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ents, in convention, determine what text books are to be used in the public schools. The law requires district trustees to take an annual census of school youth and to report to the county superintendent the condition of the schools.
SCHOOL FINANCES. Public schools are supported from a tax of 3 mills on $1 of ordinary taxable property, from taxation of railroads, sale of estrays, and a special district tax not to er. ceed 2 per cent. a year. The school funds are distributed in proportion to the number of children of school age (6–18), as reported annually by county superintendents. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL TERRITORIAL REQUIREMENTS. Teachers must hold certificates of the required qualifications, signed by the board of examiners; these certificates are valid for the term of 1 year.
TERRITORIAL NORMAL TRAINING. The University of Deseret gives free tuition annually to 40 normal students, in addi. tion to the 40 annually provided for by the Territory. There was in 1883–'84 a much larger attendance in the normal department than ever before. In 1883 the course was extended from 1 year to 2 years, and the president of the university expresses himself as being thoroughly convinced of the wisdom of the change, and recommends that a model school be established in connection with the normal department, having the 3 grades of primary, grammar, and high school studies. Five students
were graduated from the 2-year course in 1883 and 20 in 1884.
OTHER NORMAL TRAINING. The Brigham Young Academy, Provo City, offers a 2-year course of normal instruction, but does not report full statistics. Utah County provides for a permanent class of 10 students in this institution.
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. The County Teachers' Association holds 10 sessions annually at Provo, Utah County, and among the minutes of these meetings is found the discussion of the following subjects: (1) That the grading of schools is economy of means, time, and labor; (2) that the employment of non-progressive and transient teachers is not a remunerative investment; (3) the encouragement and support of proficient teachers is a public benefit; and (4) that the school should be made a pleasant place of resort instead of a purgatory for Loslood. Other institutes were held during the year in Box Elder, Cache, Sevier, and Wasatch Counties.
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. There is no information regarding any public high schools in this Territory othor than the academic department of the University of Deseret.
ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES. For statistics of academies and seminaries reporting, see Table VI of the appendix, and for a summary, see a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding SUPERIOR, SCIENTIFIC, AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.
UNIVERSITY OF DESERET. The University of Deseret, Salt Lake City, provides scientific, classical preparatory, normal, and preliminary courses, the first covering 3 years and the classical preparatory and normal 2 years each. The studies include chemistry, free hand, mechanical, and architectural drawing, physiology, geometry, surveying, botany, music, French, Gerinan, Latin, &c.
A series of lectures is given upon the elements of law, intended to bo preliminary to a fuller course of study in the future.
CHIEF TERRITORIAL SCHOOL OFFICER.
[Term, August, 1881, to Angust, 1885.1
a Five counties not reporting.
d Seventeen counties pot reporting. 6 Six counties not reporting.
e Eleven counties not reporting, c Thirteen counties not reporting. (From report and return of Hon C. W. Wheeler, territorial superintendent of publio instruction, for the two years indicated.)
TERRITORIAL SCHOOL SYSTEM.
GENERAL CONDITION. The territorial superintendent in 1882-83 reported a prosperous condition of tho schools throughout the Territory, the educational interests keeping pace with the rapid advancement of the Territory in other respects; that the number of school districts and school-bouses bad increased in proportion to the great increase of population; and that the school buildings were of a better class than formerly and largely supplied with improved furniture. The figures for 1883–84 show a large increase in the number of pupils enrolled in public schools and a still larger one in the average daily attendance, more school-houses, a larger number built during the year, more teachers employed, and an increase in expenditure corresponding to the advance in other respects. The superiuteudent says that within the past few years there has been a strong and steadily increasing demand for a better class of teachers and as a consequence great improvement had been made in this direction.
ADMINISTRATION. The chief school officers are a territorial superintendent of public instruction, appointed for 2 years by the governor and contirmed by the legislature, and a territorial board of education, composed of the superintendent and 1 person from each judicial district appointed by the governor for 2 years. County officers are superintendents, elected by the peoplo for 2 years, and boards of examination for teachers, comprising the county superintendent and 2 teachers chosen by him, who must be holders of the highest grade of certificate. District school affairs are in the hands of a board of 3 directors, elected for 3 years, 1 being changed each year, and a district clerk. Women are eligible to school offices and may vote at school meetings.
Public schools must be taught by qualified teachers at least 3 montbs during the year; the schools must teach the common English branches in the English language and be open free to all residents 5 to 21 years old. Attention must be given to the cultivation of manners ard morals, to the laws of health, physical exercise of the pu. pils, and to the ventilation and temperature of the school room. Nothing of an intidel, partisan, or sectarian nature may enter into the instruction in any public school or be adınitted in any school library. To receive their apportionment of the school funds, districts must take an annual census of the school children and report to the county superintendent.
