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as in Great Britain and the United States, the higher education of women received its chief impulse from the work and the requirements of women teachers. In Ontario women are allowed to teach in high schools as assistants, but they cannot become head teachers without taking a degree in arts. Hence the opportunity of securing a degree is of great practical importance to those who are ambitious to secure promotion in the teaching profession. Several women aro now in their fourth year in the University College, all of whom will probably take their degree of B. A. in the coming year.

My last annual report contained a very full summary of the state of higher education for women in Europe. Since that date women have been admitted to certain of tbe honor examinations of Oxford University, the statute to that effect having been passed by the convocation of the university April 29, 1884.

University College, Liverpool, one of the youvgest though most vigorous local colJeges, has been admitted to a place in Victoria University. This puts a medical degree within the reach of residents in Liverpool and neighborhood without the expense of going to Glasgow or Edinburgh for the completion of their medical training. As part of the Victoria University the college is now able to confer on women trained within its walls tbe same degrees as those open to men.

The report of the first session of the department for women, Owens College, Manchester, is encouraging. The total number of registered students is 60, and the attendance and work have been bighly satisfactory. A series of scholarships has been founded, the value of each being 201. per annum, tenable for three years. Two such scholarships will be offered in July for competition among the pupils of the Manchester High School for Girls, and two for open competition at the end of September or the beginning of October next.

The council has not so far thrown open any of the college scholarships for competition among the students in the department for women. By the generosity, however, of a governor of the college, Mr. Thomas Ashton, the council is enabled to offer for competition among duly qualified students in that department in October next an extra Victoria scholarship (in classics). The value of the scholarship will be the same as that of the ordinary scholarship, 401. per annum for two years; the examina. tion will be in the same papers; the standard to be reached will be the same; and the conditions of competition and tenure will be identical, or as nearly so as the nature of the case will allow.

The degree of doctor in mental and moral science at London University has been won by a woman, who thus becomes D. SC.

The following statement is from a paper on the “University education of women," by Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, read before the recent International Conference on Education, London:

Without counting those who have this year completed their university course, about 392 students have been sent out into the world from Newnham and Girtou, of whom 127 passed honor examinations, and during the last academic year there have been between the two colleges 146 students in residence. If we inquire about the subsequent history of these 392 students, we find that about 205 are in different ways engaged in teaching (including 5 who are married), 3 are preparing for the medical profession, 11 have employments of other kinds, 2 have gone into sisterhoods, about 47 have married or are on the point of doing so, 102 others are living at home without (so far as we know) being engaged in earning their living, 9 (including 2 married ones) have died, and there are about 20 respecting whom I have failed to obtain information.

From these statistics it appears ihat the majority of students have been preparing for professional work, chiefly the work of teaching. It would be a mistake to suppose, however, that they come exclusively from the class which supplied female

The following statistics of students in Girton College are from the college report for 1884:

The number of students who have been in residence in the college since its commencement is 181. Of these, 80 bave obtained honors according to the Cambridge l’niversity standard (28 in classics, 22 in mathematics, 1 in mathematics and in moral sciences, 1 iu mathematics and in history, 14 in natural sciences, I in natural sciences and in moral sciences, 7 in moral sciences, 5 in history, and 1 in theology) and 25 hare passed examinations qualifying for the ordinary B. A. degree; 51 have not yet completed their course.

teachers thirty years ago, because, during that period, this class has been considerably enlarged, partly from the increase of honorable and independent posts (due in ihe teaching profession, mainly, to the increase in number and importanco of high schools for girls), but still more from the steadily growing feeling among tho daughters of professional men that they ought to earn their own living. It would be interesting to try to ascertain the causes of this growing feeling; perhaps one of them may be found in the diminution of necessary domestic work, due to the increased manufacture on a large scale of articles of food and clothing, and to the invention of the sewing machine and other labor saving apparatus; but, however this may be, of the fact that more women seek serious work outside their homes tban was formerly the case there can be no doubt.

