Earl Strathmore.

| Temptation. Firmly fixed. ** The powers of action are oppressed by conjecture. ft Time and oppor tulity. 11 Parda.

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