SCIIOOL FINANCES. The schools are supported from an annual tax on property of not less than 2 nor more than 6 mills on $1 and the proceeds of certain special taxes, fines, and penalties, all to be apportioned according to the number of youth of school age. Districts may raise funds, by taxation not to exceed 10 mills on $1, to furnish additional school facilities.
NEW LEGISLATION. A new school law of 1883 modifies the compulsory law previously reported, making the age of children required to attend school 8 to 18, instead of the former 6 to 16, and the time for absolute atiendance in ordinary circumstances 3 months each year, instead of 6 months. Time lost by any child because a school has not been taught the required 3 months, or from other cause, must be made up the next year or as soon as the disabling cause is removed. The penalty for disobedience or neglect of these requirements is $100, to go to the school funds of the district. The school age was also changed from 4-21 to 6–21. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL TERRITORIAL REQUIREMENTS. Teachers must hold certificate of qualification from the legal school officers, first grade to be valid for 3 years, second grade for 2, and third grade for 1 year. Those holding first grade county certificates and who have been teaching for 3 years are eligible to examination for first grado territorial certificates.
TERRITORIAL NORMAL TRAINING. The normal department of the University of Washington Territory gives a 3-year course of normal instruction, including chemistry, geology, physiology, botany, commercial law, and other higher English branches. A primary training school is connected with this department, giving illustrative lessons in the art of teaching.
Whitman College also offers a 3-year course of normal training, and students who complete the first 2 years or elementary course receive certificates, while those completing the advanced or full course receive normal diplomas. The higher English branches are taught, with music, mental philosophy, and the science and methods of teacbing.
For statistics of these departments, see Table III of the appendix; for a summary, the report of the Commissioner preceding.
For statistics of private academic schools reporting, see Table VI of the appendis, and for a summary, the report of the Commissioner preceding.
SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. INSTITUTIONS FOR YOUNG MEN AND YOUNG WOMEN. The University of Washington Territory, Seattle, and Whitman College, Walla Walla, open alike to both sexes, present 4-year classical course, with scientific, commercial, and normal courses of 3 years each, and Whitman a 3-year literary course. Both give attention to preparatory studies, and the university has departments of music and art.
For statistics of these institutions, see Table IX of the appendix; and for a summary, the report of the Commissioner preceding.
CHIEF TERRITORIAL SCHOOL OFFICER.
[Term, January 5, 1882, to January 5, 1884.) To be succeeded by Hon. R. C. Kerr, whose term is to be from January 9, 1884, to January 3. 1886.
(From the reports of the governor of Wyoming for 1881 and 1883.)
TERRITORIAL SCHOOL SYSTEM.
GENERAL CONDITION. Information as to the public school work of the Territory is so meagre and unsatisfactory that but few items can be given even for 1882–83, but, as may be seen above, they denote improvement.
ADMINISTRATION. The territorial librarian is ex officio superintendent of public instruction for the Territory. County superintendents are elected biennially by the people, and for each school district boards of 3 trustees are elected for 3 years, with annual change of 1. Women are eligible to vote and to hold scbool offices. Separate schools may be established for colored children when there are 15 or more of these in a district. A compulsory school law requires parents or guardians to send their children of school age (7-21) to some school at least 3 months in each year or furnish satisfactory reason for not doing so, under penalty of $25. County superintendents and district directors may, in their discretion, establish schools of higher grade than the ordinary district schools, the studies pursued in them to be determined by the territorial teachers' institute.
SCHOOL FINANCES. The public schools are sustained from a poll tax of $2 on each voter, from 2 mills on $1 of all taxable property, and from fines, penalties, and forfeitures. The people may, at the annual district meeting, vote such tax as they deem necessary to pay teachers, to purchase libraries, build or repair school-houses, and to procure fuel, or books for poor children, the amount for a library not to exceed $100 for any one year. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL TERRITORIAL REQUIREMENTS. Teachers must bave certificates of the required qualifications fronı the legal school officers, and in the question of salary no discrimination is made on account of sex when the qualifications are equal.
TERRITORIAL NORMAL TRAINING. The law requires the superintendent of public instruction, with the county superin. tendents and principals of all graded schools in the Territory, to hold annually, at some convenient place, a territorial teachers' institute, for the instruction and advancement of teachers, to continue not less than 4 nor more than 10 days; but no information is at hand of any such meeting.
CHIEF TERRITORIAL SCHOOL OFFICER. Hon. JOHN SLAUGHTER, territorial librarian and ex officio superintendent of public instruction, Cheyenne.