But though the professional class of students is in the majority there remains an important class who come from a disinterested love of knowledge and desire for intellectual training. It is, I believe, the universal opinion of all who have watched tho work at Cambridge that the intermixture of these two classes bas been a gain to both, the presence of the one tending to foster the spirit of stendy and concentrated work, and of the other to promote a greater interest in the subjects taught for their own sako.

The cause of higher education for women has been materially advanced in Scotland through the opening of Queen Margaret College. This is a practical outcome of the efforts made by the Glasgow Association, although the funds for this particular insti. tution are due to the generosity and public spirit of one woman, Mrs. Elder. The sepatus of the University of St. Andrews has received six petitions on the subject of university education of women, one of which was presented by the L. L. A.'s of the university. The petitioners ask two things: (1) They all ask for such a course of university education as the senatus may think fit to grant; (2) some of them ask for admission to degrees in arts. As to the first the senatus expresses its willingness to grant separate courses of systematic university instruction to women, provided a sufficient sum of money is raised by the petitioners (or others) to enable this to bo done, especially as during the earlier stages of the experiment the attendance at the several classes might not be so large as to furnish adequate remuneration to tho professors without such a fund. As to the second, the senatus resolves as follows: (1) That in the mean time, as an equivalent for graduation, women students be recommended to take the L. L. A. examination in all the subjects necessary for the m. A. degree, inasmuch as the examination papers used in the two cases are the saune. (2) The senatus is further willing to urge upon Parliament the claims of women to the privileges of matriculation and graduation, and the existing interests of the university warrant such a step, and provided that every female student attending the university shall lodge or board in some house in St. Andrews to be approved of by the sepatus.

At the L. L. A. (literate in arts) examination of 1884 there were 319 passes, with as large proportion of honors.

In bis report upon the bigher education of women, published after his visit to England, Principal Dawson, of McGill University, says:

In Britain, as in this country, the question of separate or mixed education of the sexes has been much discussed; but in this, as in other matters, the practical and free genius of the English people has set itself to work out the problem in real life, instead of debating it in a theoretical manner, and consequently we find a number of experiments in progress. These may be classified under three heads : (1) What is sometimes called in tbis country “coeducation," or the education of both sexes in mixed classes; (2) separate education in colleges specially for women ; and (3) intermediate or eclectic methods, in which the two first are combined in various proportions. The coexistence of these different methods bas the good effect of enabling parents and students to make a choice of systems and to avail themselves of that which they prefer, without establishing anything more than a friendly rivalry between the different kinds of institutions.

The method of mixed classes Principal Dawson found in successful operation in University College, London, and in University College, Bristol. As examples of education in separate colleges he instances Cheltenham, which has as many as 500 pupils and students; Bedford, North London, and Milton Mount Colleges; the King's College classes, London; and Holloway College. The third method is that pursued at Girton and Newnban Colleges, Cambridge; Somervillo and Lady Margaret Halls, Oxford; tho woman's department of Oweps College, Manchester; and the classes of the Edinburgh Ladies' Educational Association.

The second annual report of the Royal University of Ireland presents a gratifying view of the work of the women students.

The number of women who have availed themselves of the opportunities presented by the university has not been large, but of those who have passed through the university examinations a considerable proportion have done so with marked dis. tinction.

In the autumn of 1883 the matriculation examination was passed by 33 women, of whom 11, or one

ne-third, obtained honors, some of them in more subjects than one. Twenty-three passed the first university examination in arts, 12 with honors, and, of the 9 women candidates who presented themselves at the second university examination in arts, 5 obtained honors, almost all in more subjects than one. At this examination a woman student obtained the first place in the honor list, both in logic and in biology, obtaining honors also in Latin ; another headed the honor list in English, while a third obtained the only honors given at the examination in music; and at the examination for the university scholarships, held last January, a woman student obtained the first place in the competition for the scholarships in modern literature.

The higher education of women is steadily gaining ground in India. A high school for girls has recently been opened at Poona and numbers some 60 pupils.

The array of facts which meets us thus from year to year with reference to new provision for the higher education of women or the good results from existing provision is sufficient proof of the inestimable value of these provisions to the individual women who have or may enjoy them and of large benefits ensuing therefrom to society in general.

TABLE IX.- UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

The following is a statement of the aggregate number of this class of institutions, with instructors and students, as reported to this Bureau each year from 1874 to 1884 (1883 omitted):

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Number of institutions 343 355 356 351 358 364 364 362 365 370 Number of instructors. 3, 783 3, 999 3, 920 3, 998 3, 885 4,241 4,160 4,361 4,413 4,614 Number of students... 56, 692 58, 894 56, 481 57, 334 57, 987 60, 011 59, 594 62, 435 64,096 65, 522

TABLE IX.- Summary of statistics of universities and colleges.

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19 37

8 30

Alabama
4 1 169 169

110 58

46 332 Arkansas. 5 18 a665 163 152 1240

21 230 cd97 California 11 33 al, 211 990 118 193 314 257 135 933 c336 48 107

56 Colorado. 295 199 96 60 57 78 26 86 14

13

5 Connecticut 3 0

0 0 0
76 958 815 13 30

3 Delaware.. 1

6 58 10 16 23 Florida

1 Georgia..

6 6 a 176

152
2 29 23 10 55

439
c318

24
Illinois
29 83 a2, 795 1,651 546 6642 566 512 232 1,098 cc811 c151 305

207 Indiana. 15 31 1, 577 1,025 652 182 403 314 131 1, 615

c659 c99 173

74 Iowa. 2, 369 1, 348 1, 021 318 540 525

188 1, 266

c537 171 283 167 Kansas

1, 304

905 399 171 221 176 78 459 167 56 140 34 Kentucky

15 27 a835

624

135 6291 166 96 114 1, 182 c510 32 128 11 Louisiana.. 1026 al, 418 1,000 373 6115 55

SG 372 c223 2

49 7 Maine 3

35 339 306 29 2

1 Maryland

10' 29 393 374 19 233 59 69 118 821 c319 c62 Massachusetts.

209 209

111
21 168 2, 010

1, 675 50 23 Michigan 929 al, 604 553 467 249 212 416 117 1, 029 115 60 125

75 Minnesota

5 7 449 256 193 223 79 123 73 499 140 53 25 11 Mississippi 3 5 a500 256 160 63 161 24 241 62

59 13 Missouri. 20 34 al, 742 1, 139 401 475 443 124 180 2,057

173 51 163 22 Nebraska..

5 20
750 504
7 6 305 46 127 c46 c25

11 New Hampshire. 1

15 232 232 New Jersey... 4 2 68 68

22

46 76 602 421 New York 29 76 2, 289 1,978 311 6497 224 417 446 3, 641c1, 797 c393 895

80 North Carolina.. 9 18 373 298 75 6203 22 42 66 758 236

107 Ohio.

33 100 4,002 2,817 1,185 1, 362 810 900 327 2, 601 c1, 215 0410 286 159 Oregon 6 9 589 329

260 1165 53 203 34 283 c41 c20 33 30 Pennsylvania... 26 59 a1, 828 1,328 408 6336 172 308 295 2,195 cf1, 246 c70 257 Rhode Island..

17 270 263

7 South Carolina.. 9 17 478 327

151 86
90 46 371

121

17 Tennessee 20 34 al. 712 1, 265 372 296

410

155 151 1, 284 c393 20 50 25 Texas 11 25 al, 274 725 319 333

501
123 97 1, 101
337 85 133

79 Vermont..

2 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 20 102 78 15 Virginia. 7 5 71 71

78 803 c203

2 West Virginia.. 2 3 49 46 3 28 11

15 210 40 10 24 Wisconsin

8 28 926 716 210 266 256 277 93 631 208 Dakota

21
6 a32

2 23 7 100 Dist.of Columbia 5 1 a59 49

49

63 442 185 Utah.... 1 9 250 157 102

259 Washington 2 5 a285 83 45 29

14 10 Total ..... 370 829 a32,755 21,774 8, 161 07,466 8,037 6,090 3,815 32,767 ac14,855 c2,000 3,694 1. 100

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# Sex not reported in all cases.
o Classification not reported in all cases.

cA small number of sciontific students included hero d Includes 82 box not given.

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