Mr. Slaughter has been ex officio superintendent since 1873. His term of service will expire Docember, 1885.
EDICATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS.
NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. The twenty-second annual meeting of the National Educational Association was held at Saratoga, X. Y., July 9-11, 1823, including, as usual, meetings of tbe general as sociation and of the different departments, of which a new one was organized on this occasion - the department of art education-making 6 departments, the others being those of higher instruction, superintendence, industrial education, normal schools, and elementary schools. The foilowing were the addresses given before the general association : "Exammation of teachers." by Eli T. Tappan; “ The moral influence of manual training,” by Dr. J. R. Buchanan; “The teaching of drawing in grammar schools," by Walter S. Perry; "City systems of management of public scbools," by J. T. Pickard ; " The normal school problem and the problem of the schools," by H. H. Straight; and “What has been done for education by the Government of the United States," by Hon John Eaton.
The twenty-third annual meeting, beld at Madison, Wis., July 15-19, 1884, brought together, it is said, the largest and most eminent gathering of educators that ever assembled on this continent. It is estimated that over 6,000 persons were present during the four days. The speakers adnounced were present as a rnle, and the program was successfully carried out. All sections and States were well represented, as were all grades and methods of teaching; tbe discnssions, oral and written, evinced ability, research, and enthusiasm; the educational exhibits showed improvement in apparatus and text books, while the various reunions held and the general cordiality were noticeable features of the gathering.
On account of the large number present, the general sessions were divided into three sections, one meeting in the assembly ebamber, another in tbe senate cbamber, and the third in a church. Addresses of welcome were made by the governor of the State, Hon. Jeremiah M. Rusk; by Mayor B. J. Stevens, of Madison; and by Dr. John Bascom, president of the University of Wisconsin. Amoug the topics presented to the general association were “Citizenship and education,” by lIon J. L. M. Curry, of Richmond, Va.; “The l'tah problem as related to national education,” by Prof. J. M. Coyner, Ph. D.,
Salt Lake, Ctab; "Science of education,” by Hon. T. W. Bicknell, LL. D., Boston ; "Educational status and needs of the Soutb,* by Maj. R. Bingban, superintendent of Bingham Scbool, North Carolina ; and “The educational outlook in the South,” by Prof. B. T. Washington, Tuskegee, Ala. An address was made by Albert Salisbury, superintendent of education of ihe American Missionary Association, showing what the North has doce in and for the South sicce the war, mainis throngh the missionary societies of the churches. Ose by Hon. G. J. Ort, of Georgia, contained an eloquent appeal for national aid for son: bern education, and Prof. Will iam H. Crogman, of Atlanta, Ga., gave an able résanıé of the present status of negro education in the South, its belps and bindrances. Followicg this topic came that of the education of the lodians. Geceral S. C. Armstrong, of the school at Hampton, Va., gave the results of bis six years' experience in the teaching of Indians there, and Alfred L. Riggs, of the dantee Agency, Nebraska, gave a paper entitied * Special difficulties in edacating Indians.” A collection amounting to $175 was then taken to defray the er. penses incurred in having a party of lodians present from the Sante Mission, Nebraska. The third evening was set apart as “ Woman's evening," a new feature in the association meetings, and one wbicb in this case proved a very acceptable one, the places of meeting being crowded with eager listeners. Miss Sarah E. Doyle, of Rhode Island, presided. The Erst address was by 28 Mar Wright Sewall, of Indiana, on “ Woman's work in education," and Mrs. Lonia P. llork as of New Bedford, Mass., presented the same topie. Miss Frances E. Willant, of Chicago, spoke on Temperance in sehools;" Mrs. Eva D. Kellogg, of Massachusetts, op * Veeus in American education ;” aDI Miss Clara Conway, of Memphis, Tenn., on "The needs of soathern women." Daring this evening Governor Rusk tendered a reception to all members of the association at his private residence. Elaborate preparations had been made for this reception and about 3,000 people were entertained.
On ihe elosing day the asciation listened to remarks from Monsignor Capel, the distinguished Anglo-Roman divine, who arged the importance of paying greater atteation to the study of tbe English language in our selco's, and spoke again in the even. ing, giving the Catholic view of public education and reiterating the desire of the chureb for religious instruetion. Addresses were also presented by G. Stanley Hall, LL. D., professor of pedagogy at Jobas Hopkins l'uiversity, on Elementary
educa. tion;" by Hon. J. W. Dickinson, secretary of the Massachusetts State board of education, on · Method in teaching"; and by J. 1. Green wood, saperintendent of schools,